Special Issue "Reticulate Evolution"

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A special issue of Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This special issue belongs to the section "Population and Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Michael L. Arnold

Department of Genetics, Life Sciences Building, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 706 542 3910
Interests: reticulate evolution; web of life; speciation; adaptation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The only illustration in the Origin of Species presents an evolutionary tree with branches that never reconnect. It is now evident that this view does not encompass the richness of the evolutionary process. Instead, the evolution of species from microbes to mammals is often reticulate, building like a web due to genetic exchange events. Some of the avenues for reticulate evolution, for example sexual recombination versus lateral gene transfer, result from different molecular mechanisms. However, even such widely different genetic processes may result in similar effects on the evolutionary/ecological trajectory of organisms. Given the widespread occurrence and thus importance of reticulate evolution, the journal Genes will publish a Special Issue devoted to this topic. Reviews and original papers are welcome. Topics that touch upon the role of reticulate evolution in any organismic group are appropriate for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Michael L. Arnold
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • reticulate evolution
  • hybridization
  • introgression
  • horizontal transfer
  • hybrid speciation
  • adaptive trait transfer

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Population Genomics of Secondary Contact
Genes 2010, 1(1), 124-142; doi:10.3390/genes1010124
Received: 11 May 2010 / Revised: 23 June 2010 / Accepted: 23 June 2010 / Published: 25 June 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One common form of reticulate evolution arises as a consequence of secondary contact between previously allopatric populations. Using extensive coalescent simulations, we describe the conditions for, and extent of, the introgression of genetic material into the genome of a colonizing population from an
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One common form of reticulate evolution arises as a consequence of secondary contact between previously allopatric populations. Using extensive coalescent simulations, we describe the conditions for, and extent of, the introgression of genetic material into the genome of a colonizing population from an endemic population. The simulated coalescent histories are sampled from models that describe the evolution of entire chromosomes, thereby allowing the expected length of introgressed haplotypes to be estimated. The results indicate that our ability to identify reticulate evolution from genetic data is highly variable and depends critically upon the duration of the period of allopatry, the timing of the secondary contact event, as well as the sizes of the populations at the time of contact. One particularly interesting result arises when secondary contact occurs close to the time of a severe founder event, in this case, genetic introgression can be substantially more difficult to detect. However, if secondary contact occurs after such a founding event, when the range of the colonizing population increases, introgression is more readily detectable across the genome. This result may have important implications for our ability to detect introgression between ancestrally bottlenecked modern human populations and archaic hominin species, such as Neanderthals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reticulate Evolution)

Review

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Open AccessReview Staggered Chromosomal Hybrid Zones in the House Mouse: Relevance to Reticulate Evolution and Speciation
Genes 2010, 1(2), 193-209; doi:10.3390/genes1020193
Received: 11 May 2010 / Revised: 5 July 2010 / Accepted: 8 July 2010 / Published: 19 July 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the house mouse there are numerous chromosomal races distinguished by different combinations of metacentric chromosomes. These may come into contact with each other and with the ancestral all-acrocentric race, and form hybrid zones. The chromosomal clines that make up these hybrid zones
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In the house mouse there are numerous chromosomal races distinguished by different combinations of metacentric chromosomes. These may come into contact with each other and with the ancestral all-acrocentric race, and form hybrid zones. The chromosomal clines that make up these hybrid zones may be coincident or separated from each other (staggered). Such staggered hybrid zones are interesting because they may include populations of individuals homozygous for a mix of features of the hybridising races. We review the characteristics of four staggered hybrid zones in the house mouse and discuss whether they are examples of primary or secondary contact and whether they represent reticulate evolution or not. However, the most important aspect of staggered hybrid zones is that the homozygous populations within the zones have the potential to expand their distributions and become new races (a process termed ‘zonal raciation’). In this way they can add to the total ‘stock’ of chromosomal races in the species concerned. Speciation is an infrequent phenomenon that may involve an unusual set of circumstances. Each one of the products of zonal raciation has the potential to become a new species and by having more races increases the chance of a speciation event. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reticulate Evolution)
Open AccessReview Review of the Application of Modern Cytogenetic Methods (FISH/GISH) to the Study of Reticulation (Polyploidy/Hybridisation)
Genes 2010, 1(2), 166-192; doi:10.3390/genes1020166
Received: 18 May 2010 / Revised: 30 June 2010 / Accepted: 30 June 2010 / Published: 2 July 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The convergence of distinct lineages upon interspecific hybridisation, including when accompanied by increases in ploidy (allopolyploidy), is a driving force in the origin of many plant species. In plant breeding too, both interspecific hybridisation and allopolyploidy are important because they facilitate introgression of
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The convergence of distinct lineages upon interspecific hybridisation, including when accompanied by increases in ploidy (allopolyploidy), is a driving force in the origin of many plant species. In plant breeding too, both interspecific hybridisation and allopolyploidy are important because they facilitate introgression of alien DNA into breeding lines enabling the introduction of novel characters. Here we review how fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) have been applied to: 1) studies of interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy in nature, 2) analyses of phylogenetic relationships between species, 3) genetic mapping and 4) analysis of plant breeding materials. We also review how FISH is poised to take advantage of nextgeneration sequencing (NGS) technologies, helping the rapid characterisation of the repetitive fractions of a genome in natural populations and agricultural plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reticulate Evolution)
Figures

Open AccessReview An Infectious Topic in Reticulate Evolution: Introgression and Hybridization in Animal Parasites
Genes 2010, 1(1), 102-123; doi:10.3390/genes1010102
Received: 29 April 2010 / Revised: 7 June 2010 / Accepted: 7 June 2010 / Published: 9 June 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little attention has been given to the role that introgression and hybridization have played in the evolution of parasites. Most studies are host-centric and ask if the hybrid of a free-living species is more or less susceptible to parasite infection. Here we focus
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Little attention has been given to the role that introgression and hybridization have played in the evolution of parasites. Most studies are host-centric and ask if the hybrid of a free-living species is more or less susceptible to parasite infection. Here we focus on what is known about how introgression and hybridization have influenced the evolution of protozoan and helminth parasites of animals. There are reports of genome or gene introgression from distantly related taxa into apicomplexans and filarial nematodes. Most common are genetic based reports of potential hybridization among congeneric taxa, but in several cases, more work is needed to definitively conclude current hybridization. In the medically important Trypanosoma it is clear that some clonal lineages are the product of past hybridization events. Similarly, strong evidence exists for current hybridization in human helminths such as Schistosoma and Ascaris. There remain topics that warrant further examination such as the potential hybrid origin of polyploid platyhelminths. Furthermore, little work has investigated the phenotype or fitness, and even less the epidemiological significance of hybrid parasites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reticulate Evolution)
Open AccessReview Asymmetric Introgressive Hybridization Among Louisiana Iris Species
Genes 2010, 1(1), 9-22; doi:10.3390/genes1010009
Received: 2 February 2010 / Revised: 5 March 2010 / Accepted: 11 March 2010 / Published: 15 March 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review, we discuss findings from studies carried out over the past 20+ years that document the occurrence of asymmetric introgressive hybridization in a plant clade. In particular, analyses of natural and experimental hybridization have demonstrated the consistent introgression of genes from
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In this review, we discuss findings from studies carried out over the past 20+ years that document the occurrence of asymmetric introgressive hybridization in a plant clade. In particular, analyses of natural and experimental hybridization have demonstrated the consistent introgression of genes from Iris fulva into both Iris brevicaulis and Iris hexagona. Furthermore, our analyses have detected certain prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to reproduction that appear to contribute to the asymmetric introgression. Finally, our studies have determined that a portion of the genes transferred apparently affects adaptive traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reticulate Evolution)

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