E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Forest Pathology and Plant Health"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Matteo Garbelotto

University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paolo Gonthier

Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences University of Torino, Grugliasco, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: forest pathology; molecular ecology; invasive plant pathogens; fungal epidemiology; forest decline

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Dr. Matteo Garbelotto
Dr. Paolo Gonthier
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Forest pathogens
  • Fungi
  • Disease outbreaks
  • Genetic variability
  • Invasion
  • Landscape fragmentation
  • Disturbances
  • Forest Management
  • Alien species

Published Papers (14 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-14
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Variability and Disturbances as Key Factors in Forest Pathology and Plant Health Studies
Forests 2017, 8(11), 441; doi:10.3390/f8110441
Received: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The plant disease triangle (PDT) is as old as the field of modern plant pathology, and it postulates that any plant disease is the outcome of the interaction between a pathogen, a host, and the environment. Recently, the need has emerged to study
[...] Read more.
The plant disease triangle (PDT) is as old as the field of modern plant pathology, and it postulates that any plant disease is the outcome of the interaction between a pathogen, a host, and the environment. Recently, the need has emerged to study not only how the three elements of the PDT directly influence disease, but to focus on how they indirectly affect one another, consequently modifying the final outcome. It is also essential to structure such analyses within three major external frameworks provided by landscape level disturbances, climate change, and anthropogenic effects. The studies included in this issue cover a wide range of topics using an equally varied list of approaches, and they showcase the important role these indirect and often non-linear processes have on the development of forest diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Pre-Infection Stages of Austropuccinia psidii in the Epidermis of Eucalyptus Hybrid Leaves with Different Resistance Levels
Forests 2017, 8(10), 362; doi:10.3390/f8100362
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rust is a major Eucalyptus spp. disease, which is especially damaging for early-stage plants. The aim of this study was to verify the pre-infection process of Austropuccinia psidii (A. psidii) in the leaves of three phenological stages of Eucalyptus clones with
[...] Read more.
Rust is a major Eucalyptus spp. disease, which is especially damaging for early-stage plants. The aim of this study was to verify the pre-infection process of Austropuccinia psidii (A. psidii) in the leaves of three phenological stages of Eucalyptus clones with different resistance levels. Plants from the hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) with variable levels of resistance to this disease were used. The pathogen was inoculated in vitro on abaxial leaf discs of first, third, and fifth leaf stages and maintained under conditions suitable for disease development. Subsequently, samples from these discs were collected 24 and 120 h after inoculation and processed using scanning electron microscopy analysis. No symptoms were seen in any leaf stage of the resistant clone. Additionally, a low incidence of A. psidii germination (1.3–2%) and appressoria (0–0.5%) in three leaf stages was observed. However, the first leaf stage of the susceptible clone presented germination of large numbers of urediniospores (65%) with appressoria (55%) and degradation of the cuticle and wax. From the third stage, the percentage of germinated urediniospores (<15%) and appressoria (<2%) formation of this clone decreased. Protrusions on the leaf surface, associated with the pathogen, were observed on the first and third leaf stages of the resistant clone and on the fifth stage of the susceptible clone, suggesting a possible defensive plant reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Environmental Factors Driving the Recovery of Bay Laurels from Phytophthora ramorum Infections: An Application of Numerical Ecology to Citizen Science
Forests 2017, 8(8), 293; doi:10.3390/f8080293
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 13 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phytophthora ramorum is an alien and invasive plant pathogen threatening forest ecosystems in Western North America, where it can cause both lethal and non-lethal diseases. While the mechanisms underlying the establishment and spread of P. ramorum have been elucidated, this is the first
[...] Read more.
Phytophthora ramorum is an alien and invasive plant pathogen threatening forest ecosystems in Western North America, where it can cause both lethal and non-lethal diseases. While the mechanisms underlying the establishment and spread of P. ramorum have been elucidated, this is the first attempt to investigate the environmental factors driving the recovery of bay laurel, the main transmissive host of the pathogen. Based on a large dataset gathered from a citizen science program, an algorithm was designed, tested, and run to detect and geolocate recovered trees. Approximately 32% of infected bay laurels recovered in the time period between 2005 and 2015. Monte Carlo simulations pointed out the robustness of such estimates, and the algorithm achieved an 85% average rate of correct classification. The association between recovery and climatic, topographic, and ecological factors was assessed through a numerical ecology approach mostly based on binary logistic regressions. Significant (p < 0.05) coefficients and the information criteria of the models showed that the probability of bay laurel recovery increases in association with high temperatures and low precipitation levels, mostly in flat areas. Results suggest that aridity might be a key driver boosting the recovery of bay laurels from P. ramorum infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dispersal and Propagule Pressure of Botryosphaeriaceae Species in a Declining Oak Stand is Affected by Insect Vectors
Forests 2017, 8(7), 228; doi:10.3390/f8070228
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the onset of oak decline. Among biotic agents, a variety of fungi and insects cause extensive disease and insect outbreaks in oak forests. To date, research on fungus-insect interactions in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is still scarce
[...] Read more.
Many biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the onset of oak decline. Among biotic agents, a variety of fungi and insects cause extensive disease and insect outbreaks in oak forests. To date, research on fungus-insect interactions in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is still scarce and fragmentary. In this study, we investigated the assemblage of endophytic mycobiota and insect pests occurring in a declining oak stand, with the aim to explore if, and to what extent, the insect species were active vectors of fungal propagules. It emerged that some known latent pathogens of the Botryosphaeriaceae family, namely Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diplodia corticola, Diplodia seriata, Dothiorella sarmentorum, and Neofusicoccum parvum were isolated at high frequency from physiologically-impaired trees. In addition, propagules of these fungi were isolated from five insects, two of which (Cerambyx welensii and Coraebus fasciatus) are main oak pests. The life-history strategies of these fungi and those of wood-boring beetles were strikingly interconnected: both the fungi and beetles exploit drought-stressed trees and both occur at high frequency during hot, dry periods. This synchronicity increased their chance of co-occurrence and, consequently, their probability of jointly leading to oak decline. If these interactions would be confirmed by future studies, they could help to better understand the extensive decline/dieback of many Mediterranean forest ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Short Rotations in Forest Plantations Accelerate Virulence Evolution in Root-Rot Pathogenic Fungi
Forests 2017, 8(6), 205; doi:10.3390/f8060205
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
As disease outbreaks in forest plantations are causing concern worldwide, a clear understanding of the influence of silvicultural practices on the development of epidemics is still lacking. Importantly, silvicultural practices are likely to simultaneously affect epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogen populations. We
[...] Read more.
As disease outbreaks in forest plantations are causing concern worldwide, a clear understanding of the influence of silvicultural practices on the development of epidemics is still lacking. Importantly, silvicultural practices are likely to simultaneously affect epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogen populations. We propose a genetically explicit and individual-based model of virulence evolution in a root-rot pathogenic fungus spreading across forest landscapes, taking the Armillaria ostoyae–Pinus pinaster pathosystem as reference. We used the model to study the effects of rotation length on the evolution of virulence and the propagation of the fungus within a forest landscape composed of even-aged stands regularly altered by clear-cutting and thinning operations. The life cycle of the fungus modeled combines asexual and sexual reproduction modes, and also includes parasitic and saprotrophic phases. Moreover, the tree susceptibility to the pathogen is primarily determined by the age of the stand. Our simulations indicated that the shortest rotation length accelerated both the evolution of virulence and the development of the epidemics, whatever the genetic variability in the initial fungal population and the asexuality rate of the fungal species Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Invasive Everywhere? Phylogeographic Analysis of the Globally Distributed Tree Pathogen Lasiodiplodia theobromae
Forests 2017, 8(5), 145; doi:10.3390/f8050145
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 22 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae are important plant pathogens that persist endophytically in infected plant hosts. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a prominent species in this family that infects numerous plants in tropical and subtropical areas. We characterized a collection of 255 isolates of L. theobromae
[...] Read more.
Fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae are important plant pathogens that persist endophytically in infected plant hosts. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a prominent species in this family that infects numerous plants in tropical and subtropical areas. We characterized a collection of 255 isolates of L. theobromae from 52 plants and from many parts of the world to determine the global genetic structure and a possible origin of the fungus using sequence data from four nuclear loci. One to two dominant haplotypes emerged across all loci, none of which could be associated with geography or host; and no other population structure or subdivision was observed. The data also did not reveal a clear region of origin of the fungus. This global collection of L. theobromae thus appears to constitute a highly connected population. The most likely explanation for this is the human-mediated movement of plant material infected by this fungus over a long period of time. These data, together with related studies on other Botryosphaeriaceae, highlight the inability of quarantine systems to reduce the spread of pathogens with a prolonged latent phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Simulated Summer Rainfall Variability Effects on Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Seedling Physiology and Susceptibility to Root-Infecting Ophiostomatoid Fungi
Forests 2017, 8(4), 104; doi:10.3390/f8040104
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 25 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seedlings from four families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were grown in capped open-top chambers and exposed to three different weekly moisture regimes for 13 weeks. Moisture regimes varied in intensity and frequency of simulated rainfall (irrigation) events; however, the total
[...] Read more.
Seedlings from four families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were grown in capped open-top chambers and exposed to three different weekly moisture regimes for 13 weeks. Moisture regimes varied in intensity and frequency of simulated rainfall (irrigation) events; however, the total amounts were comparable. These simulated treatments were chosen to simulate expected changes in rainfall variability associated with climate change. Seedlings were inoculated with two root-infecting ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Southern Pine Decline. We found susceptibility of loblolly pine was not affected by water stress; however, one family that was most sensitive to inoculation was also most sensitive to changes in moisture availability. Many studies have examined the effects of drought (well-watered vs. dry conditions) on pine physiology and host-pathogen interactions but little is known about variability in moisture supply. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of variability in water availability, pathogen inoculation and their interaction on physiology of loblolly pine seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Open AccessArticle Laurel Wilt in Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems: Understanding the Drivers and Scales of Complex Pathosystems
Forests 2017, 8(2), 48; doi:10.3390/f8020048
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laurel wilt kills members of the Lauraceae plant family in the southeastern United States. It is caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva, a nutritional fungal symbiont of an invasive Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, which was detected in Port
[...] Read more.
Laurel wilt kills members of the Lauraceae plant family in the southeastern United States. It is caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva, a nutritional fungal symbiont of an invasive Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, which was detected in Port Wentworth, Georgia, in 2002. The beetle is the primary vector of R. lauricola in forests along the southeastern coastal plain of the United States, but other ambrosia beetle species that obtained the pathogen after the initial introduction may play a role in the avocado (Persea americana Miller) pathosystem. Susceptible taxa are naïve (new-encounter) hosts that originated outside Asia. In the southeastern United States, over 300 million trees of redbay (P. borbonia (L.) Spreng.) have been lost, and other North American endemics, non-Asian ornamentals and avocado—an important crop that originated in MesoAmerica—are also affected. However, there are no reports of laurel wilt on the significant number of lauraceous endemics that occur in the Asian homeland of R. lauricola and X. glabratus; coevolved resistance to the disease in the region has been hypothesized. The rapid spread of laurel wilt in the United States is due to an efficient vector, X. glabratus, and the movement of wood infested with the insect and pathogen. These factors, the absence of fully resistant genotypes, and the paucity of effective control measures severely constrain the disease’s management in forest ecosystems and avocado production areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Emerging Needle Blight Diseases in Atlantic Pinus Ecosystems of Spain
Forests 2017, 8(1), 18; doi:10.3390/f8010018
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Red band needle blight caused by Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini, and brown spot needle blight caused by Lecanosticta acicola provoke severe and premature defoliation in Pinus, and subsequent reduction of photosynthetic surfaces, vitality, and growth in young and adult trees.
[...] Read more.
Red band needle blight caused by Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini, and brown spot needle blight caused by Lecanosticta acicola provoke severe and premature defoliation in Pinus, and subsequent reduction of photosynthetic surfaces, vitality, and growth in young and adult trees. The recurrent damage results in branch and tree death. Until recently, pine needle blight diseases have had only minor impacts on native and exotic forest trees in the North of Spain, but in the past five years, these pathogen species have spread widely and caused severe defoliation and mortality in exotic and native plantations of Pinus in locations where they were not detected before. In an attempt to understand the main causes of this outbreak and to define the effectiveness of owners’ management strategies, four research actions were implemented: a survey of the management activities implemented by the owners to reduce disease impact, the evaluation of specific symptoms and damage associated with infection, and the identification of the causative pathogenic species and their reproductive capacity. Morphological characteristics of the fungus and molecular identification were consistent with those of Lecanosticta acicola and Dothistroma spp., D. septosporum, D. Pini, and both mating types were present for the three identified pathogens. The local silvicultural management performed, mainly pruning and thinning, was not resulting in the expected improvement. The results of this study can be applied to establish guidelines for monitoring and controlling the spread of needle blight pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L.
Forests 2016, 7(11), 269; doi:10.3390/f7110269
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil and stand density were found to be promising predictive variables associated with damage by the emerging disease of eastern white pine, Caliciopsis canker, in a 2014 survey with randomly selected eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) stands. The objective of this
[...] Read more.
Soil and stand density were found to be promising predictive variables associated with damage by the emerging disease of eastern white pine, Caliciopsis canker, in a 2014 survey with randomly selected eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) stands. The objective of this study was to further investigate the relationship between soil and stocking in eastern white pine forests of New England by stratifying sampling across soils and measuring stand density more systematically. A total of 62 eastern white pine stands were sampled during 2015–2016. Stands were stratified across soil groups and several prism plots were established at each site to measure stand density and determine stocking. Caliciopsis canker incidence in mature trees was greater in sites with drier or shallow soils compared to sites with loamy soils and in adequately stocked stands compared to understocked stands (p < 0.0001). Caliciopsis canker signs and symptoms were observed in all size classes. Live crown ratio, a measure of forest health, decreased with increasing Caliciopsis canker symptom severity. The fungal pathogen, Caliciopsis pinea Peck, was successfully isolated from cankers on trees growing in each soil group. Forest managers will need to consider damage caused by Caliciopsis canker related to stand factors such as soil and stocking when regenerating white pine stands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Tree Diseases as a Cause and Consequence of Interacting Forest Disturbances
Forests 2017, 8(5), 147; doi:10.3390/f8050147
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The disease triangle is a basic and highly flexible tool used extensively in forest pathology. By linking host, pathogen, and environmental factors, the model provides etiological insights into disease emergence. Landscape ecology, as a field, focuses on spatially heterogeneous environments and is most
[...] Read more.
The disease triangle is a basic and highly flexible tool used extensively in forest pathology. By linking host, pathogen, and environmental factors, the model provides etiological insights into disease emergence. Landscape ecology, as a field, focuses on spatially heterogeneous environments and is most often employed to understand the dynamics of relatively large areas such as those including multiple ecosystems (a landscape) or regions (multiple landscapes). Landscape ecology is increasingly focused on the role of co-occurring, overlapping, or interacting disturbances in shaping spatial heterogeneity as well as understanding how disturbance interactions mediate ecological impacts. Forest diseases can result in severe landscape-level mortality which could influence a range of other landscape-level disturbances including fire, wind impacts, and land use among others. However, apart from a few important exceptions, these disturbance-disease interactions are not well studied. We unite aspects of forest pathology with landscape ecology by applying the disease-triangle approach from the perspective of a spatially heterogeneous environment. At the landscape-scale, disturbances such as fire, insect outbreak, wind, and other events can be components of the environmental ‘arm’ of the disease triangle, meaning that a rich base of forest pathology can be leveraged to understand how disturbances are likely to impact diseases. Reciprocal interactions between disease and disturbance are poorly studied but landscape ecology has developed tools that can identify how they affect the dynamics of ecosystems and landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Epidemiological History of Cypress Canker Disease in Source and Invasion Sites
Forests 2017, 8(4), 121; doi:10.3390/f8040121
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 15 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (13514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seiridium cardinale is a fungal pathogen responsible for pandemic cypress canker disease (CCD). The fungus has shown the ability to infect different hosts in many areas throughout the globe, but its spread and impact were favored by conducive environmental conditions. The most severe
[...] Read more.
Seiridium cardinale is a fungal pathogen responsible for pandemic cypress canker disease (CCD). The fungus has shown the ability to infect different hosts in many areas throughout the globe, but its spread and impact were favored by conducive environmental conditions. The most severe epidemics were reported in California and the Mediterranean, the former considered the source area of the pathogen from which the Mediterranean infestation have originated. Here we reconstruct the epidemiological history of the disease in California and the Mediterranean. Evolution of the disease in the two contrasting areas was weighed in relation to differences between the two environments in terms of climate, landscape properties, and adopted management practices. In addition, differences emerged among the source and invasive populations in terms of genetic and phenotypic variability, structure, and mode of reproduction allow a few comments to be made about the environmental implications and related quarantine of new introductory events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Armillaria Pathogenesis under Climate Changes
Forests 2017, 8(4), 100; doi:10.3390/f8040100
Received: 21 January 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate changes influencing forest ecosystems include increased air temperatures and CO2 concentrations as well as droughts and decreased water availability. These changes in turn effect changes in species composition of both host plants and pathogens. In the case of Armillaria, climate
[...] Read more.
Climate changes influencing forest ecosystems include increased air temperatures and CO2 concentrations as well as droughts and decreased water availability. These changes in turn effect changes in species composition of both host plants and pathogens. In the case of Armillaria, climate changes cause an increase in the activity of individual species and modify the growth of rhizomorphs, increasing the susceptibility of trees. The relationship between climate changes and the biotic elements of Armillaria disease are discussed in overview. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Open AccessReview Effects of Host Variability on the Spread of Invasive Forest Diseases
Forests 2017, 8(3), 80; doi:10.3390/f8030080
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biological invasions, resulting from deliberate and unintentional species transfers of insects, fungal and oomycete organisms, are a major consequence of globalization and pose a significant threat to biodiversity. Limiting damage by non-indigenous forest pathogens requires an understanding of their current and potential distributions,
[...] Read more.
Biological invasions, resulting from deliberate and unintentional species transfers of insects, fungal and oomycete organisms, are a major consequence of globalization and pose a significant threat to biodiversity. Limiting damage by non-indigenous forest pathogens requires an understanding of their current and potential distributions, factors affecting disease spread, and development of appropriate management measures. In this review, we synthesize innate characteristics of invading organisms (notably mating system, reproduction type, and dispersal mechanisms) and key factors of the host population (namely host diversity, host connectivity, and host susceptibility) that govern spread and impact of invasive forest pathogens at various scales post-introduction and establishment. We examine spread dynamics for well-known invasive forest pathogens, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (T. Kowalski) Baral, Queloz, Hosoya, comb. nov., causing ash dieback in Europe, and Cryphonectria parasitica, (Murr.) Barr, causing chestnut blight in both North America and Europe, illustrating the importance of host variability (diversity, connectivity, susceptibility) in their invasion success. While alien pathogen entry has proven difficult to control, and new biological introductions are indeed inevitable, elucidating the key processes underlying host variability is crucial for scientists and managers aimed at developing effective strategies to prevent future movement of organisms and preserve intact ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Plant Health)
Figures

Back to Top