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Topical Collection "Forests Carbon Fluxes and Sequestration"

Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mark E. Harmon

Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: carbon management forest carbon dynamics, Net Primary Production, mortality, decomposition, simulation modeling, uncertainty analysis

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The carbon dynamics of forests and their related stores, such as wood products, are highly relevant to developing policies to mitigate climate change related to greenhouse gases. Forests can also directly influence the climate by changing radiative balances in ways that either counter or enhance their role in storing carbon. How these two climate-related aspects work together and influence mitigation strategies remains an open question.

In this context, this Special Issue tries to document state-of-the-art thinking on how forests and systems related to forests (e.g., wood products, bioenergy production) may be used to mitigate climate change. Prospective authors are invited to contribute to this Special Issue of Forests by submitting manuscripts of their latest research on related topics. Management-orientated papers are preferred, and these may have an empirical or theoretical basis. Reviews are also welcome. Topics may be from, but not limited to:

  • Disturbance and management effects on forest carbon stores and/or radiative balances
  • Forest succession effects on forest carbon stores and/or radiative balances
  • Quantifying carbon stores within the forest sector including the ecosystem itself, wood products derived from the ecosystem, and substitutions of energy via either bioenergy or products substitution
  • Temporal and spatial scaling of forest carbon stores and/radiative balances
  • Quantifying uncertainty related to forest carbon stores and/or radiative balances
  • Tradeoffs with other management objectives such as fire, water, and wildlife
  • Effects of climate adaptation strategies on forest carbon stores and/or radiative balances

Submitted manuscripts must be original contributions, not ones previously published or submitted to other journals. Papers published or submitted for publication in conference proceedings may be considered, provided that they are considerably extended and improved. Papers must follow the instructions for authors at: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/forests/instructions.

Dr. Mark E. Harmon
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Carbon sequestration
  • Forest-related climate mitigation
  • Forest-related climate adaptation
  • Forest carbon stores and fluxes
  • Forest radiation/energy balance
  • Forest sector
  • Management trade-offs
  • Modelling forest sector carbon dynamics
  • Quantifying uncertainty
  • Temporal and spatial scaling

Published Papers (15 papers)

2017

Jump to: 2016, 2015

Open AccessArticle Allometric Models to Predict Aboveground Woody Biomass of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in Short Rotation Coppice in Previous Mining and Agricultural Areas in Germany
Forests 2017, 8(9), 328; doi:10.3390/f8090328
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Black locust is a drought-resistant tree species with high biomass productivity during juvenility; it is able to thrive on wastelands, such as former brown coal fields and dry agricultural areas. However, research conducted on this species in such areas is limited. This paper
[...] Read more.
Black locust is a drought-resistant tree species with high biomass productivity during juvenility; it is able to thrive on wastelands, such as former brown coal fields and dry agricultural areas. However, research conducted on this species in such areas is limited. This paper aims to provide a basis for predicting tree woody biomass for black locust based on tree, competition, and site variables at 14 sites in northeast Germany that were previously utilized for mining or agriculture. The study areas, which are located in an area covering 320 km × 280 km, are characterized by a variety of climatic and soil conditions. Influential variables, including tree parameters, competition, and climatic parameters were considered. Allometric biomass models were employed. The findings show that the most important parameters are tree and competition variables. Different former land utilizations, such as mining or agriculture, as well as growth by cores or stumps, significantly influenced aboveground woody biomass production. The new biomass models developed as part of this study can be applied to calculate woody biomass production and carbon sequestration of Robinia pseudoacacia L. in short rotation coppices in previous mining and agricultural areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Potential of Juniperus thurifera to Sequester Carbon in Semi-Arid Forest Soil in Spain
Forests 2017, 8(9), 330; doi:10.3390/f8090330
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
The main purpose of this work is to show the influence of vegetation in the storage and stabilisation of organic carbon in semi-arid Juniperus thurifera (J. thurifera) forest soil in central Spain. The variability of the organic matter storage with factors
[...] Read more.
The main purpose of this work is to show the influence of vegetation in the storage and stabilisation of organic carbon in semi-arid Juniperus thurifera (J. thurifera) forest soil in central Spain. The variability of the organic matter storage with factors such as sex, trunk diameter and the protection of the canopy of the tree has been analysed. The distribution of the soil organic carbon (SOC) into different fractions has also been determined, in order to estimate the stability of the organic matter. The results show that the SOC concentration has no dependence on the sex of the tree, but it increases with the diameter of the trunk and under the protection of the tree canopy. This study found that the organic matter of the J. thurifera forest soil has a high proportion of recalcitrant organic fraction, humin, which suggests that, given its organic matter stability, J. thurifera forest soils could be a real carbon sink. Consequently, the conservation of this type of old forest ecosystem is important for promoting carbon sequestration. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Impact of Water Content on Sources of Heterotrophic Soil Respiration
Forests 2017, 8(8), 299; doi:10.3390/f8080299
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
PDF Full-text (2284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heterotrophic respiration (RH) is a major flux of CO2 from forest ecosystems and represents a large source of uncertainty in estimating net ecosystem productivity (NEP) using regional soil respiration (RS) models. RH from leaf litter (RHL
[...] Read more.
Heterotrophic respiration (RH) is a major flux of CO2 from forest ecosystems and represents a large source of uncertainty in estimating net ecosystem productivity (NEP) using regional soil respiration (RS) models. RH from leaf litter (RHL) may contribute greatly to annual RH estimates, but its contribution may be misrepresented due to the logistical and technical challenges associated with chamber-based field measurements of RHL. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of sources of RH (mineral soil-derived heterotrophic respiration [RHM] and leaf litter-derived heterotrophic respiration [RHL]) of a loblolly pine plantation (Pinus taeda L.) to varying soil and litter water content over the course of a dry down event. Additionally, we investigated whether fertilization influenced RHL and RHM to understand how forest nutrient management may impact forest soil carbon (C) dynamics. RHL was measured under dry conditions and at field capacity to evaluate water content controls on RHL, determine the duration of increased CO2 release following wetting, and evaluate the potential contribution to total RH. We also measured RHM inside collars that excluded plant roots and litter inputs, from field capacity until near-zero RHM rates were attained. We found that RHL was more sensitive to water content than RHM, and increased linearly with increasing litter water content (R2 = 0.89). The contribution of RHL to RH was greatest immediately following the wetting event, and decreased rapidly to near-zero rates between 3 and 10 days. RHM also had a strong relationship with soil water content (R2 = 0.62), but took between 200 and 233 days to attain near-zero RHM rates. Fertilization had no effect on RHM (p = 0.657), but significantly suppressed RHL rates after the wetting event (p < 0.009). These results demonstrate that there is great temporal variability in both CO2 released and the water content of differing sources of RH, and forest fertilization may largely impact forest floor C stocks. This variability may not be captured reliably using conventional weekly to monthly chamber-based field sampling efforts and could lead to over- or underestimation of RH. In the context of climate change, changes in the frequency and intensity of wetting and drying events will likely alter RHL and its contribution to RS. Separate consideration of RH sources and controls, along with increased field sampling frequency using chamber-based methodology under a broader range of specific environmental conditions, are likely needed to reduce variability in RH estimates and improve the accuracy of forest NEP predictions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carbon Stocks across a Fifty Year Chronosequence of Rubber Plantations in Tropical China
Forests 2017, 8(6), 209; doi:10.3390/f8060209
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Transition from forest to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) plantation has occurred in tropical China for decades. Rubber has been planted on 1 million ha to provide raw materials to the rubber industry. The role of various-aged rubber plantations in carbon (C)
[...] Read more.
Transition from forest to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) plantation has occurred in tropical China for decades. Rubber has been planted on 1 million ha to provide raw materials to the rubber industry. The role of various-aged rubber plantations in carbon (C) sequestration remains unclear. The biomass C accumulation including latex C and C distribution in soil of five different-aged stands (7, 13, 19, 25 and 47 years old) were examined. The total biomass C stock (TBC) and total net primary productivity (NPPtotal), whether with or without latex C, had a close quadratic relationship with stand age. Regardless of stand age, around 68% of the C was stored in aboveground biomass, and NPPlatex contributed to approximately 18% of C sequestration. Soil organic carbon stock in the 100-cm depth remained relatively stable, but it lost about 16.8 Mg ha−1 with stand age. The total ecosystem C stock (TEC) across stands averaged 159.6, 174.4, 229.6, 238.1 and 291.9 Mg ha−1, respectively, of which more than 45% was stored in the soil. However, biomass would become the major C sink rather than soil over a maximal rubber life expectancy. Regression analysis showed that TEC for rubber plantation at 22 years is comparable to a baseline of 230.4 Mg ha−1 for tropical forest in China, and would reach the maximum value at around 54 years. Therefore, rubber plantation can be considered as alternative land use without affecting net forest ecosystem C storage. In addition to the potential C gains, a full set of ecosystem and economic properties have to be quantified in order to assess the trade-offs associated with forest-to-rubber transition. Full article
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2016

Jump to: 2017, 2015

Open AccessArticle SOM and Biomass C Stocks in Degraded and Undisturbed Andean and Coastal Nothofagus Forests of Southwestern South America
Forests 2016, 7(12), 320; doi:10.3390/f7120320
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grazing and over-exploitation can severely degrade soil in native forests. Considering that productivity in ecosystems is related to soil organic matter (SOM) content and quality, the objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the influence of degraded (DEF), partly-degraded (PDF), and undisturbed
[...] Read more.
Grazing and over-exploitation can severely degrade soil in native forests. Considering that productivity in ecosystems is related to soil organic matter (SOM) content and quality, the objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the influence of degraded (DEF), partly-degraded (PDF), and undisturbed (UNF) Nothofagus forests on the stocks of carbon (C) in tree biomass and SOM; (2) evaluate fractions of SOM as indicators of sustainable management; and (3) use the Century model to determine the potential gains of soil organic C (SOC). The forests are located in the Andes and Coastal mountains of southern Chile. The SOM was fractionated to separate the light fraction (LF), macroaggregates (>212 µm), mesoaggregates (212–53 µm), and microaggregates (<53 µm). In two measurement periods, the SOC stocks at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths in macroaggregates were on average 100% higher in the Andean UNF, and SOC was over twice as much at 20–40 cm depth in Andean DEF. Century simulations showed that improved silvopastoral management would gradually increase total SOC in degraded soils of both sites, especially the Ultisol with a 15% increase between 2016 and 2216 (vs. 7% in the Andisol). Greater SOC in macroaggregates (p < 0.05) of UNF indicate a condition of higher sustainability and better management over the years. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biomass Accumulation and Net Primary Production during the Early Stage of Secondary Succession after a Severe Forest Disturbance in Northern Japan
Forests 2016, 7(11), 287; doi:10.3390/f7110287
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 12 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
Quantitative evaluations of biomass accumulation after disturbances in forests are crucially important for elucidating and predicting forest carbon dynamics in order to understand the carbon sink/source activities. During early secondary succession, understory vegetation often affects sapling growth. However, reports on biomass recovery in
[...] Read more.
Quantitative evaluations of biomass accumulation after disturbances in forests are crucially important for elucidating and predicting forest carbon dynamics in order to understand the carbon sink/source activities. During early secondary succession, understory vegetation often affects sapling growth. However, reports on biomass recovery in naturally-regenerating sites are limited in Japan. Therefore, we traced annual or biennial changes in plant species, biomass, and net primary production (NPP) in a naturally regenerating site in Japan after windthrow and salvage-logging plantation for nine years. The catastrophic disturbance depleted the aboveground biomass (AGB) from 90.6 to 2.7 Mg·ha−1, changing understory dominant species from Dryopteris spp. to Rubus idaeus. The mean understory AGB recovered to 4.7 Mg·ha−1 in seven years with the dominant species changing to invasive Solidago gigantea. Subsequently, patches of deciduous trees (mainly Betula spp.) recovered whereas the understory AGB decreased. Mean understory NPP increased to 272 g·C·m−2·year−1 within seven years after the disturbance, but decreased thereafter to 189 g·C·m−2·year−1. Total NPP stagnated despite increasing overstory NPP. The biomass accumulation is similar to that of naturally regenerating sites without increase of trees in boreal and temperate regions. Dense ground vegetation and low water and nutrient availability of the soil in the study site restrict the recovery of canopy-forming trees and eventually influence the biomass accumulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Three-Year Study on Diurnal and Seasonal CO2 Sequestration of a Young Fraxinus griffithii Plantation in Southern Taiwan
Forests 2016, 7(10), 230; doi:10.3390/f7100230
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
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Abstract
This study examined monthly carbon sequestration of the Himalayan ash (Fraxinus griffithii C. B. Clarke), an important plantation species in Taiwan. From January 2010 to December 2012, data were collected from an F. griffithii plantation in southern Taiwan, which experiences a typical
[...] Read more.
This study examined monthly carbon sequestration of the Himalayan ash (Fraxinus griffithii C. B. Clarke), an important plantation species in Taiwan. From January 2010 to December 2012, data were collected from an F. griffithii plantation in southern Taiwan, which experiences a typical Southeast Asia monsoon climate. To estimate CO2 sequestration rate, we conducted diurnal measurements of photosynthetic rates and seasonal measurements of photosynthetic light response curves. We also calculated leaf area index to estimate the total leaf area of individual trees. The diurnal variation in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration exhibited seasonal and annual differences. The range of net CO2 assimilation rates was 1.34–8.68 µmol·m−2·s−1 in 2010, 1.02–6.60 µmol·m−2·s−1 in 2011, and 1.13–4.45 µmol·m−2·s−1 in 2012. A single F. griffithii tree sequestrated 12.21 kg·year−1 CO2 on average. Annual CO2 sequestration occurred primarily during the summer for all years, averaging 14.89 Mg·ha−1·year−1 for three years. Correlation analyses between various environmental variables and CO2 sequestration rates indicated that air temperature and soil water content were likely the main factors influencing carbon sequestration of F. griffithii at this study site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Forest Biomass and Net Primary Productivity in Southwestern China: A Meta-Analysis Focusing on Environmental Driving Factors
Forests 2016, 7(8), 173; doi:10.3390/f7080173
Received: 18 June 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 August 2016 / Published: 6 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) are important factors for studying terrestrial carbon storage and the carbon cycle. Using data from existing literature, this study synthesized and analyzed a comprehensive database of direct field observations of forest biomass and NPP for Southwestern China.
[...] Read more.
Biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) are important factors for studying terrestrial carbon storage and the carbon cycle. Using data from existing literature, this study synthesized and analyzed a comprehensive database of direct field observations of forest biomass and NPP for Southwestern China. The biomass of mature natural forests and mature planted forests range from 81.2 Mg·ha−1 to 692.6 Mg·ha−1 (mean = 288.1 Mg·ha−1) and from 76.8 Mg·ha−1 to 670.1 Mg·ha−1 (mean = 181.5 Mg·ha−1), respectively. Mature natural forests have higher biomass than mature planted ones. The NPP values of natural and planted forests range from 1.4 Mg·ha−1·year−1 to 29.6 Mg·ha−1·year−1 (mean = 13.6 Mg·ha−1·year−1) and from 0.6 Mg·ha−1·year−1 to 26.5 Mg·ha−1·year−1 (mean = 9.9 Mg·ha−1·year−1), respectively. Correlations among biomass, NPP, and environmental factors show that NPP significantly decreases with latitude and increases with mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, growing degree-days on a 0 °C base, and mean annual drought index, whereas biomass positively correlates with stand age and leaf area index strongly. Karst forests exhibit almost the same NPP as non-karst forests, but the former have significantly lower biomass compared to the latter. Comprehensive regional data synthesis and analysis based on direct field observations of forest biomass and NPP are important for benchmarking global and regional vegetation and carbon models, estimating regional carbon content, restoring vegetation, and mitigating climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carbon Sequestration and Sedimentation in Mangrove Swamps Influenced by Hydrogeomorphic Conditions and Urbanization in Southwest Florida
Forests 2016, 7(6), 116; doi:10.3390/f7060116
Received: 23 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 30 May 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study compares carbon sequestration rates along two independent tidal mangrove creeks near Naples Bay in Southwest Florida, USA. One tidal creek is hydrologically disturbed due to upstream land use changes; the other is an undisturbed reference creek. Soil cores were collected in
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This study compares carbon sequestration rates along two independent tidal mangrove creeks near Naples Bay in Southwest Florida, USA. One tidal creek is hydrologically disturbed due to upstream land use changes; the other is an undisturbed reference creek. Soil cores were collected in basin, fringe, and riverine hydrogeomorphic settings along each of the two tidal creeks and analyzed for bulk density, total organic carbon profiles, and sediment accretion. Radionuclides 137Cs and 210Pb were used to estimate recent sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates. Carbon sequestration rates (mean ± standard error) for seven sites in the two tidal creeks on the Naples Bay (98 ± 12 g-C m−2·year−1 (n = 18)) are lower than published global means for mangrove wetlands, but consistent with other estimates from the same region. Mean carbon sequestration rates in the reference riverine setting were highest (162 ± 5 g-C m−2·year−1), followed by rates in the reference fringe and disturbed riverine settings (127 ± 6 and 125 ± 5 g-C m−2·year−1, respectively). The disturbed fringe sequestered 73 ± 10 g-C m−2·year−1, while rates within the basin settings were 50 ± 4 g-C m−2·year−1 and 47 ± 4 g-C m−2·year−1 for the reference and disturbed creeks, respectively. These data support our hypothesis that mangroves along a hydrologically disturbed tidal creek sequestered less carbon than did mangroves along an adjacent undisturbed reference creek. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Seasonal Variations of Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor and Energy Fluxes in Tropical Indian Mangroves
Forests 2016, 7(2), 35; doi:10.3390/f7020035
Received: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6091 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present annual estimates of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulated over one annual cycle (April 2012 to March 2013) in the world’s largest mangrove ecosystem, Sundarbans (India), using the eddy covariance method. An eddy covariance flux
[...] Read more.
We present annual estimates of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulated over one annual cycle (April 2012 to March 2013) in the world’s largest mangrove ecosystem, Sundarbans (India), using the eddy covariance method. An eddy covariance flux tower was established in April 2012 to study the seasonal variations of carbon dioxide fluxes due to soil and vegetation-atmosphere interactions. The half-hourly maximum of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) varied from −6 µmol·m−2·s−1 during the summer (April to June 2012) to −10 µmol·m−2·s−1 during the winter (October to December 2012), whereas the half-hourly maximum of H2O flux varied from 5.5 to 2.5 mmol·m−2·s−1 during October 2013 and July 2013, respectively. During the study period, the study area was a carbon dioxide sink with an annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP = −NEE) of 249 ± 20 g·C m−2·year−1. The mean annual evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated to be 1.96 ± 0.33 mm·day−1. The gap-filled NEE was also partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Re). The total GPP and Re over the study area for the annual cycle were estimated to be1271 g C m−2·year−1 and 1022 g C m−2·year−1, respectively. The closure of the surface energy balance accounted for of about 78% of the available energy during the study period. Our findings suggest that the Sundarbans mangroves are currently a substantial carbon sink, indicating that the protection and management of these forests would lead as a strategy towards reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring Opportunities for Promoting Synergies between Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Forest Carbon Initiatives
Forests 2016, 7(1), 24; doi:10.3390/f7010024
Received: 25 August 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is growing interest in designing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation (M + A) in synergy in the forest and land use sectors. However, there is limited knowledge on how the planning and promotion of synergies between M + A can
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There is growing interest in designing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation (M + A) in synergy in the forest and land use sectors. However, there is limited knowledge on how the planning and promotion of synergies between M + A can be operationalized in the current efforts to mitigate climate change through forest carbon. This paper contributes to fill this knowledge gap by exploring ways of planning and promoting M + A synergy outcomes in forest carbon initiatives. It examines eight guidelines that are widely used in designing and implementing forest carbon initiatives. Four guiding principles with a number of criteria that are relevant for planning synergy outcomes in forest carbon activities are proposed. The guidelines for developing forest carbon initiatives need to demonstrate that (1) the health of forest ecosystems is maintained or enhanced; (2) the adaptive capacity of forest-dependent communities is ensured; (3) carbon and adaptation benefits are monitored and verified; and (4) adaptation outcomes are anticipated and planned in forest carbon initiatives. The forest carbon project development guidelines can encourage the integration of adaptation in forest carbon initiatives. However, their current efforts guiding projects and programs to deliver biodiversity and environmental benefits, ecosystem services, and socioeconomic benefits are not considered explicitly as efforts towards enhancing adaptation. An approach for incentivizing and motivating project developers, guideline setters, and offset buyers is imperative in order to enable existing guidelines to make clear contributions to adaptation goals. We highlight and discuss potential ways of incentivizing and motivating the explicit planning and promotion of adaptation outcomes in forest carbon initiatives. Full article

2015

Jump to: 2017, 2016

Open AccessArticle Effects of Stand Origin and Near-Natural Restoration on the Stock and Structural Composition of Fallen Trees in Mid-Subtropical Forests
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4439-4450; doi:10.3390/f6124380
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
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Abstract
Fallen trees comprise an important part of forest ecosystems and serve a central role in maintaining the biodiversity and tree regeneration of forests. However, the effects of stand origin and near-natural restoration on the biomass and carbon stock of fallen trees remain unclear.
[...] Read more.
Fallen trees comprise an important part of forest ecosystems and serve a central role in maintaining the biodiversity and tree regeneration of forests. However, the effects of stand origin and near-natural restoration on the biomass and carbon stock of fallen trees remain unclear. Based on 60 sampling plots of field surveys of mid-subtropical forests in Jiangxi Province, we investigated the stock and structural composition of fallen trees in artificial coniferous forests (Acf), natural coniferous forests (Ncf) (e.g., different stand origins) and natural evergreen broadleaf forests (Nebf) (e.g., near-natural restoration). The following results were obtained: (1) the largest biomass and carbon stocks of fallen trees among three forest types (Nebf, Ncf and Acf) were measured for Nebf; (2) the fallen tree biomass and carbon stock in natural Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (Nclf) were significantly larger than that in artificial Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (Aclf), and the fallen tree biomass and carbon stock in natural Pinus massoniana forest (Npf) were also significantly larger than those in artificial Pinus massoniana forest (Apf); (3) the diameter class allocation in natural forests was more uniform than that in artificial forests; (4) the biomass of fallen trees with mild decay was not significantly different among forest types within stand origin or among the stand origin within forest types; however, the biomass of fallen trees with moderate and heavy decay significantly differed among stand origin (Aclf vs. Nclf, Apf vs. Npf), but was not significant among the forest types (Aclf vs. Apf, Nclf vs. Apf) within a stand origin. Our results suggested that the large biomass and carbon stock of fallen trees in Nebf may serve a significant role in mitigating global warming and carbon cycles in mid-subtropical forests. Therefore, stand origin and near-natural restoration exert significant effects on the carbon stock and structural composition of fallen trees in mid-subtropical forests. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biomass Stock and Carbon Sequestration in a Chronosequence of Pinus massoniana Plantations in the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River
Forests 2015, 6(10), 3665-3682; doi:10.3390/f6103665
Received: 12 July 2015 / Revised: 28 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 September 2015 / Published: 15 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Planted forest plays a significant role in carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation; however, little information has been available on the distribution patterns of carbon pools with stand ages in Pinus massoniana Plantations. We investigated the biomass stock and carbon sequestration across a
[...] Read more.
Planted forest plays a significant role in carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation; however, little information has been available on the distribution patterns of carbon pools with stand ages in Pinus massoniana Plantations. We investigated the biomass stock and carbon sequestration across a chronosequence (3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 15-, 19-, 29-, 35- and 42-year) of stands with the main objectives: (1) to determine the biomass and carbon stock of the forest ecosystem; and (2) to identify factors influencing their distribution across the age series. Simple random sampling was used for collecting field data in the ten (10) stand ages. Three 20 × 20 m standard plots were laid out in February 2015 across the chronosequence. The diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H) of each tree within each plot were measured using calipers and height indicator. Sub-plots of 2 × 2 m were established in each main plot for collecting soil samples at a 0–30- and 30–60-cm depth. Plantation biomass increased with increasing stand ages, ranging from 0.84 tonnes per hectare (t·ha−1) in the three-year stand to 252.35 t·ha−1 in the 42-year stand. The aboveground biomass (AGB) contributed 86.51%; the maximum value is 300-times the minimum value. Carbon concentrations and storage in mineral soil decreased with increasing soil depth, but were controlled by the management history of the ecosystem. The total ecosystem carbon storage varies with stand ages, ranging from 169.90 t·ha−1 in the five-year plantation to 326.46 t·ha−1 in the 42-year plantation, of which 80.29% comes from the mineral soil carbon and 19.71% from the vegetation. The ratio of the total carbon sequestration by the 42-year to the three-year stand was 1.70, implying substantial amounts of carbon accumulation during the transition period from young to mature-aged trees. The forest ecosystem had the capacity of storing up to 263.16 t·ha−1 carbon, assisting in mitigating climate change by sequestrating 965.83 t·ha−1 of CO2 equivalents, indicating that the forest is an important carbon sink. Full article
Open AccessArticle Carbon Budgets for Caribbean Mangrove Forests of Varying Structure and with Phosphorus Enrichment
Forests 2015, 6(10), 3528-3546; doi:10.3390/f6103528
Received: 13 August 2015 / Revised: 23 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 7 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are few detailed carbon (C) budgets of mangrove forests, yet these are important for understanding C sequestration in mangrove forests, how they support the productivity of the coast and their vulnerability to environmental change. Here, we develop C budgets for mangroves on
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There are few detailed carbon (C) budgets of mangrove forests, yet these are important for understanding C sequestration in mangrove forests, how they support the productivity of the coast and their vulnerability to environmental change. Here, we develop C budgets for mangroves on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We consider seaward fringing forests and interior scrub forests that have been fertilized with phosphorus (P), which severely limits growth of trees in the scrub forests. We found that respiration of the aboveground biomass accounted for 60%–80% of the fixed C and that respiration of the canopy and aboveground roots were important components of respiration. Soil respiration accounted for only 7%–11% of total gross primary production (GPP) while burial of C in soils was ~4% of GPP. Respiration by roots can account for the majority of soil respiration in fringing forests, while microbial processes may account 80% of respiration in scrub forests. Fertilization of scrub forests with P enhanced GPP but the proportion of C buried declined to ~2% of GPP. Net ecosystem production was 17%–27% of GPP similar to that reported for other mangrove forests. Carbon isotope signatures of adjacent seagrass suggest that dissolved C from mangroves is exported into the adjacent ecosystems. Our data indicate that C budgets can vary among mangrove forest types and with nutrient enrichment and that low productivity mangroves provide a disproportionate share of exported C. Full article
Open AccessArticle Carbon Dioxide and Methane Formation in Norway Spruce Stems Infected by White-Rot Fungi
Forests 2015, 6(9), 3304-3325; doi:10.3390/f6093304
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 15 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 22 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Globally, billions of tons of carbon sequestered in trees are annually recycled back to the atmosphere through wood decomposition by microbes. In Norway, every fifth Norway spruce shows at final harvest infection by pathogenic white-rot fungi in the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria.
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Globally, billions of tons of carbon sequestered in trees are annually recycled back to the atmosphere through wood decomposition by microbes. In Norway, every fifth Norway spruce shows at final harvest infection by pathogenic white-rot fungi in the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria. As these fungi can mineralize all components of wood, we predicted that they have a significant carbon footprint. Gas samples taken from infected stems were analyzed for CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and wood samples from different parts of the decay columns were incubated under hypoxic (4% O2) and anoxic laboratory conditions. In spring and summer the stem concentrations of CO2 were generally two times higher in trees with heartwood decay than in healthy trees. For most of the healthy trees and trees with heartwood decay, mean stem concentrations of CH4 were comparable to ambient air, and only some Armillaria infected trees showed moderately elevated CH4. Consistently, low CH4 production potentials were recorded in the laboratory experiment. Up-scaling of CO2 efflux due to wood decay in living trees suggests that the balance between carbon sequestration and emission may be substantially influenced in stands with high frequency of advanced root and stem heartwood decay. Full article

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