Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017

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**Abstract**

This study describes the results of a numerical investigation aimed at developing and validating a non-hydrostatic depth-averaged model for flow problems where the horizontal length scales close to flow depth. For such types of problems, the steep-slope shallow-water equations are inadequate to describe

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This study describes the results of a numerical investigation aimed at developing and validating a non-hydrostatic depth-averaged model for flow problems where the horizontal length scales close to flow depth. For such types of problems, the steep-slope shallow-water equations are inadequate to describe the two-dimensional structure of the curvilinear flow field. In the derivation of these equations, the restrictive assumptions of negligible bed-normal acceleration and bed curvature were employed, thus limiting their applicability to shallow flow situations. Herein, a Boussinesq-type model is deduced from the depth-averaged energy equation by relaxing the weakly-curved flow approximation to deal with the non-hydrostatic steep flow problems. The proposed model is solved with an implicit finite difference scheme and then applied to simulate steady free-surface flow problems with strong curvilinear effects. The numerical results are compared to experimental data, resulting in a reasonable overall agreement. Further, it is shown that the discharge characteristics of free flow over a round-crested weir are accurately described by using a Boussinesq-type approximation, and the drawbacks arising from a standard hydrostatic approach are overcome. The suggested numerical method to determine the discharge coefficient can be extended and adopted for other types of short-crested weirs.
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics)

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