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Special Issue "Gut Microbiota and Gut Function"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ross Butler

University of South Australia, Division of Health Sciences, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide SA 5001 Australia
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +61 8 830 21087

Keywords

  • Gut microbiota
  • Gut function
  • volatile patterns from gut microbiota
  • methanogens and their role
  • co-ordination of gut function such as motility and relationship with the microbiome
  • dietary modifiers of the microbiome
  • stressed gut mucosa and the role of the microbiome
  • the microbiome and chemotherapy-induced mucositis
  • the microbiome and obesity
  • the microbiome and age

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Xylo-Oligosaccharides and Inulin Affect Genotoxicity and Bacterial Populations Differently in a Human Colonic Simulator Challenged with Soy Protein
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3740-3756; doi:10.3390/nu5093740
Received: 12 June 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 1 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High dietary intakes of some protein sources, including soy protein, can increase colonic DNA damage in animals, whereas some carbohydrates attenuate this. We investigated whether inulin and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) could be protective against DNA strand breaks by adding them to a human colonic
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High dietary intakes of some protein sources, including soy protein, can increase colonic DNA damage in animals, whereas some carbohydrates attenuate this. We investigated whether inulin and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) could be protective against DNA strand breaks by adding them to a human colonic simulator consisting of a proximal vessel (PV) (pH 5.5) and a distal vessel (DV) (pH 6.8) inoculated with human faeces and media containing soy protein. Genotoxicity of the liquid phase and microbial population changes in the vessels were measured. Soy protein (3%) was fermented with 1% low amylose cornstarch for 10 day followed by soy protein with 1% XOS or 1% inulin for 10 day. Inulin did not alter genotoxicity but XOS significantly reduced PV genotoxicity and increased DV genotoxicity. Inulin and XOS significantly increased butyrate concentration in the DV but not PV. Numbers of the key butyrate-producing bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly increased in the PV and DV by inulin but significantly decreased by XOS in both vessels. Other bacteria examined were also significantly impacted by the carbohydrate treatments or by the vessel (i.e., pH). There was a significant overall inverse correlation between levels of damage induced by the ferments and levels of sulphate-reducing bacteria, Bacteroides fragilis, and acetate. In conclusion, dietary XOS can potentially modulate the genotoxicity of the colonic environment and specific bacterial groups and short chain fatty acids may mediate this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Three-Month Intake of Synbiotic on Inflammation and Body Composition in the Elderly: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2013, 5(4), 1276-1286; doi:10.3390/nu5041276
Received: 15 January 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 March 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We hypothesize that improvements in the gut microbiota are capable of ameliorating gut permeability and, consequently, reducing systemic inflammation and the risk of frailty. This study aims to evaluate some effects of synbiotic supplementation on inflammatory markers and the body composition of the
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We hypothesize that improvements in the gut microbiota are capable of ameliorating gut permeability and, consequently, reducing systemic inflammation and the risk of frailty. This study aims to evaluate some effects of synbiotic supplementation on inflammatory markers and the body composition of the elderly at risk of frailty. In a double-blind study that lasted three months, 17 elderly individuals fulfilling one frailty criteria (grip strength) were randomly distributed into two groups: SYN (n = 9), daily intake of synbiotic (6 g Frutooligossacarides, 108 to 109 CFU Lactobacillus paracasei, 108 to 109 CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 108 to 109 CFU Lactobacillus acidophilus and 108 to 109 CFU Bifidobacterium lactis), or placebo (maltodextrin; PLA; n = 8). Subjects were analyzed for anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance with vectorial analysis (BIVA), IL-6 and TNF-α. A comparison between groups did not show any difference for the variables investigated. In turn, individual analysis of electrical impedance (BIVA) demonstrated that the majority of SYN individuals maintained or improved their tissue hydration, when compared to the PLA group after supplementation. In conclusion, three months of synbiotic supplementation did not promote any significant changes in inflammatory cytokines or body composition, but demonstrated a trend towards a preservation of hydration status in apparently healthy elderly individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)

Review

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Open AccessReview Interaction between Host Cells and Microbes in Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1488-1499; doi:10.3390/nu5051488
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 5 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often develop mucositis as a direct result of their treatment. Recently, the intestinal microbiota has attracted significant attention in the investigation of the pathobiology of mucositis, with a number of studies investigating the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on
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Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often develop mucositis as a direct result of their treatment. Recently, the intestinal microbiota has attracted significant attention in the investigation of the pathobiology of mucositis, with a number of studies investigating the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the microbiota. With significant effects on the intestinal microbiota occurring following the administration of chemotherapy, there is now interest surrounding the downstream pathological effects that may be associated with the altered intestinal ecology. This review seeks to identify links between signalling pathways previously demonstrated to have a role in the development of mucositis, and the altered intestinal microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Figures

Open AccessReview The Role of Gut Microbiota on Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 829-851; doi:10.3390/nu5030829
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 January 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of obesity and insulin resistance has been extensively studied in the last decades, but the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still not completely understood. The gut microbiota has been identified as a potential contributor to metabolic diseases. It has been shown
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The development of obesity and insulin resistance has been extensively studied in the last decades, but the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still not completely understood. The gut microbiota has been identified as a potential contributor to metabolic diseases. It has been shown that obese individuals present different proportions of bacterial phyla compared with lean individuals, with an increase in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and a decrease in Bacteroidetes. This alteration seems to interfere with intestinal permeability, increasing the absorption of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which reaches circulation and initiates activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and 2 and LPS receptor CD14, leading to increased activation of inflammatory pathways. With these activations, an impairment of the insulin signaling is observed, with decreased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and Akt, as well as increased inhibitory serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Altered proportions of bacterial phyla have also been demonstrated to interfere with host’s biochemical pathways, increasing energy extraction and depot in adipose tissue. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which the alteration in the gut microbiota produces different signaling activations and phenotype changes may offer an interesting opportunity for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Figures

Open AccessReview Role of Probiotics in Short Bowel Syndrome in Infants and Children—A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 679-699; doi:10.3390/nu5030679
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 11 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in children. Probiotics, due to their beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., improving gut barrier function, motility, facilitation of intestinal adaptation and decreasing pathogen load and inflammation) may have a
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Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in children. Probiotics, due to their beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., improving gut barrier function, motility, facilitation of intestinal adaptation and decreasing pathogen load and inflammation) may have a therapeutic role in the management of SBS. To conduct a systematic review of the current evidence for the effects of probiotic supplementation in children with SBS, the standard Cochrane methodology for systematic reviews was used. The databases, Pubmed, Embase, ACTR, CENTRAL, and the international trial registry, and reference lists of articles were searched for randomised (RCT) or quasi-randomised controlled trials reporting on the use of probiotics in SBS. Our search revealed no RCTs on the use of probiotics in children with SBS. We found one small cross-over RCT (placebo controlled crossover clinical trial), one case control study and nine case reports on the use of probiotics in children with SBS. In the crossover RCT, there was no consistent effect on intestinal permeability (primary outcome) after supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) in nine children with SBS. The case control study (four cases: four controls) reported a trend for increase in height and weight velocity and improvement in non-clinical outcomes, such as gut flora, lymphocyte count and serum prealbumin. Five of the nine case reports showed that children (n = 12) with SBS were benefited (e.g., cessation of diarrhoea, improved faecal flora, weight gain and weaning from parenteral nutrition) by probiotic supplementation. The remaining four reported on the adverse effects, such as Lactobacillus sepsis (n = 3) and d-lactic acidosis (n = 2). There is insufficient evidence on the effects of probiotics in children with SBS. The safety and efficacy of probiotic supplementation in this high-risk cohort needs to be evaluated in large definitive trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Open AccessReview Gut Microbiota as Potential Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Cow’s Milk Allergy
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 651-662; doi:10.3390/nu5030651
Received: 20 December 2012 / Revised: 14 February 2013 / Accepted: 20 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) continues to be a growing health concern for infants living in Western countries. The long-term prognosis for the majority of affected infants is good, with about 80% naturally acquiring tolerance by the age of four years. However, recent studies
[...] Read more.
Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) continues to be a growing health concern for infants living in Western countries. The long-term prognosis for the majority of affected infants is good, with about 80% naturally acquiring tolerance by the age of four years. However, recent studies suggest that the natural history of CMA is changing, with an increasing persistence until later ages. The pathogenesis of CMA, as well as oral tolerance, is complex and not completely known, although numerous studies implicate gut-associated immunity and enteric microflora, and it has been suggested that an altered composition of intestinal microflora results in an unbalanced local and systemic immune response to food allergens. In addition, there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of gut microbiota between patients affected by CMA and healthy infants. These findings prompt the concept that specific beneficial bacteria from the human intestinal microflora, designated probiotics, could restore intestinal homeostasis and prevent or alleviate allergy, at least in part by interacting with the intestinal immune cells. The aim of this paper is to review what is currently known about the use of probiotics as dietary supplements in CMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Open AccessReview Diet-Microbiota Interactions and Their Implications for Healthy Living
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 234-252; doi:10.3390/nu5010234
Received: 7 December 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is well established that diet influences the health of an individual and that a diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. What has been unclear until recently is the large contribution
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It is well established that diet influences the health of an individual and that a diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. What has been unclear until recently is the large contribution of the gut microbiota to this effect. As well as providing basic nutritional requirements, the long-term diet of an animal modifies its gut microbiota. In adults, diets that have a high proportion of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of meat are associated with a highly diverse microbiota and are defined by a greater abundance of Prevotella compared to Bacteroides, while the reverse is associated with a diet that contains a low proportion of plant-based foods. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly clear that the effect of the microbial ecology of the gut goes beyond the local gut immune system and is implicated in immune-related disorders, such as IBS, diabetes and inflamm-ageing. In this review, we investigate the evidence that a balanced diet leads to a balanced, diverse microbiota with significant consequences for healthy ageing by focusing on conditions of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Open AccessReview Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 58-81; doi:10.3390/nu5010058
Received: 24 October 2012 / Revised: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis and the alimentary cancers share similar pathogenetic features, further investigation is required into new treatment modalities. An imbalance in the gut microbiota, breached gut integrity, bacterial invasion, increased cell apoptosis to proliferation ratio, inflammation
[...] Read more.
Although gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis and the alimentary cancers share similar pathogenetic features, further investigation is required into new treatment modalities. An imbalance in the gut microbiota, breached gut integrity, bacterial invasion, increased cell apoptosis to proliferation ratio, inflammation and impaired immunity may all contribute to their pathogenesis. Probiotics are defined as live bacteria, which when administered in sufficient amounts, exert beneficial effects to the gastrointestinal tract. More recently, probiotic-derived factors including proteins and other molecules released from living probiotics, have also been shown to exert beneficial properties. In this review we address the potential for probiotics, with an emphasis on probiotic-derived factors, to reduce the severity of digestive diseases and further discuss the known mechanisms by which probiotics and probiotic-derived factors exert their physiological effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Open AccessReview Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 1095-1119; doi:10.3390/nu4081095
Received: 30 June 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 106 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal
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The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal and dietary antigens while remaining responsive to pathogenic stimuli. If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/or autoimmunity. Evidence suggests that the composition of the intestinal microbiota can influence susceptibility to chronic disease of the intestinal tract including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, a considerable shift in diet has coincided with increased incidence of many of these inflammatory diseases. It was originally believed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was relatively stable from early childhood; however, recent evidence suggests that diet can cause dysbiosis, an alteration in the composition of the microbiota, which could lead to aberrant immune responses. The role of the microbiota and the potential for diet-induced dysbiosis in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract and systemic diseases will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)

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