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Special Issue "Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Robert Jandl

Department Forest Ecology, Austrian Forest Research Center (BFW), Seckendorff Gudent Weg 8, A 1130 Vienna, Austria
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Guest Editor
Dr. Mirco Rodeghiero

Department Forest Ecology and Biogeochemical Cycles, Fondazione Edmund Mach di San Michele all'Adige, Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The respiration of forest soils and the major factors controlling its rate are fairly well understood. The process is of utmost significance because its balance with the fixation of CO2 in the biomass defines whether a particular site is a source or sink of atmospheric CO2. Currently, the measurement of soil respiration in the field requires rather expensive experimental installations. Nevertheless, there are still some caveats in our understanding, such as the separation of autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration, the relevance of different groups of soil organisms, the effect of ecosystem disturbances in different types of forests on soil respiration with respect to magnitude and duration, the adaptation of soil respiration to changing site conditions, and the regional prediction of soil respiration, based on proxy data. Technical progress and additional contributions on process understanding will put us in the position of better predictions of the forest soil respiration. We encourage studies from all fields, including experimental studies, monitoring approaches and models, to contribute to this Special Issue in order to promote knowledge and adaptation strategies for the preservation, management, and future development of forest ecosystems.

Dr. Robert Jandl
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • soil respiration
  • autotrophic respiration
  • heterotrophic respiration
  • disturbance
  • modeling

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Role of Respiration in Estimation of Net Carbon Cycle: Coupling Soil Carbon Dynamics and Canopy Turnover in a Novel Version of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model
Forests 2017, 8(6), 220; doi:10.3390/f8060220
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Understanding the dynamics of organic carbon mineralization is fundamental in forecasting biosphere to atmosphere net carbon ecosystem exchange (NEE). With this perspective, we developed 3D-CMCC-PSM, a new version of the hybrid process based model 3D‐CMCC FEM where also heterotrophic respiration (Rh)
[...] Read more.
Understanding the dynamics of organic carbon mineralization is fundamental in forecasting biosphere to atmosphere net carbon ecosystem exchange (NEE). With this perspective, we developed 3D-CMCC-PSM, a new version of the hybrid process based model 3D‐CMCC FEM where also heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is explicitly simulated. The aim was to quantify NEE as a forward problem, by subtracting ecosystem respiration (Reco) to gross primary productivity (GPP). To do so, we developed a simplification of the soil carbon dynamics routine proposed in the DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) computer simulation model. The method calculates decomposition as a function of soil moisture, temperature, state of the organic compartments, and relative abundance of microbial pools. Given the pulse dynamics of soil respiration, we introduced modifications in some of the principal constitutive relations involved in phenology and littering sub-routines. We quantified the model structure-related uncertainty in NEE, by running our training simulations over 1000 random parameter-sets extracted from parameter distributions expected from literature. 3D-CMCC-PSM predictability was tested on independent time series for 6 Fluxnet sites. The model resulted in daily and monthly estimations highly consistent with the observed time series. It showed lower predictability in Mediterranean ecosystems, suggesting that it may need further improvements in addressing evapotranspiration and water dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Impacts on Soil Carbon Processes along an Elevation Gradient in the Tropical Luquillo Experimental Forest
Forests 2017, 8(3), 90; doi:10.3390/f8030090
Received: 14 January 2017 / Revised: 11 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tropical forests play an important role in regulating the global climate and the carbon cycle. With the changing temperature and moisture along the elevation gradient, the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Northeastern Puerto Rico provides a natural approach to understand tropical forest ecosystems under
[...] Read more.
Tropical forests play an important role in regulating the global climate and the carbon cycle. With the changing temperature and moisture along the elevation gradient, the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Northeastern Puerto Rico provides a natural approach to understand tropical forest ecosystems under climate change. In this study, we conducted a soil translocation experiment along an elevation gradient with decreasing temperature but increasing moisture to study the impacts of climate change on soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil respiration. As the results showed, both soil carbon and the respiration rate were impacted by microclimate changes. The soils translocated from low elevation to high elevation showed an increased respiration rate with decreased SOC content at the end of the experiment, which indicated that the increased soil moisture and altered soil microbes might affect respiration rates. The soils translocated from high elevation to low elevation also showed an increased respiration rate with reduced SOC at the end of the experiment, indicating that increased temperature at low elevation enhanced decomposition rates. Temperature and initial soil source quality impacted soil respiration significantly. With the predicted warming climate in the Caribbean, these tropical soils at high elevations are at risk of releasing sequestered carbon into the atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Open AccessArticle Partitioning Forest‐Floor Respiration into Source  Based Emissions in a Boreal Forested Bog: Responses  to Experimental Drought
Forests 2017, 8(3), 75; doi:10.3390/f8030075
Received: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Northern peatlands store globally significant amounts of soil carbon that could be released to the atmosphere under drier conditions induced by climate change. We measured forest floor respiration (RFF) at hummocks and hollows in a treed boreal bog in Alberta, Canada and partitioned
[...] Read more.
Northern peatlands store globally significant amounts of soil carbon that could be released to the atmosphere under drier conditions induced by climate change. We measured forest floor respiration (RFF) at hummocks and hollows in a treed boreal bog in Alberta, Canada and partitioned the flux into aboveground forest floor autotrophic, belowground forest floor autotrophic, belowground tree respiration, and heterotrophic respiration using a series of clipping and trenching experiments. These fluxes were compared to those measured at sites within the same bog where water‐table (WT) was drawn down for 2 and 12 years. Experimental WT drawdown significantly increased RFF with greater increases at hummocks than hollows. Greater RFF was largely driven by increased autotrophic respiration driven by increased growth of trees and shrubs in response to drier conditions; heterotrophic respiration accounted for a declining proportion of RFF with time since drainage. Heterotrophic respiration was increased at hollows, suggesting that soil carbon may be lost from these sites in response to climate change induced drying. Overall, although WT drawdown increased RFF, the substantial contribution of autotrophic respiration to RFF suggests that peat carbon stocks are unlikely to be rapidly destabilized by drying conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Open AccessArticle Elevated CO2 and Tree Species Affect Microbial  Activity and Associated Aggregate Stability in Soil  Amended with Litter
Forests 2017, 8(3), 70; doi:10.3390/f8030070
Received: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
(1) Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) may affect organic inputs to woodland soils with potential consequences for C dynamics and associated aggregation; (2) The Bangor Free Air Concentration Enrichment experiment compared ambient (330 ppmv) and elevated (550 ppmv) CO2 regimes over four growing seasons
[...] Read more.
(1) Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) may affect organic inputs to woodland soils with potential consequences for C dynamics and associated aggregation; (2) The Bangor Free Air Concentration Enrichment experiment compared ambient (330 ppmv) and elevated (550 ppmv) CO2 regimes over four growing seasons (2005–2008) under Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. Litter from the experiment (autumn 2008) and Lumbricus terrestris were added to mesocosm soils. Microbial properties and aggregate stability were investigated in soil and earthworm casts. Soils taken from the field experiment in spring 2009 were also investigated; (3) eCO2 litter had lower N and higher C:N ratios. F. sylvatica and B. pendula litter had lower N and P than A. glutinosa; F. sylvatica had higher cellulose. In mesocosms, eCO2 litter decreased respiration, mineralization constant (respired C:total organic C) and soluble carbon in soil but not earthworm casts; microbial‐C and fungal hyphal length differed by species (A. glutinosa = B. pendula > F. sylvatica) not CO2 regime. eCO2 increased respiration in field aggregates but increased stability only under F. sylvatica; (4) Lower litter quality under eCO2 may restrict its initial decomposition, affecting C stabilization in aggregates. Later resistant materials may support microbial activity and increase aggregate stability. In woodland, C and soil aggregation dynamics may alter under eCO2, but outcomes may be influenced by tree species and earthworm activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Open AccessCommunication Effect of Soil Moisture on the Response of Soil Respiration to Open-Field Experimental Warming and Precipitation Manipulation
Forests 2017, 8(3), 56; doi:10.3390/f8030056
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
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Abstract
Soil respiration (RS, Soil CO2 efflux) is the second largest carbon (C) flux in global terrestrial ecosystems, and thus, plays an important role in global and regional C cycling; moreover, it acts as a feedback mechanism between C cycling
[...] Read more.
Soil respiration (RS, Soil CO2 efflux) is the second largest carbon (C) flux in global terrestrial ecosystems, and thus, plays an important role in global and regional C cycling; moreover, it acts as a feedback mechanism between C cycling and global climate change. RS is highly responsive to temperature and moisture, factors that are closely related to climate warming and changes in precipitation regimes. Here, we examined the direct and interactive effects of climate change drivers on RS of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. seedlings in a multifactor climate change experiment involving atmospheric temperature warming (+3 °C) and precipitation manipulations (−30% and +30%). Our results indicated that atmospheric temperature warming induced significant changes in RS (p < 0.05), enhancing RS by an average of 54.6% and 59.7% in the control and elevated precipitation plots, respectively, whereas atmospheric temperature warming reduced RS by 19.4% in plots subjected to lower rates of precipitation. However, the warming effect on RS was influenced by soil moisture. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that atmospheric temperature warming significantly influenced RS, but the warming effect on RS may be weakened by warming-induced soil drying in water-limited environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Open AccessArticle Temporal Variability of Soil Respiration in Experimental Tree Plantations in Lowland Costa Rica
Forests 2017, 8(2), 40; doi:10.3390/f8020040
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The principal objective of this study was to determine if there is consistent temporal variability in soil respiration from different forest plantations in a lowland tropical rainforest environment. Soil respiration was measured regularly over 2004 to 2010 in replicated plantations of 15- to
[...] Read more.
The principal objective of this study was to determine if there is consistent temporal variability in soil respiration from different forest plantations in a lowland tropical rainforest environment. Soil respiration was measured regularly over 2004 to 2010 in replicated plantations of 15- to 20-year-old evergreen tropical trees in lowland Costa Rica. Statistically significant but small differences in soil respiration were observed among hours of the day; daytime measurements were suitable for determining mean fluxes in this study. Fluxes varied more substantially among months, with the highest average emissions (5.9 μmol·m−2·s−1) occurring in September and low emissions (3.7 μmol·m−2·s−1) occurring in January. Three of the six tree species had significantly increasing rates of soil respiration across 2004–2010, with fluxes increasing at an average of 0.09 μmol·m−2·s−1 per year: the three other species had no long-term trends. It was hypothesized that there would be a tradeoff between carbon allocation aboveground, to produce new leaves, and belowground, to sustain roots and mycorrhizae, but the relationship between canopy leaf fall—a surrogate for canopy leaf flushing—and soil respiration was significantly positive. The similarities observed among temporal trends across plantation types, and significant relationships between soil respiration, soil water content and soil temperature, suggest that the physical environment largely controlled the temporal variability of soil respiration, but differences in flux magnitude among tree species were substantial and consistent across years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Upscaling of Soil Respiration under a Complex Canopy Structure in an Old‐Growth Deciduous Forest, Central Japan
Forests 2017, 8(2), 36; doi:10.3390/f8020036
Received: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 30 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4580 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The structural complexity, especially canopy and gap structure, of old‐growth forests affects the spatial variation of soil respiration (Rs). Without considering this variation, the upscaling of Rs from field measurements to the forest site will be biased. The present study examined
[...] Read more.
The structural complexity, especially canopy and gap structure, of old‐growth forests affects the spatial variation of soil respiration (Rs). Without considering this variation, the upscaling of Rs from field measurements to the forest site will be biased. The present study examined responses of Rs to soil temperature (Ts) and water content (W) in canopy and gap areas, developed the best fit modelof Rs and used the unique spatial patterns of Rs and crown closure to upscale chamber measurements to the site scale in an old‐growth beech‐oak forest. Rs increased with an increase in Ts in both gap and canopy areas, but the effect of W on Rs was different between the two areas. The generalized linear model (GLM) analysis identified that an empirical model of Rs with thecoupling of Ts and W was better than an exponential model of Rs with only Ts. Moreover, because of different responses of Rs to W between canopy and gap areas, it was necessary to estimate Rs in these areas separately. Consequently, combining the spatial patterns of Rs and the crown closure could allow upscaling of Rs from chamber‐based measurements to the whole site in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Open AccessArticle Heterotrophic Soil Respiration Affected by Compound Fertilizer Types in Red Pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) Stands of Korea
Forests 2016, 7(12), 309; doi:10.3390/f7120309
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
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Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on heterotrophic soil respiration (Rh) in soil respiration (Rs) components in red pine stands. Two types of fertilizer (N3P4K1 = 113:150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1; P
[...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on heterotrophic soil respiration (Rh) in soil respiration (Rs) components in red pine stands. Two types of fertilizer (N3P4K1 = 113:150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1; P4K1 = 150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1) were applied manually on the forest floor for two years. Rs and Rh rates were monitored from April 2011 to March 2013. Mean Rs and Rh rates were not significantly affected by fertilizer applications. However, Rh in the second year following fertilizer application fell to 27% for N3P4K1 and 17% in P4K1 treatments, while there was an increase of 5% in the control treatments compared with the first fertilization year. The exponential relationships between Rs or Rh rates and the corresponding soil temperature were significant (Rh: R2 = 0.86–0.90; p < 0.05; Rs: R2 = 0.86–0.91; p < 0.05) in the fertilizer and control treatments. Q10 values (Rs increase per 10 °C increase in temperature) in Rs rates were lowest for the N3P4K1 treatment (3.47), followed by 3.62 for the P4K1 treatment and 3.60 in the control treatments, while Rh rates were similar among the treatments (3.59–3.64). The results demonstrate the importance of separating Rh rates from Rs rates following a compound fertilizer application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization Forest Thinning Measures for Carbon Budget in a Mixed Pine-Oak Stand of the Qingling Mountains, China: A Case Study
Forests 2016, 7(11), 272; doi:10.3390/f7110272
Received: 18 September 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
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Abstract
Forest thinning is a silviculture treatment for sustainable forest management. It may promote growth of the remaining individuals by decreasing stand density, reducing competition, and increasing light and nutrient availability to increase carbon sequestration in the forest ecosystem. However, the action also increases
[...] Read more.
Forest thinning is a silviculture treatment for sustainable forest management. It may promote growth of the remaining individuals by decreasing stand density, reducing competition, and increasing light and nutrient availability to increase carbon sequestration in the forest ecosystem. However, the action also increases carbon loss simultaneously by reducing carbon and other nutrient inputs as well as exacerbating soil CO2 efflux. To achieve a maximum forest carbon budget, the central composite design with two independent variables (thinning intensity and thinning residual removal rate) was explored in a natural pine-oak mixed stand in the Qinling Mountains, China. The net primary productivity of living trees was estimated and soil CO2 efflux was stimulated by the Yasso07 model. Based on two years observation, the preliminary results indicated the following. Evidently chemical compounds of the litter of the tree species affected soil CO2 efflux stimulation. The thinning residual removal rate had a larger effect than thinning intensity on the net ecosystem productivity. When the selective thinning intensity and residual removal rate was 12.59% and 66.62% concurrently, the net ecosystem productivity reached its maximum 53.93 t·ha−1·year−1. The lower thinning intensity and higher thinning residual removal rated benefited the net ecosystem productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Open AccessArticle Seasonal Variation in Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Three Age-Stages of Dawn Redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) Stands in an Alluvial Island, Eastern China
Forests 2016, 7(11), 256; doi:10.3390/f7110256
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
PDF Full-text (2255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are an important part of the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycle in forest soil. However, soil greenhouse gas emissions in dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) stands of different ages are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of
[...] Read more.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are an important part of the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycle in forest soil. However, soil greenhouse gas emissions in dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) stands of different ages are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of plantation age and environmental factors on soil GHG emissions, we used static chamber/gas chromatography (GC) system to measure soil GHG emissions in an alluvial island in eastern China for two consecutive years. The soil was a source of CO2 and N2O and a sink of CH4 with annual emissions of 5.5–7.1 Mg C ha−1 year−1, 0.15–0.36 kg N ha−1 year−1, and 1.7–4.5 kg C ha−1 year−1, respectively. A clear exponential correlation was found between soil temperature and CO2 emission, but a negative linear correlation was found between soil water content and CO2 emission. Soil temperature had a significantly positive effect on CH4 uptake and N2O emission, whereas no significant correlation was found between CH4 uptake and soil water content, and N2O emission and soil water content. These results implied that older forest stands might cause more GHG emissions from the soil into the atmosphere because of higher litter/root biomass and soil carbon/nitrogen content compared with younger stands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Open AccessArticle Mitigating the Stress of Drought on Soil Respiration by Selective Thinning: Contrasting Effects of Drought on Soil Respiration of Two Oak Species in a Mediterranean Forest
Forests 2016, 7(11), 263; doi:10.3390/f7110263
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Drought has been shown to reduce soil respiration (SR) in previous studies. Meanwhile, studies of the effect of forest management on SR yielded contrasting results. However, little is known about the combined effect of drought and forest management on SR. To investigate if
[...] Read more.
Drought has been shown to reduce soil respiration (SR) in previous studies. Meanwhile, studies of the effect of forest management on SR yielded contrasting results. However, little is known about the combined effect of drought and forest management on SR. To investigate if the drought stress on SR can be mitigated by thinning, we implemented plots of selective thinning and 15% reduced rainfall in a mixed forest consisting of the evergreen Quercus ilex and deciduous Quercus cerrioides; we measured SR seasonally from 2004 to 2007. Our results showed a clear soil moisture threshold of 9%; above this value, SR was strongly dependent on soil temperature, with Q10 of 3.0–3.8. Below this threshold, the relationship between SR and soil temperature weakened. We observed contrasting responses of SR of target oak species to drought and thinning. Reduced rainfall had a strong negative impact on SR of Q. cerrioides, whereas the effect on SR for Q. ilex was marginal or even positive. Meanwhile, selective thinning increased SR of Q. cerrioides, but reduced that of Q. ilex. Overall, our results showed that the negative effect of drought on SR can be offset through selective thinning, but the effect is attenuated with time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)
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Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessErratum Erratum: Spatial Upscaling of Soil Respiration under a Complex Canopy Structure in an Old-Growth Deciduous Forest, Central Japan; Forests 2017, 8, 36
Forests 2017, 8(3), 71; doi:10.3390/f8030071
Received: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
PDF Full-text (592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to a mistake during the production process, there was a spelling error in the Academic Editors’ names in the original published version [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing)

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