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Special Issue "Nucleic Acids"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Per H.J. Carlsen

Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
E-Mail
Phone: +4792602616
Fax: + 47 73 59 39 85
Interests: organic synthesis; total synthesis; new syntheic methods and reagents; polymer- and surface chemistry; electroactive materials; heterocyclic chemistry; medicinal chemistry; mechanistic organic chemistry; photochemistry

Keywords

  • nucleic acids
  • nucleosides
  • nucleotides
  • polynucleotides

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Triazolyl 13α-Estrone–Nucleoside Bioconjugates
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1212; doi:10.3390/molecules21091212
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
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Abstract
2′-Deoxynucleoside conjugates of 13α-estrone were synthesized by applying the copper-catalyzed alkyne–azide click reaction (CuAAC). For the introduction of the azido group the 5′-position of the nucleosides and a propargyl ether functional group on the 3-hydroxy group of 13α-estrone were chosen. The best yields
[...] Read more.
2′-Deoxynucleoside conjugates of 13α-estrone were synthesized by applying the copper-catalyzed alkyne–azide click reaction (CuAAC). For the introduction of the azido group the 5′-position of the nucleosides and a propargyl ether functional group on the 3-hydroxy group of 13α-estrone were chosen. The best yields were realized in our hands when the 3′-hydroxy groups of the nucleosides were protected by acetyl groups and the 5′-hydroxy groups were modified by the tosyl–azide exchange method. The commonly used conditions for click reaction between the protected-5′-azidonucleosides and the steroid alkyne was slightly modified by using 1.5 equivalent of Cu(I) catalyst. All the prepared conjugates were evaluated in vitro by means of MTT assays for antiproliferative activity against a panel of human adherent cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7 and A2780) and the potential inhibitory activity of the new conjugates on human 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (17β-HSD1) was investigated via in vitro radiosubstrate incubation. Some protected conjugates displayed moderate antiproliferative properties against a panel of human adherent cancer cell lines (the protected cytidine conjugate proved to be the most potent with IC50 value of 9 μM). The thymidine conjugate displayed considerable 17β-HSD1 inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19 μM). Full article
(This article belongs to the collection New Frontiers in Nucleic Acid Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle DNA Three Way Junction Core Decorated with Amino Acids-Like Residues-Synthesis and Characterization
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1082; doi:10.3390/molecules21091082
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
PDF Full-text (1251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Construction and physico-chemical behavior of DNA three way junction (3WJ) functionalized by protein-like residues (imidazole, alcohol and carboxylic acid) at unpaired positions at the core is described. One 5′-C(S)-propargyl-thymidine nucleotide was specifically incorporated on each strand to react through a post
[...] Read more.
Construction and physico-chemical behavior of DNA three way junction (3WJ) functionalized by protein-like residues (imidazole, alcohol and carboxylic acid) at unpaired positions at the core is described. One 5′-C(S)-propargyl-thymidine nucleotide was specifically incorporated on each strand to react through a post synthetic CuACC reaction with either protected imidazolyl-, hydroxyl- or carboxyl-azide. Structural impacts of 5′-C(S)-functionalization were investigated to evaluate how 3WJ flexibility/stability is affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection New Frontiers in Nucleic Acid Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Incorporation of Chain-Terminating Nucleoside Analogs as 3′-Blocking DNA Damage and Their Removal by Human ERCC1-XPF Endonuclease
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 766; doi:10.3390/molecules21060766
Received: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 11 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nucleoside/nucleotide analogs that lack the 3′-hydroxy group are widely utilized for HIV therapy. These chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs) block DNA synthesis after their incorporation into growing DNA, leading to the antiviral effects. However, they are also considered to be DNA damaging agents, and
[...] Read more.
Nucleoside/nucleotide analogs that lack the 3′-hydroxy group are widely utilized for HIV therapy. These chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs) block DNA synthesis after their incorporation into growing DNA, leading to the antiviral effects. However, they are also considered to be DNA damaging agents, and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, a DNA repair enzyme, is reportedly able to remove such CTNA-modifications of DNA. Here, we have synthesized phosphoramidite building blocks of representative CTNAs, such as acyclovir, abacavir, carbovir, and lamivudine, and oligonucleotides with the 3′-CTNAs were successfully synthesized on solid supports. Using the chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, we investigated the excision of the 3′-CTNAs in DNA by the human excision repair cross complementing protein 1-xeroderma pigmentosum group F (ERCC1-XPF) endonuclease, which is one of the main components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. A biochemical analysis demonstrated that the ERCC1-XPF endonuclease cleaved 2–7 nt upstream from the 3′-blocking CTNAs, and that DNA synthesis by the Klenow fragment was resumed after the removal of the CTNAs, suggesting that ERCC1-XPF participates in the repair of the CTNA-induced DNA damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection New Frontiers in Nucleic Acid Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Thermus thermophilus Strains Active in Purine Nucleoside Synthesis
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1279-1287; doi:10.3390/molecules14031279
Received: 26 December 2008 / Revised: 25 February 2009 / Accepted: 11 March 2009 / Published: 24 March 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several strains of Thermus thermophilus were tested in order to detect purine nucleoside synthase activity using pyrimidine nucleosides as the sugar-donor and adenine or hypoxanthine as bases. High productivity values (t =1 hr) were obtained while completely avoiding adenosine-deaminase degradation of the products.
[...] Read more.
Several strains of Thermus thermophilus were tested in order to detect purine nucleoside synthase activity using pyrimidine nucleosides as the sugar-donor and adenine or hypoxanthine as bases. High productivity values (t =1 hr) were obtained while completely avoiding adenosine-deaminase degradation of the products. N-2-deoxy-ribosyltransferase activity is described for the first time in hyperthermophilic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
Open AccessArticle Differential Cytotoxicity of MEX: a Component of Neem Oil Whose Action Is Exerted at the Cell Membrane Level
Molecules 2009, 14(1), 122-132; doi:10.3390/molecules14010122
Received: 4 November 2008 / Revised: 11 December 2008 / Accepted: 18 December 2008 / Published: 31 December 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neem oil is obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its chemical composition is very complex, being rich in terpenoids and limonoids, as well as volatile sulphur modified compounds. This work focused on the evaluation of a component of the
[...] Read more.
Neem oil is obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its chemical composition is very complex, being rich in terpenoids and limonoids, as well as volatile sulphur modified compounds. This work focused on the evaluation of a component of the whole Neem oil obtained by methanolic extraction and defined as MEX. Cytotoxicity was assessed on two different cell populations: a stabilized murine fibroblast line (3T6) and a tumor cell line (HeLa). The data presented here suggest a differential sensitivity of these two populations, the tumor line exhibiting a significantly higher sensitivity to MEX. The data strongly suggest that its toxic target is the cell membrane. In addition the results presented here imply that MEX may contain one or more agents that could find a potential use in anti-proliferative therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
Open AccessArticle The Inhibitory Action of Kohamaic Acid A Derivatives on Mammalian DNA Polymerase β
Molecules 2009, 14(1), 102-121; doi:10.3390/molecules14010102
Received: 18 November 2008 / Revised: 22 December 2008 / Accepted: 29 December 2008 / Published: 29 December 2008
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We previously isolated a novel natural product, designated kohamaic acid A (KA-A, compound 1), as an inhibitor of the first cleavage of fertilized sea urchin eggs, and found that this compound could selectively inhibit the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases (pols). In this
[...] Read more.
We previously isolated a novel natural product, designated kohamaic acid A (KA-A, compound 1), as an inhibitor of the first cleavage of fertilized sea urchin eggs, and found that this compound could selectively inhibit the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases (pols). In this paper, we investigated the structure and bioactivity of KA-A and its chemically synthesized 11 derivatives (i.e., compounds 2–12), including KA-A - fatty acid conjugates. The pol inhibitory activity of compound 11 [(1S*,4aS*,8aS*)-17-(1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-naphthalen-1-yl)heptadecanoic acid] was the strongest among the synthesized compounds, and the range of IC50 values for mammalian pols was 3.22 to 8.76 µM; therefore, the length of the fatty acid side chain group of KA-A is important for pol inhibition. KA-A derivatives could prevent human cancer cell (promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60) growth with the same tendency as the inhibition of mammalian pols. Since pol β is the smallest molecule, we used it to analyze the biochemical relationship with KA-A derivatives. From computer modeling analysis (i.e., docking simulation analysis), these compounds bound selectively to four amino acid residues (Leu11, Lys35, His51 and Thr79) of the N-terminal 8-kDa domain of pol β, and the binding energy between compound 11 and pol β was largest in the synthesized compounds. The relationship between the three-dimensional molecular structures of KA-A-related compounds and these inhibitory activities is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
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Open AccessArticle A New Method for the Determination of Nucleic Acid Using an Eu3+– nicotinic Acid Complex as a Resonance Light Scattering Probe
Molecules 2009, 14(1), 10-18; doi:10.3390/molecules14010010
Received: 24 November 2008 / Revised: 13 December 2008 / Accepted: 16 December 2008 / Published: 23 December 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study found that in Tris-HCl buffer, the resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity of the Eu3+-nicotinic acid system can be greatly enhanced by nucleic acids and the enhanced intensity is proportional to the concentration of nucleic acid in the range of
[...] Read more.
This study found that in Tris-HCl buffer, the resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity of the Eu3+-nicotinic acid system can be greatly enhanced by nucleic acids and the enhanced intensity is proportional to the concentration of nucleic acid in the range of 7×10-8-1×10-5 g∙mL-1 for fsDNA, and its detection limit is 2×10-8 g∙mL-1. Based on this, a new method for the determination of nucleic acids is proposed. Synthetic and actual samples are determined satisfactorily. The interaction mechanism is also studied. It is thought that nucleic acid can bind with the Eu3+-nicotinic acid complex through electrostatic attraction and thus form a large Eu3+-nicotinic acid-nucleic acid complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
Open AccessArticle Binding of Cationic Bis-porphyrins Linked with p- or m-Xylylenediamine and Their Zinc(II) Complexes to Duplex DNA
Molecules 2008, 13(12), 3117-3128; doi:10.3390/molecules13123117
Received: 14 November 2008 / Revised: 8 December 2008 / Accepted: 12 December 2008 / Published: 15 December 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spectroscopic, viscometric, and molecular docking analysis of binding of cationic bis-porphyrins linked with p- or m-xylylenediamine (H2pXy and H2mXy) and their zinc(II) complexes (ZnpXy and ZnmXy) to duplex DNA are described. H2pXy and H2mXy
[...] Read more.
Spectroscopic, viscometric, and molecular docking analysis of binding of cationic bis-porphyrins linked with p- or m-xylylenediamine (H2pXy and H2mXy) and their zinc(II) complexes (ZnpXy and ZnmXy) to duplex DNA are described. H2pXy and H2mXy bound to calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) stronger than unichromophoric H2TMPyP, and showed exciton-type induced circular dichroism spectra of their Soret bands. The H2TMPyP-like units of the metal-free bis-porphyrins did not intercalate into CTDNA, and thus the binding mode is outside binding with intramolecular stacking. ZnpXy showed favorable binding to A·T over G·C region, and should lie in the major groove of A·T region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Novel Homo-N-Nucleoside Analogs Composed of a Homo-1,4-Dioxane Sugar Analog and Substituted 1,3,5-Triazine Base Equivalents
Molecules 2008, 13(12), 3092-3106; doi:10.3390/molecules13123092
Received: 7 November 2008 / Revised: 21 November 2008 / Accepted: 3 December 2008 / Published: 10 December 2008
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Abstract
Enantioselective syntheses from dimethyl tartrate of 1,3,5-triazine homo-N-nucleoside analogs, containing a 1,4-dioxane moiety replacing the sugar unit in natural nucleosides, were accomplished. The triazine heterocycle in the nucleoside analogs was further substituted with combinations of NH2, OH and Cl
[...] Read more.
Enantioselective syntheses from dimethyl tartrate of 1,3,5-triazine homo-N-nucleoside analogs, containing a 1,4-dioxane moiety replacing the sugar unit in natural nucleosides, were accomplished. The triazine heterocycle in the nucleoside analogs was further substituted with combinations of NH2, OH and Cl in the 2,4-triazine positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
Open AccessArticle Enantioselective Synthesis of Homo-N-Nucleosides Containing a 1,4-Dioxane Sugar Analog
Molecules 2008, 13(12), 2962-2974; doi:10.3390/molecules13122962
Received: 3 September 2008 / Revised: 30 October 2008 / Accepted: 7 November 2008 / Published: 3 December 2008
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract A dioxane homo-sugar analog, (2S,5S)-and (2R,5S)-5-[(4S)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]-2-iodomethyl-1,4-dioxane was prepared from (2R,3R)-dimethyl tartrate, and further elaborated into the corresponding homo-N-nucleoside analogs by its reactions with uracil and adenine, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Dehydroaltenusin-C12 Derivative, a Selective DNA Polymerase α Inhibitor, on DNA Replication in Cultured Cells
Molecules 2008, 13(12), 2948-2961; doi:10.3390/molecules13122948
Received: 9 October 2008 / Revised: 19 November 2008 / Accepted: 29 November 2008 / Published: 1 December 2008
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dehydroaltenusin is a selective inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase α (pol α) from a fungus (Alternaria tennuis). We have designed, synthesized, and characterized a derivative of dehydroaltenusin conjugated with a C12-alkyl side chain (dehydroaltenusin-C12 [C12]). C12 was the strongest pol α
[...] Read more.
Dehydroaltenusin is a selective inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase α (pol α) from a fungus (Alternaria tennuis). We have designed, synthesized, and characterized a derivative of dehydroaltenusin conjugated with a C12-alkyl side chain (dehydroaltenusin-C12 [C12]). C12 was the strongest pol α inhibitor in vitro. We introduced C12 into NIH3T3 cells with the help of a hypotonic shift, that is, a transient exposure of cultured cells in hypotonic buffer with small molecules which can not penetrate cells. The cells that took in C12 by hypotonic shift showed cell growth inhibition. At a low concentration (5 μM), DNA replication was inhibited and several large replication protein A (RPA) foci, which is different from dUTP foci. Furthermore, when C12 was incubated with aphidicolin, RPA foci were not observed in cells. Finally, these findings suggest that C12 inhibited DNA replication through pol α inhibition, and generated single-stranded DNA, resulted in uncoupling of the leading strand and lagging strand synthesis. These findings suggest that C12 could be more interesting as a molecule probe or anticancer agent than aphidicolin. C12 might provide novel markers for the development of antiproliferative drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
Open AccessArticle Overexpression of the Pdx-1 Homeodomain Transcription Factor Impairs Glucose Metabolism in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes
Molecules 2008, 13(10), 2659-2673; doi:10.3390/molecules13102659
Received: 30 September 2008 / Revised: 20 October 2008 / Accepted: 24 October 2008 / Published: 28 October 2008
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Abstract
The Pdx-1 transcription factor plays crucial functions both during pancreas development and in the adult β cells. Previous studies have indicated that ectopic Pdx-1 expression in liver or intestinal primary and immortalized cells is sufficient to promote activation of insulin gene expression. This
[...] Read more.
The Pdx-1 transcription factor plays crucial functions both during pancreas development and in the adult β cells. Previous studies have indicated that ectopic Pdx-1 expression in liver or intestinal primary and immortalized cells is sufficient to promote activation of insulin gene expression. This work is focused on the molecular and physiological consequences of Pdx-1 overexpression in liver cells. We present evidence that Pdx-1 affects the level of expression of one of the four mammalian hexokinase isozymes. These are glucose phosphorylating enzymes involved in essential cellular functions such as glucose sensing, metabolic energy production and apoptosis. Specifically, our data show that over-expression of Pdx-1 in cultured hepatocytes is able to repress the expression of hexokinase 2 (Hxk 2) and the phenomenon is mediated via binding of Pdx-1 to a specific sequence on the Hxk 2 gene promoter. As a consequence, liver cells over-expressing Pdx-1 present interesting alterations concerning glucose metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Recent Developments in the Chemistry of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Intercalators: Principles, Design, Synthesis, Applications and Trends
Molecules 2009, 14(5), 1725-1746; doi:10.3390/molecules14051725
Received: 15 February 2009 / Revised: 20 April 2009 / Accepted: 5 May 2009 / Published: 7 May 2009
Cited by 77 | PDF Full-text (236 KB)
Abstract
In the present overview, we describe the bases of intercalation of small molecules (cationic and polar neutral compounds) in DNA. We briefly describe the importance of DNA structure and principles of intercalation. Selected syntheses, possibilities and applications are shown to exemplify the importance,
[...] Read more.
In the present overview, we describe the bases of intercalation of small molecules (cationic and polar neutral compounds) in DNA. We briefly describe the importance of DNA structure and principles of intercalation. Selected syntheses, possibilities and applications are shown to exemplify the importance, drawbacks and challenges in this pertinent, new, and exciting research area. Additionally, some clinical applications (molecular processes, cancer therapy and others) and trends are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
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Open AccessReview The Shorter the Better: Reducing Fixed Primer Regions of Oligonucleotide Libraries for Aptamer Selection
Molecules 2009, 14(4), 1353-1369; doi:10.3390/molecules14041353
Received: 20 February 2009 / Revised: 18 March 2009 / Accepted: 25 March 2009 / Published: 27 March 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oligonucleotide aptamers are highly structured DNA or RNA molecules, or modified versions thereof, that can bind to targets with specific affinities comparable to antibodies. They are identified through an in vitro selection process termed SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) to
[...] Read more.
Oligonucleotide aptamers are highly structured DNA or RNA molecules, or modified versions thereof, that can bind to targets with specific affinities comparable to antibodies. They are identified through an in vitro selection process termed SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) to recognize a wide variety of targets, from small molecules to proteins, and from cultured cells to whole organisms. Aptamers possess a number of desirable properties, such as ease of synthesis, stability, robustness, and lack of immunogenicity. Standard SELEX libraries require two primers, one on each side of a central random domain, to amplify the target-bound sequences via PCR or RT-PCR. However, these primer sequences cause non-specific binding by their nature, and have been reported to lead to large numbers of false-positive binding sequences, or to interfere with binding of sequences within the random regions. This review is focused on methods which have been developed to eliminate fixed primer interference during the SELEX process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
Open AccessReview Gene Knockdowns in Adult Animals: PPMOs and Vivo-Morpholinos
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1304-1323; doi:10.3390/molecules14031304
Received: 2 March 2009 / Revised: 23 March 2009 / Accepted: 24 March 2009 / Published: 25 March 2009
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (97 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antisense molecules do not readily cross cell membranes. This has limited the use of antisense to systems where techniques have been worked out to introduce the molecules into cells, such as embryos and cell cultures. Uncharged antisense bearing a group of guanidinium moieties
[...] Read more.
Antisense molecules do not readily cross cell membranes. This has limited the use of antisense to systems where techniques have been worked out to introduce the molecules into cells, such as embryos and cell cultures. Uncharged antisense bearing a group of guanidinium moieties on either a linear peptide or dendrimer scaffold can enter cells by endocytosis and subsequently escape from endosomes into the cytosol/nuclear compartment of cells. These technologies allow systemic administration of antisense, making gene knockdowns and splice modification feasible in adult animals; this review presents examples of such animal studies. Techniques developed with PPMOs, which are an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide linked to a Morpholino oligo, can also be performed using commercially available Vivo-Morpholinos, which are eight guanidinium groups on a dendrimeric scaffold linked to a Morpholino oligo. Antisense-based techniques such as blocking translation, modifying pre-mRNA splicing, inhibiting miRNA maturation and inhibiting viral replication can be conveniently applied in adult animals by injecting PPMOs or Vivo-Morpholinos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
Open AccessReview Current Status of Older and New Purine Nucleoside Analogues in the Treatment of Lymphoproliferative Diseases
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1183-1226; doi:10.3390/molecules14031183
Received: 6 January 2009 / Revised: 27 February 2009 / Accepted: 10 March 2009 / Published: 23 March 2009
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the past few years more and more new cytotoxic agents active in the treatment of hematological malignancies have been synthesized and become available for either in vitro studies or clinical trials. Among them the class of antineoplastic drugs belonging to the purine
[...] Read more.
For the past few years more and more new cytotoxic agents active in the treatment of hematological malignancies have been synthesized and become available for either in vitro studies or clinical trials. Among them the class of antineoplastic drugs belonging to the purine nucleoside analogues group (PNAs) plays an important role. Three of them: pentostatin (DCF), cladribine (2-CdA) and fludarabine (FA) were approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hematological malignancies. Recently three novel PNAs: clofarabine (CAFdA), nelarabine (ara-G) and forodesine (immucillin H, BCX-1777) have been synthesized and introduced into preclinical studies and clinical trials. These agents seem to be useful mainly for the treatment of human T-cell proliferative disorders and they are currently undergoing clinical trials in lymphoid malignancies. However, there are also several studies suggesting the role of these drugs in B-cell malignancies. This review will summarize current knowledge concerning the mechanism of action, pharmacologic properties, clinical activity and toxicity of PNAs accepted for use in clinical practice, as well as new agents available for clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)

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