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J. Compos. Sci., Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Journal of Composites Science: A New Journal for Composite Materials, Structures and Experiments
J. Compos. Sci. 2017, 1(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jcs1010001
Received: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Research

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Open AccessArticle Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Fiber Matrix Separation during Compression Molding of Long Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics
J. Compos. Sci. 2017, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jcs1010002
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract
During the compression molding of long fiber reinforced plastics, significant deviations in fiber content have been observed. These can lead to a decrease of mechanical properties, which could ultimately lead to component failure. Experiments in compression molding with long fiber reinforced plastics in
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During the compression molding of long fiber reinforced plastics, significant deviations in fiber content have been observed. These can lead to a decrease of mechanical properties, which could ultimately lead to component failure. Experiments in compression molding with long fiber reinforced plastics in a complex structure show significant fiber jamming and decrease in fiber content in ribbed sections. The occurring Fiber Matrix Separation (FMS) during processing is assumed to be caused by intensive fiber interaction. The governing mechanisms on FMS are evaluated and a mechanistic model is applied to simulate and predict the effect of FMS during compression molding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Creep Behavior of Resin Matrix and Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Plate at Elevated Temperatures
J. Compos. Sci. 2017, 1(1), 3; doi:10.3390/jcs1010003
Received: 16 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
Pre-stressed fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has great application potential in structural strengthening. However, the elevated temperature resistance of FRPs is always a key concern due to the poor thermal stability of its resin matrix. In this study, the effects of temperature on the
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Pre-stressed fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has great application potential in structural strengthening. However, the elevated temperature resistance of FRPs is always a key concern due to the poor thermal stability of its resin matrix. In this study, the effects of temperature on the creep behavior of the resin matrix and basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) was experimentally investigated. The tensile stresses were set at 2.6 MPa for the resin matrix and 522 MPa (35% of its ultimate tensile strength (fu)) for BFRP, and the exposure temperatures were 25 °C, 80 °C, 120 °C, and 160 °C. The short-term strain of the resin matrix and BFRP exposed to different exposure temperatures was measured. The variation of the thermal property and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the BFRP were studied. The results indicated that molecular chain disruption and post-cure coexisted. The resin matrix is sensitive to the exposure temperatures, and a remarkable increase of the strain was observed when the exposure temperature exceeded its glass transition temperature (107.5 °C). The resin matrix fractured within 50 seconds when it was exposed to 160 °C. BFRP showed excellent temperature resistance even though the exposure temperature exceeded its glass transition temperature (123.7 °C). Sustained loading led to stress transferring to the basalt fiber in BFRP specimens, especially at elevated temperatures. Stress redistribution caused interfacial damage, and ILSS decreased by 0.5%, 13.6%, and 14.6% for 80 °C, 120 °C, and 160 °C exposure from its original value of 73.5 MPa. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was used to explain the post-curing and interface damage of BFRP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Induced Stress Field in Cracked Composites by Heat Flow
J. Compos. Sci. 2017, 1(1), 4; doi:10.3390/jcs1010004
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 29 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
A multiscale (micro-macro) approach is proposed for the establishment of the full thermal and induced stress fields in cracked composites that are subjected to heat flow. Both the temperature and stresses’ distributions are determined by the solution of a boundary value problem with
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A multiscale (micro-macro) approach is proposed for the establishment of the full thermal and induced stress fields in cracked composites that are subjected to heat flow. Both the temperature and stresses’ distributions are determined by the solution of a boundary value problem with one-way coupling. At the micro level and for combined thermomechanical loading, a micromechanical analysis is employed to determine the effective moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion and thermal conductivities of the undamaged composite. At the macro level, the representative cell method is employed according to which the periodic damaged composite region is reduced, in conjunction with the discrete Fourier transform, to a finite domain problem. As a result, a boundary value problem is obtained in the Fourier transform domain, which is appropriately discretized and solved. The inverse transform and an iterative procedure provide the full thermal and stress fields. The proposed method is verified by comparisons with exact solutions. Applications are given for the determination of the thermal and stress fields in cracked fiber-reinforced polymeric composite, cracked porous ceramic material and cracked periodically-layered ceramic composite caused by the application of heat flow. The presented formulation admits however the application of a combined mechanical and heat flux on cracked composites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Parameter Study and Method for Processing an Adhesion Promoter for Manufacturing Sandwich Sheets
J. Compos. Sci. 2017, 1(1), 5; doi:10.3390/jcs1010005
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
Next to the electrification of the powertrain, lightweight design plays an important role in automotive industry. Within the last few years an increasing amount of new materials have been used in automotive structures. One type belonging to this new generation of materials is
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Next to the electrification of the powertrain, lightweight design plays an important role in automotive industry. Within the last few years an increasing amount of new materials have been used in automotive structures. One type belonging to this new generation of materials is sandwich materials with sheet metal cover sheets and an inner thermoplastic core. The link between the metallic sheet and the thermoplastic core is achieved with the use of an interface layer made of an adhesion promoter. In the present research, the polyamide 6 based adhesion promoter Evonik Hylink was used. To analyze the thermal behavior of the adhesion promoter a DSC analysis was performed. Based on the DSC analysis, a process window is established and verified by mechanical tests. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the adhesion promoter are characterized with single lap shear tests in dependence to different process parameters temperature, compression time and layer thickness. With the presented method, a process window for processing the adhesion promoter can be established in relation to the varied parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Heat Propagation in Anisotropic Heterogeneous Polymer-CNT Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2017, 1(1), 6; doi:10.3390/jcs1010006
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
A weak thermal conductivity (TC) of a polymer can be modified by inclusion of nanoparticles with high TC. Here we study the TC enhancement in epoxy resin (ER) based composites by incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and demonstrate that the enhancement depends critically
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A weak thermal conductivity (TC) of a polymer can be modified by inclusion of nanoparticles with high TC. Here we study the TC enhancement in epoxy resin (ER) based composites by incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and demonstrate that the enhancement depends critically on the alignment of CNTs. The highest effect in TC enhancement (18.9) was obtained in ER with vertically aligned multiwall CNTs (VANTs) and in ER with horizontally aligned nanotubes (HANTs) (6.5). We analyze the influence of intrinsic structural factors of CNTs as well as extrinsic factors limiting the enhancement of the composite TC. The dynamics of heat propagation in ER/VANT, a strongly anisotropic and heterogeneous system, was studied experimentally, using laser flash apparatus (LFA), and by computer simulation, applying a coaxial cylinder model. It was found that the thermal resistivity CNT-ER interface to be a key extrinsic factor limiting the dynamics of the heat propagation. We show that these dynamics and the interface resistivity can be efficiently studied using the LFA technique. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of Fused Deposition Modelling Natural Fiber Recycled Polypropylene Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2017, 1(1), 7; doi:10.3390/jcs1010007
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this investigation was to characterize the performance of natural fiber reinforced polypropylene composites in fused deposition modelling (FDM). Composite filaments comprising of pre-consumer recycled polypropylene with varying contents of hemp or harakeke fibers were extruded from which tensile test specimens
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The objective of this investigation was to characterize the performance of natural fiber reinforced polypropylene composites in fused deposition modelling (FDM). Composite filaments comprising of pre-consumer recycled polypropylene with varying contents of hemp or harakeke fibers were extruded from which tensile test specimens were made using FDM. Filament and test specimens were tensile tested and properties were compared with plain polypropylene samples; the ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus of reinforced filament increased by more than 50% and 143%, respectively, for both 30 wt % hemp or harakeke compared to polypropylene filament. However, the same degree of improvement was not seen with the FDM test specimens, with several compositions having properties lower than for unfilled polypropylene. SEM analysis of fracture surfaces revealed uniform fiber dispersion and reasonable fiber alignment, but porosity and fiber pull-out were also observed. Fiber reinforcement was found to give benefit regarding dimensional stability during extrusion and FDM, which is of major importance for its implementation in FDM. Recommendations for optimization of processing in order to enhance build quality and improve mechanical properties are provided. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fused Deposition Modelling of Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2017, 1(1), 8; doi:10.3390/jcs1010008
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
Fused deposition modelling is a simple additive manufacturing technology utilising fine filament extrusion of predominantly thermoplastic materials to build 3D objects layer by layer. This research explores the feasibility and the factors involved in using fused deposition modelling to produce natural fibre reinforced
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Fused deposition modelling is a simple additive manufacturing technology utilising fine filament extrusion of predominantly thermoplastic materials to build 3D objects layer by layer. This research explores the feasibility and the factors involved in using fused deposition modelling to produce natural fibre reinforced composite components. Uniform 3-mm filaments of both hemp and harakeke (Phormium tenax) in varying weight percentages within polylactic acid (PLA) polymer were successfully produced and used to print tensile test samples. Tensile test results supported harakeke to be a useful fibre in terms of mechanical properties achieved which surpassed the Young’s modulus and tensile strength of plain PLA samples by 42.3% and 5.4%, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Analysis of the Reinforcing Efficiency of Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles versus Apatite Nanoparticles in Chitosan Biocomposite Fibres
J. Compos. Sci. 2017, 1(1), 9; doi:10.3390/jcs1010009
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
A comparative analysis of the effects of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) for reinforcing chitosan (CS) is given here. Wet-spun CS nanocomposite fibres, blended with HA or POSS nanoparticles, at varying concentrations ranging from 1 to 9% (w/w
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A comparative analysis of the effects of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) for reinforcing chitosan (CS) is given here. Wet-spun CS nanocomposite fibres, blended with HA or POSS nanoparticles, at varying concentrations ranging from 1 to 9% (w/w) were stretched until rupture to determine the mechanical properties related to the elasticity (yield strength and strain, stiffness, resilience energy) and fracture (fracture strength strain and toughness) of the composite. Two-factor analysis of variance of the data concluded that only the fracture-related properties were sensitive to interaction effects between the particle type and concentration. When particle type is considered, the stiffness and yield strength of CS/POSS fibres are higher than CS/HA fibres—the converse holds for yield strain, extensibility and fracture toughness. With regards to sensitivity to particle concentration, stiffness and yield strength reveal trending increase to a peak value (the optimal particle concentration associated with the critical aggregation) and trending decrease thereafter, with increasing particle concentration. Although fracture strength, strain at fracture and fracture toughness are also sensitive to particle concentration, no apparent trending increase/decrease is sustained over the particle concentration range investigated here. This simple study provides further understanding into the mechanics of particle-reinforced composites—the insights derived here concerning the optimized mechanical properties of chitosan composite fibre may be further developed to permit us to tune the mechanical properties to suit the biomedical engineering application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hybrid Woven Glass Fibre Fabric-Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Composites Under Low Rate Impact
J. Compos. Sci. 2017, 1(1), 10; doi:10.3390/jcs1010010
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
This research work addresses the issue of developing light composite materials with increased ability for impact energy absorption. Novel, hybrid plain woven glass fibre fabric-epoxy laminates with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) interlayers were fabricated in this study so that (a) only a few
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This research work addresses the issue of developing light composite materials with increased ability for impact energy absorption. Novel, hybrid plain woven glass fibre fabric-epoxy laminates with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) interlayers were fabricated in this study so that (a) only a few MWNT interlayers were placed close to the face of the laminate to be subjected to impact and (b) the interlayers were fabricated via innovative wide-line electrospinning of MWNT/epoxy/solvent solutions, depositing a mixture of aligned fibres and spray on the woven glass fibre fabrics; the laminate was then fabricated via resin transfer moulding (RTM). Hybrid nano-micro-composite laminates with 0.15 wt% MWNT were prepared with this method and were subjected to single low rate impact tests. It was found that the optimised hybrid laminates had 22% greater total penetration energy translated to 15% weight reduction in the laminate armour for an equivalent amount of energy penetration. Full article
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