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Diagnostics, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Ovarian Cancer Incidence Corrected for Oophorectomy
Diagnostics 2017, 7(2), 19; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7020019
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
Current reported incidence rates for ovarian cancer may significantly underestimate the true rate because of the inclusion of women in the calculations who are not at risk for ovarian cancer due to prior benign salpingo-oophorectomy (SO). We have considered prior SO to more
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Current reported incidence rates for ovarian cancer may significantly underestimate the true rate because of the inclusion of women in the calculations who are not at risk for ovarian cancer due to prior benign salpingo-oophorectomy (SO). We have considered prior SO to more realistically estimate risk for ovarian cancer. Kentucky Health Claims Data, International Classification of Disease 9 (ICD-9) codes, Current Procedure Terminology (CPT) codes, and Kentucky Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Data were used to identify women who have undergone SO in Kentucky, and these women were removed from the at-risk pool in order to re-assess incidence rates to more accurately represent ovarian cancer risk. The protective effect of SO on the population was determined on an annual basis for ages 5–80+ using data from the years 2009–2013. The corrected age-adjusted rates of ovarian cancer that considered SO ranged from 33% to 67% higher than age-adjusted rates from the standard population. Correction of incidence rates for ovarian cancer by accounting for women with prior SO gives a better understanding of risk for this disease faced by women. The rates of ovarian cancer were substantially higher when SO was taken into consideration than estimates from the standard population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Cancer Screening)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Salivary IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α as Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer
Diagnostics 2017, 7(2), 21; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7020021
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 9 April 2017
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Abstract
Saliva has been useful as a liquid biopsy for the diagnosis of various oral or systemic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is no exception. While its early detection and prevention is important, salivary cytokines expression, specifically of Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-6 (IL-6)
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Saliva has been useful as a liquid biopsy for the diagnosis of various oral or systemic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is no exception. While its early detection and prevention is important, salivary cytokines expression, specifically of Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), does contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer and these cytokines serve as potential biomarkers. Their excessive production plays a role in cancer progression and establishment of angiogenesis. However, other inflammatory or immunological conditions may affect the levels of cytokines in saliva. This article reviews the expression of levels of specific cytokines i.e., IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α, their signaling pathways in the development of oral cancer, and how they are essential for the diagnosis of OSCC and updates related to it. Apart from serum, the saliva-based test can be a cost-effective tool in the follow-up and diagnosis of OSCC. Moreover, large-scale investigations are still needed for the validation of salivary cytokines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Fluid-Based Molecular Diagnostics)
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Open AccessReview Ten Important Considerations for Ovarian Cancer Screening
Diagnostics 2017, 7(2), 22; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7020022
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
The unique intricacies of ovarian cancer screening and perspectives of different screening methods are presented as ten considerations that are examined. Included in these considerations are: (1) Deciding on the number of individuals to be screened; (2) Anticipating screening group reductions due to
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The unique intricacies of ovarian cancer screening and perspectives of different screening methods are presented as ten considerations that are examined. Included in these considerations are: (1) Deciding on the number of individuals to be screened; (2) Anticipating screening group reductions due to death; (3) Deciding on the duration and frequency of screening; (4) Deciding on an appropriate follow-up period after screening; (5) Deciding on time to surgery when malignancy is suspected; (6) Deciding on how screen-detected ovarian cancers are treated and by whom; (7) Deciding on how to treat the data of enrolled participants; (8) Deciding on the most appropriate way to assign disease-specific death; (9) Deciding how to avoid biases caused by enrollments that attract participants with late-stage disease who are either symptomatic or disposed by factors that are genetic, environmental or social; and (10) Deciding whether the screening tool or a screening process is being tested. These considerations are presented in depth along with illustrations of how they impact the outcomes of ovarian cancer screening. The considerations presented provide alternative explanations of effects that have an important bearing on interpreting ovarian screening outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Cancer Screening)
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Open AccessReview Nuclear Molecular Imaging Strategies in Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy
Diagnostics 2017, 7(2), 23; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7020023
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (ICT) is a new treatment strategy developed for the treatment of cancer. ICT inhibits pathways known to downregulate the innate immune response to cancer cells. These drugs have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a variety
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Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (ICT) is a new treatment strategy developed for the treatment of cancer. ICT inhibits pathways known to downregulate the innate immune response to cancer cells. These drugs have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a variety of cancers, including metastatic melanoma and lung cancer. Challenges in response evaluation of patients in ICT have risen as immune related side effects and immune cell infiltration may be confused with progressive disease. Furthermore, the timing of the evaluation scan may be challenged by relatively slow responses. To overcome this, new response criteria for evaluating these patients with morphologic imaging have been proposed. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the current evidence for the use of molecular imaging, e.g., PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography) with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucoes (FDG) as an alternative imaging method for monitoring patients undergoing ICT. Following the currently available evidence, this review will primarily focus on patients with malignant melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Early Response in Cancer Management)
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Open AccessReview Ultrasound Monitoring of Extant Adnexal Masses in the Era of Type 1 and Type 2 Ovarian Cancers: Lessons Learned From Ovarian Cancer Screening Trials
Diagnostics 2017, 7(2), 25; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7020025
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Women that are positive for an ovarian abnormality in a clinical setting can have either a malignancy or a benign tumor with probability favoring the benign alternative. Accelerating the abnormality to surgery will result in a high number of unnecessary procedures that will
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Women that are positive for an ovarian abnormality in a clinical setting can have either a malignancy or a benign tumor with probability favoring the benign alternative. Accelerating the abnormality to surgery will result in a high number of unnecessary procedures that will place cost burdens on the individual and the health delivery system. Surveillance using serial ultrasonography is a reasonable alternative that can be used to discover if changes in the ovarian abnormality will occur that favor either a malignant or benign interpretation. Several ovarian cancer screening trials have had extensive experiences with changes in subclinical ovarian abnormalities in normal women that can define growth, stability or resolution and give some idea of the time frame over which changes occur. The present report examines these experiences and relates them to the current understanding of ovarian cancer ontology, presenting arguments related to the benefits of surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Cancer Screening)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report An Assessment of Early Response to Targeted Therapy via Molecular Imaging: A Pilot Study of 3′-deoxy-3′[(18)F]-Fluorothymidine Positron Emission Tomography 18F-FLT PET/CT in Prostate Adenocarcinoma
Diagnostics 2017, 7(2), 20; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7020020
Received: 4 December 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
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Abstract
Fluorothymidine is a thymidine analog labeled with fluorine-18 fluorothymidine for positron emission tomography (18F-FLT-PET) imaging. Thymidine is a nucleic acid that is used to build DNA. Fluorine-18 fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) utilizes the same metabolic pathway as does thymidine but has
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Fluorothymidine is a thymidine analog labeled with fluorine-18 fluorothymidine for positron emission tomography (18F-FLT-PET) imaging. Thymidine is a nucleic acid that is used to build DNA. Fluorine-18 fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) utilizes the same metabolic pathway as does thymidine but has a very low incidence of being incorporated into the DNA (<1%). 18F-FLT-PET could have a role in the evaluation of response to targeted therapy. We present here a pilot study where we investigated cellular metabolism and proliferation in patients with prostate cancer before and after targeted therapy. Seven patients with Stage IV prostate adenocarcinoma, candidates for targeted therapy inhibiting the hepatocyte growth factor/tyrosine-protein kinase Met (HGF/C-MET) pathway, were included in this study. The HGF/C-MET pathway is implicated in prostate cancer progression, and an evaluation of the inhibition of this pathway could be valuable. 18F-FLT was performed at baseline and within four weeks post-therapy. Tumor response was assessed semi-quantitatively and using visual response criteria. The range of SUVmax for 18F-FLT at baseline in the prostate varied from 2.5 to 4.2. This study demonstrated that 18F-FLT with positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (18F-FLT PET/CT) had only limited applications in the early response evaluation of prostate cancer. 18F-FLT PET/CT may have some utility in the assessment of response in lymph node disease. However, 18F-FLT PET/CT was not found to be useful in the evaluation of the prostate bed, metastatic skeletal disease, and liver disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Early Response in Cancer Management)
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Open AccessOpinion A Resident’s Perspective of Ovarian Cancer
Diagnostics 2017, 7(2), 24; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7020024
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Identifying, understanding, and curing disease is a lifelong endeavor for any medical practitioner. Equally as important is to be cognizant of the impact a disease has on the individual suffering from it, as well as on their family. Ovarian cancer is the leading
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Identifying, understanding, and curing disease is a lifelong endeavor for any medical practitioner. Equally as important is to be cognizant of the impact a disease has on the individual suffering from it, as well as on their family. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. Symptoms are vague, and the disease is generally at an advanced stage at diagnosis. Efforts have been made to develop methods to identify ovarian cancer at earlier stages, thus improving overall mortality. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS), with and without laboratory tests, can be used to screen for ovarian cancer. For over thirty years, the University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center Ovarian Cancer Screening Program has been studying the efficacy of TVUS for detecting early stage ovarian cancer. After 285,000+ TVUS examinations provided to over 45,000 women, the program has demonstrated that regular TVUS examinations can detect ovarian cancer at early stages, and that survival is increased in those women whose ovarian cancer was detected with screening and who undergo standard treatment. These results demonstrate the utility of TVUS as an efficacious method of ovarian cancer screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Cancer Screening)
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