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Cosmetics, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate Inclusion into Υ-Cyclodextrin and Mesoporous SBA-15: Preparation, Characterization and In Vitro Release Study
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 21; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030021
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is a strong antioxidant widely used in cosmetic and food fields. This vitamin is very unstable and rapidly undergoes degradation. In order to solve this problem and to obtain a stable ascorbic acid, Nikkol Group has developed ascorbyltetraisopalmitate
[...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is a strong antioxidant widely used in cosmetic and food fields. This vitamin is very unstable and rapidly undergoes degradation. In order to solve this problem and to obtain a stable ascorbic acid, Nikkol Group has developed ascorbyltetraisopalmitate (VC-IP). This raw material is an oil phase, already well-known and employed in the cosmetic market. The objective of this study is to obtain VC-IP in micro-powder form, in order to produce a new raw material that is easily dispersible in oil and water phases and useful for make-up and color cosmetic applications. Various types of drug carriers were studied and considered in order to support VC-IP and obtain the conversion in powder. Υ-cyclodextrin and mesoporous silica SBA-15 were chosen as the best candidates. A white powder of supported VC-IP was obtained with each carrier (VC-IP@cyclodextrin, VC-IP@SBA-15). The systems underwent physicochemical characterization and in vitro release tests were carried out. Based on the conducted study, it can be concluded that by supporting VC-IP on Υ-cyclodextrin and SBA-15, it is feasible to obtain a new raw material in powder form. The two carriers possess different release profiles, adding the possibility to finely tune the release of the active component in smart formulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Kojic Acid Derivative in Bioreactors and the Analysis of Its Depigmenting and Antioxidant Activities
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 22; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030022
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
In this study, 7-O-kojic acid monopalmitate (7-O-KAP) was synthesized using palmitic acid and kojic acid where the yield and biological activities were analyzed. The highest yield of 7-O-KAP (43%) can be obtained at molar ratio of 1:1,
[...] Read more.
In this study, 7-O-kojic acid monopalmitate (7-O-KAP) was synthesized using palmitic acid and kojic acid where the yield and biological activities were analyzed. The highest yield of 7-O-KAP (43%) can be obtained at molar ratio of 1:1, enzyme loading of 5% (w/v), temperature of 70 °C, using immobilized lipase N435 in solvent-free system. Stirred tank reactor (STR) provides better mixing of the substrates and biocatalyst with better yield of 7-O-KAP, compared to fluidized tank reactor (FTR) and packed bed reactor (PBR). The 7-O-KAP exhibited pseudoplastic behavior with flow behavior index (n) being less than 1. The 7-O-KAP showed better depigmenting activity with the reduction of melanin content in Danio rerio embryo to 18.70%, significantly lower than the positive control, kojic acid (60.39%) at highest concentration tested (250 μg/mL). Intracellular tyrosinase in Danio rerio embryo was also reduced when treated with 7-O-KAP (12.53%), compared to kojic acid (37.36%) at concentration of 250 μg/mL. In FRAP assay, 7-O-KAP had antioxidant activity of 8156 AAE/mL, which was higher than kojic acid (6794 AAE/mL) at concentration of 2 mg/mL. The 7-O-KAP also reduced peroxidation activity to 12.21%, which was better compared to kojic acid (31.68%) at 2 mg/mL. Moreover, it was found that lipid peroxidation activity of 7-O-KAP (12.21%) was comparable to BHT (11.56%) at 2 mg/mL. Based on this study, 7-O-KAP could be an alternative compound for whitening agent and antioxidant compared to kojic acid and BHT, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Genotoxic and DNA Photo-Protective Activity of Bryothamnion triquetrum and Halimeda incrassata Seaweeds Extracts
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 23; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030023
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 2 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
The ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight is high on the earth surface, especially at low latitudes, raising the risk of skin diseases, including cancer. The use of natural compounds is a strategy to protect people against UV damage. Seaweeds are becoming increasingly influential
[...] Read more.
The ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight is high on the earth surface, especially at low latitudes, raising the risk of skin diseases, including cancer. The use of natural compounds is a strategy to protect people against UV damage. Seaweeds are becoming increasingly influential in the food industry, and are also used in the pharmacy and cosmetic industries, due to several bioactive demonstrated properties. This work analyzed the genotoxic and photoprotective effects of the aqueous extracts of two seaweed species: Bryothamnion triquetrum and Halimeda incrassata. A cell-free plasmid DNA assay was employed, allowing detection of DNA breaks. The plasmids were exposed to increasing concentrations of aqueous extracts. DNA break was produced at concentrations of 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL in both seaweed extracts and, consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated. This effect arises with higher exposure times. Additionally, different combinations of plasmid DNA, restriction enzymes (Eco RI, Bam HI, and Pvu II) and extracts were assayed. The extracts did not produce an interference effect in the reconnaissance of the specific restriction target sequences of each enzyme. Photoprotective activity of the extracts was evaluated in UVC-irradiated plasmids. None of the extracts displayed DNA protective effects in this assay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics from Marine Sources)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Functional Stability of Photoprotective Formulations Containing Rutin Succinate
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 27; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030027
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 16 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical and functional stability of two different self-emulsified oil/water (O/W) systems. Each system contained 0.4% w/w rutin succinate, which was associated or not with the photo-unstable chemical (7.5% w/w of 2-ethylhexyl
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical and functional stability of two different self-emulsified oil/water (O/W) systems. Each system contained 0.4% w/w rutin succinate, which was associated or not with the photo-unstable chemical (7.5% w/w of 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate and 3.0% w/w of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone) or physical filters (3.0% w/w titanium dioxide). A Normal Stability Test was carried out with the formulations containing rutin succinate (S) associated either with sunscreens (MS) or not (M) for 90 days. The formulation systems were assessed for organoleptic, functional, physicochemical and rheological behavior parameters. The MS formulation was found to be homogenous and had no significant alterations of pH, hysteresis area, antiradical activity or Sun Protection Factor values. Such stability was mainly observed when the formulation was incorporated into base cream A. The ability of chemical filters to resist degradation caused by UV radiation in the presence of rutin succinate preventing lipid peroxidation by entrapment of initiator radicals is a mechanism that might explain the results. The combination of rutin succinate to chemical filters improved formulation functionality, as it led to a more stable formulation which maintained the effectiveness of the added sunscreens. Consumer acceptance could be improved, considering that film formation and rheological spreadability characteristics of the tested formulation are better than those of traditional formulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Safety and Efficacy of Dextran-Rosmarinic Acid Conjugates as Innovative Polymeric Antioxidants in Skin Whitening: What Is the Evidence?
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 28; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030028
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: Melanins are high molecular weight pigments responsible for the mammalian skin and hair colour and play a key role in skin protection from UV radiation; however, their overproduction and excessive accumulation lead to pigmentation problems including melasma, freckles, uneven colouring, and
[...] Read more.
Background: Melanins are high molecular weight pigments responsible for the mammalian skin and hair colour and play a key role in skin protection from UV radiation; however, their overproduction and excessive accumulation lead to pigmentation problems including melasma, freckles, uneven colouring, and age spots. Therefore, the modulation of melanin synthesis represents a critical issue in medicine and cosmetology. In the present study, an innovative polymeric antioxidant to be used as skin whitening agent is developed by the conjugation of dextran with rosmarinic acid. Methods: Dextran-rosmarinic acid conjugates (DEX-RA) were synthesized in a one-pot method starting from Origanum vulgare aqueous leaf extract and dextran. The total polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and bleaching tests, respectively. The efficacy of DEX-RA was evaluated by inhibition of tyrosinase activity, in vitro diffusion and stability studies and in vivo studies. The biocompatibility of the conjugates was investigated by 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiaoly]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) and EPISKIN™ model. Results: Efficacy and safety studies confirmed the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities and the biocompatibility of the synthesized conjugates. Conclusion: The polymeric conjugates, comparing to the free antioxidant, show a long-lasting efficacy combined to an enhanced stability resulting in an improved performance of the cosmetic formulations prepared using this innovative whitening agent as a bioactive ingredient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Effect of Plant Mixture Ethanol Extracts Containing Biota orientalis L. Extract on Suppression of Sebum in Cultured Sebocytes and on Stimulation of Growth of Keratinocytes Co-cultured with Hair Papilla Cells
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 29; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030029
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
Biota orientalis L. leaf extract (BOLE) is used medically to improve strength and arrest hemorrhage. In China, BOLE has been used in traditional medicine for its antibacterial properties and for hair restoration. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of hair restoration by
[...] Read more.
Biota orientalis L. leaf extract (BOLE) is used medically to improve strength and arrest hemorrhage. In China, BOLE has been used in traditional medicine for its antibacterial properties and for hair restoration. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of hair restoration by BOLE from the point of view of the sebum suppressant effect and hair loss prevention. BOLE at 25 or 50 μg/mL final concentrations, a hair growth plant ethanol extract (HGPEE), and a hair growth plant water extract (HGPWE) (the latter two each containing BOLE and other plant compounds), were used to study: (1) the sebum suppressant effect in sebocytes from normal golden hamster ear pinna origin; (2) the effect on the growth of human fetal epidermal keratinocytes; and (3) the effect on gene expression related to hair growth stimulation, with (2) and (3) studied in human fetal epidermal keratinocytes and hair papilla cells. BOLE had a sebum depletion effect in cultured sebocytes; moreover, the amounts of mRNA of the hair growth factors, KGF, VEGF, and G3PDH analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in human hair papilla cells were increased by HGPEE. The amount of mRNA of Wnt10b in cultured epidermal keratinocytes was increased by the addition of BOLE, and the growth of the cultured epidermal keratinocytes was promoted by HGPEE in a two-layer culture system of hair papilla cells and epidermal keratinocytes. HGPEE had a hair growth promotion/hair restoration effect and a sebum suppression effect. Hair restorers containing HGPEE may be useful for stimulating hair growth and suppressing excess scalp sebum in males and females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products)
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Open AccessArticle Alternative Methods to Animal Testing for the Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients: An Overview
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 30; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030030
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
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Abstract
The safety of cosmetics sold in Europe is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient conducted by those responsible for putting the product on the market. However, those substances for which some concern exists with respect to human health (e.g., colorants,
[...] Read more.
The safety of cosmetics sold in Europe is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient conducted by those responsible for putting the product on the market. However, those substances for which some concern exists with respect to human health (e.g., colorants, preservatives, UV-filters, nanomaterials) are evaluated at the European Commission level by a scientific committee, currently called the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). According to the Cosmetics Regulation (European Commission, 2009), it is prohibited in the European Union (EU) to market cosmetic products and ingredients that have been tested on animals. However, the results of studies performed before the ban continue to be accepted. In the current study, we evaluated the use of in vitro methods in the dossiers submitted to the SCCS in the period between 2013 and 2016 based on the published reports issued by the scientific committee, which provides a scientific opinion on these dossiers. The results of this evaluation were compared with those of an evaluation conducted four years previously. We found that, despite a slight increase in the number of studies performed in vitro, the majority of studies submitted to the SCCS is still done principally in vivo and correspond to studies performed before the ban. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Methods for Predicting Chemical Leukoderma Caused by Quasi-Drug Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 31; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030031
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
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Abstract
Skin care cosmetics frequently contain whitening or lightening agents. The present study aimed to establish in vitro methods for predicting chemical leukoderma caused by whitening agents in cosmetics. The risks of chemical leukoderma were predicted based on percutaneous absorption rates, toxic concentrations, and
[...] Read more.
Skin care cosmetics frequently contain whitening or lightening agents. The present study aimed to establish in vitro methods for predicting chemical leukoderma caused by whitening agents in cosmetics. The risks of chemical leukoderma were predicted based on percutaneous absorption rates, toxic concentrations, and toxicity mechanisms. Thus, in vitro skin permeation rate and cytotoxic concentrations of whitening agents were studied using excised skin and cultured B16 melanoma cells. Pigment cell toxicity was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The levels of hydroxyl radical (∙OH) were measured and the location of ∙OH generation sites were determined in cultured B16 melanoma cells. Pigment cells cultured under conditions with high tyrosinase activity developed cytotoxicity when exposed to compounds known to cause leukoderma, while those cultured under conditions with low tyrosinase activity did not. Phenolic compounds that cause leukoderma were applied to the pigment cells at the concentration absorbed percutaneously under conditions with high tyrosinase activity. Cells that were observed using TEM demonstrated a large number of vacuolar degenerations in intracellular melanosomes after treatment with phenolic compounds that are known to cause leukoderma. Hydroxyl radical generation during the tyrosinase reaction was examined, as the whitening agents that inhibit tyrosinase activity serve as tyrosinase substrates. Only phenolic compounds that cause leukoderma generated high amounts of hydroxyl radicals. Thus, the hydroxyl radical is a melanocyte-specific toxin that disrupts tyrosinase-containing melanosomes. Whitening agents that generate high amounts of hydroxyl radicals may cause leukoderma. The in vitro method being reported here can predict the potential of a drug to cause leukoderma and whether the use of a specific whitening agent poses a risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Nanoemulsion Containing Vegetable Extracts
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 32; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030032
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Oil/Water nanoemulsions were obtained, employing PEG castor oil derivatives/fatty esters surfactant, babassu oil, and purified water from a study based on phase diagrams. The nanoemulsions had been prepared by a low energy process inversion phase emulsion. Different parameters, such as order of addition
[...] Read more.
Oil/Water nanoemulsions were obtained, employing PEG castor oil derivatives/fatty esters surfactant, babassu oil, and purified water from a study based on phase diagrams. The nanoemulsions had been prepared by a low energy process inversion phase emulsion. Different parameters, such as order of addition of the components, temperature, stirring speed, and time, were studied to prepare O/W nanoemulsions. The influence of vegetable extract addition on size distribution of nanoemulsions was also analyzed. Evaluation of the nanoemulsions was studied in vitro by HET-CAM and RDB methods. Stable transparent bluish O/W babassu oil nanoemulsion were obtained with surfactant pair fatty ester/PEG-54 castor oil, in an HLBrequired value = 10.0 and with a particle droplet size of 46 ± 13 nm. Vegetable extract addition had not influenced nanoemulsion’s stability. The results obtained for in vitro and in vivo nanoemulsion evaluation, based on the hydration and oiliness, and pH of the skin, shows O/W nanoemulsions as potential vehicle for topical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products)
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Open AccessArticle Water-Soluble Organic Germanium Promotes Both Cornified Cell Envelope Formation and Ceramide Synthesis in Cultured Keratinocytes
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 33; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030033
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
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Abstract
We investigated whether 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid increases the formation of cornified cell envelopes and the level of ceramide in cultured epidermal keratinocytes and in a three-dimensional human epidermis model. The activity and mRNA expression of transglutaminase were increased when 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid was
[...] Read more.
We investigated whether 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid increases the formation of cornified cell envelopes and the level of ceramide in cultured epidermal keratinocytes and in a three-dimensional human epidermis model. The activity and mRNA expression of transglutaminase were increased when 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid was added to the cell cultures. The formation of cornified cell envelopes in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes was increased in the presence of 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid. Ceramide levels were increased in the presence of 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid. The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase and mRNA levels of serine palmitoyltransferase 2 were also increased when 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid was added to the cultures. The extent to which ceramide levels were increased in the presence of 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid appeared dependent on serine palmitoyltransferase 2 upregulation. These results suggest that 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid can promote cornified cell envelope formation by inducing transglutaminase expression and ceramide synthesis via the induction of serine palmitoyltransferase activity, thereby improving the barrier function and moisture of dry, rough skin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-melanogenic Activity of Auraptene via ERK-mediated MITF Downregulation
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 34; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030034
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Auraptene is the most abundant naturally occurring geranyloxycoumarin. It is primarily isolated from plants belonging to the Rutaceae family, many of which, such as citrus fruits, are used as food in many countries. Auraptene is a biologically active secondary metabolite that possesses valuable
[...] Read more.
Auraptene is the most abundant naturally occurring geranyloxycoumarin. It is primarily isolated from plants belonging to the Rutaceae family, many of which, such as citrus fruits, are used as food in many countries. Auraptene is a biologically active secondary metabolite that possesses valuable properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of auraptene on melanogenesis and the enzymes associated with it, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. We found that auraptene significantly attenuated melanin synthesis and reduced the activity of intracellular tyrosinase, which was the rate-limiting melanogenic enzyme. Western blotting analysis showed that auraptene decreased tyrosinase and TRP-2 protein expression. In addition, auraptene significantly decreased the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key regulator of melanogenesis. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation has been reported to be involved in the inhibition of melanogenesis. Thus, we next investigated if the hypopigmentary effects of auraptene were related to the activation of ERK. Auraptene was found to induce phosphorylation of ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that auraptene inhibits melanogenesis by activating the ERK pathway-mediated suppression of MITF and its downstream target genes, including tyrosinase. Therefore, auraptene may be used as a whitening agent in the development of functional cosmetics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Sebostatic Activity of Juniperus communis Fruit Oil and Pelargonium graveolens Oil Compared to Niacinamide
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 36; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030036
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the
[...] Read more.
As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the efficacy of sebum control tonics containing Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, or niacinamide. The effects of Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, and niacinamide on sebum excretion rates were investigated using Sebumeter®. Sebum measurements (Sebumeter® SM 815, Courage & Khazaka®, Köln, Germany) were made on the skin surface in three places by applying the sebumeter probe to the forehead after 10, 60, and 120 min from application of the tonic. The results indicated that the application of the tonic maintained a lower sebum secretion 10 min and 60 min after the application of the cosmetic, compared to those before it. However, a visible sebum-reducing efficacy after 2 h was reported only for tonic containing 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil and for the tonic with the addition of 3% niacinamide. After 2 h, the values of sebum measurements were 44 ± 5.13 a.u. and 58 ± 9.07 a.u., respectively. Our results show that the tonic with the addition of 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil is the most effective in reducing sebum production. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Safety and Efficacy of Nail Products
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 24; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030024
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
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Abstract
Over the past several decades, the commercialization of nail cosmetics has increased. From nail polishes to artificial nails, different methods of nail beautification have become popularized. However, the impact of these products remains largely unknown. Governments have passed legislation in attempts to regulate
[...] Read more.
Over the past several decades, the commercialization of nail cosmetics has increased. From nail polishes to artificial nails, different methods of nail beautification have become popularized. However, the impact of these products remains largely unknown. Governments have passed legislation in attempts to regulate nail cosmetics, but these regulations may not be adequate and are difficult to enforce. Knowledge of the safety and efficacy of nail products remains limited due to the relative dearth of literature published on the topic. This review serves to summarize and interpret the data available regarding common nail products and their safety and efficacy. Nail products such as nail polish, nail polish removers, and artificial nails have shown to have some adverse effects through case reports and studies. Harmful substances such as toluenesulfonamide-formaldehyde resin and methacrylates have been identified in commercial nail products, leading to several adverse effects, but in particular, allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to substances such as acetonitrile found in removers may have more toxic and caustic effects, especially if ingested. In addition, for nail technicians there are negative effects linked with occupational exposure. Compounds used in nail products may become aerosolized and lead to asthma, eye and throat irritation, and even neurocognitive changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Efficacy of Nail Products)
Open AccessReview Revisiting Amazonian Plants for Skin Care and Disease
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 25; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030025
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl.,
[...] Read more.
This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., family Meliaceae; Eperua falcata Aubl., family Fabaceae; Quassia amara L., family Simaroubaceae; and Attalea speciosa Mart. and Oenocarpus bataua Mart., family Arecaceae. For each species, the general features, major constituents, overall medicinal properties, detailed dermatological and skin care applications, and possible harmful effects have been considered. The major products include seed oils from A. speciosa and C. guianensis, fruit oil from O. bataua, and active compounds such as limonoids from C. guianensis, flavonoids from E. falcata, and quassinoids from Q. amara. The dermatologic and cosmetic applications of these plants are growing rapidly but are still widely based on empiric knowledge. Applications include skin rehydration and soothing; anti-inflammatory, antiage, and antiparasite effects; hair care; burn and wound healing; and the amelioration of rosacea and psoriasis conditions. Despite a limited knowledge about their constituents and properties, these species appear as promising sources of bioactive compounds for skin care and health applications. An improvement of knowledge about their properties will provide added value to the exploitation of these forest resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products)
Open AccessReview Cosmeceuticals Properties of Sea Cucumbers: Prospects and Trends
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 26; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030026
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Cosmeceutical, a new term in the cosmetic industry, refers to cosmetic products that contain active ingredients and have medicinal benefits. Cosmeceuticals have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, marine invertebrates, are
[...] Read more.
Cosmeceutical, a new term in the cosmetic industry, refers to cosmetic products that contain active ingredients and have medicinal benefits. Cosmeceuticals have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, marine invertebrates, are rich in bioactive compounds, including saponin, chondroitin sulphate, collagen, amino acids, and phenols. These bioactive compounds have diverse functional roles as a secondary metabolite and these properties can be applied to the developments of novel cosmeceuticals. This review provides an overview the application of sea cucumber derivatives for cosmeceuticals. Further, prospects and trends of sea cucumber in cosmeceuticals industry were also discussed. The proper development of sea cucumber bioactive compounds will be helpful in cosmeceutical product development and industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics from Marine Sources)
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Open AccessReview Applications for Marine Resources in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 35; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030035
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Marine resources represent an interesting source of active ingredients for the cosmetics industry. Algae (macro and micro) are rich in proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (A, B, and C) and oligo-elements such as copper, iron and zinc. All those active principles play roles
[...] Read more.
Marine resources represent an interesting source of active ingredients for the cosmetics industry. Algae (macro and micro) are rich in proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (A, B, and C) and oligo-elements such as copper, iron and zinc. All those active principles play roles in hydration, firming, slimming, shine and protection. Marine organisms inhabit a wide spectrum of habitats. Photo-protective compounds can be obtained from organisms subjected to strong light radiation, such as in tropical systems or in shallow water. In the same way, molecules with antioxidant potential can be obtained from microorganisms inhabiting extreme systems such as hydrothermal vents. For example, marine bacteria collected around deep-sea hydrothermal vents produce complex and innovative polysaccharides in the laboratory which are useful in cosmetics. There are many properties that will be put forward by the cosmetic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics from Marine Sources)
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