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Special Issue "Bioconjugates/Biohybrid Polymers"

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A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Helmut Schlaad (Website)

University of Potsdam, Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
Interests: living/controlled polymerization; bio-based monomers and polymers; polymer modification, "thio-click" chemistry; polymer colloids and films; composite materials; bioinspired structure formation; hierarchical structures; polymer complexes; stimuli-responsive

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioorganic-synthetic polymer conjugates, also referred to as biohybrids, are built up from biomolecules (e.g., peptide sequence, protein, sugar, polysaccharide, DNA/RNA, terpene) and synthetic polymers, aiming to combine the advantageous properties of the two components, namely biological function, molecular recognition, chirality, etc. (biological component) and solution properties, processability, etc. (synthetic component). Although the first bioconjugate polymers have already been reported more than 40 years ago, it still remains a challenge to produce well-defined samples on larger scale. This goal has recently been approached with the developments of “living”/controlled polymerization techniques and improved coupling techniques, i.e., PEGylation and “click” chemistry.

This special issue is intended to highlight recent advances in the controlled synthesis and characterization of bioconjugate polymers as well as their use in the biomedical field (drug delivery/targeting, diagnostics, etc.), supramolecular and colloid science, materials science, and so on.

Dr. Helmut Schlaad
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • bioconjugate/biohybrid
  • polymers
  • peptide/protein
  • sugar/saccharide
  • DNA/RNA
  • terpene
  • synthesis and characterization
  • structure formation
  • applications

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Controlled Release of Damascone from Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)-based Bioconjugates in Functional Perfumery
Polymers 2013, 5(1), 234-253; doi:10.3390/polym5010234
Received: 23 January 2013 / Revised: 18 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 February 2013 / Published: 22 February 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)s were modified with poly(propylene oxide (PO)-co-ethylene oxide (EO)) side chains (Jeffamine®) with different EO/PO molar ratios, varying between 0.11 and 3.60. These copolymers were then further functionalized with a β-mercapto ketone of δ [...] Read more.
Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)s were modified with poly(propylene oxide (PO)-co-ethylene oxide (EO)) side chains (Jeffamine®) with different EO/PO molar ratios, varying between 0.11 and 3.60. These copolymers were then further functionalized with a β-mercapto ketone of δ-damascone. The obtained poly(maleic acid monoamide)-based β-mercapto ketones were then studied as delivery systems for the controlled release of δ-damascone by retro 1,4-addition. The release of δ-damascone, a volatile, bioactive molecule of the family of rose ketones, was studied by dynamic headspace analysis above a cotton surface after deposition of a cationic surfactant containing fabric softening formulation, as a function of the ethylene oxide (EO)/propylene oxide (PO) molar ratio of the grafted copolymer side chains. The polarity of the EO/PO side chain influenced the release efficiency of the damascone in a typical fabric softening application. PO-rich copolymers and the corresponding poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) without Jeffamine® side chains were found to be less efficient for the desired fragrance release than the corresponding bioconjugate with a EO/PO ratio of 3.60 in the side chain. This copolymer conjugate seemed to represent a suitable balance between hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity to favor the release of the δ-damascone and to improve the deposition of the conjugate from an aqueous environment onto a cotton surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconjugates/Biohybrid Polymers)

Review

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Open AccessReview Synthesis of Glycopolymer Architectures by Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization
Polymers 2013, 5(2), 431-526; doi:10.3390/polym5020431
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 1 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (2913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review summarizes the state of the art in the synthesis of well-defined glycopolymers by Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization (RDRP) from its inception in 1998 until August 2012. Glycopolymers architectures have been successfully synthesized with four major RDRP techniques: Nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMP), [...] Read more.
This review summarizes the state of the art in the synthesis of well-defined glycopolymers by Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization (RDRP) from its inception in 1998 until August 2012. Glycopolymers architectures have been successfully synthesized with four major RDRP techniques: Nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMP), cyanoxyl-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Over 140 publications were analyzed and their results summarized according to the technique used and the type of monomer(s) and carbohydrates involved. Particular emphasis was placed on the experimental conditions used, the structure obtained (comonomer distribution, topology), the degree of control achieved and the (potential) applications sought. A list of representative examples for each polymerization process can be found in tables placed at the beginning of each section covering a particular RDRP technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconjugates/Biohybrid Polymers)
Figures

Open AccessReview Application of Chondroitin Sulfate Derivatives for Understanding Axonal Guidance in the Nervous System during Development
Polymers 2013, 5(1), 254-268; doi:10.3390/polym5010254
Received: 12 January 2013 / Revised: 28 January 2013 / Accepted: 17 February 2013 / Published: 25 February 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuronal axons and their growth cones recognize molecular guidance cues within the local environment, forming axonal pathways to produce precise neuronal networks during nervous system development. Chondroitin sulfates (CS), carbohydrate chains on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, exhibit great structural diversity and exert various [...] Read more.
Neuronal axons and their growth cones recognize molecular guidance cues within the local environment, forming axonal pathways to produce precise neuronal networks during nervous system development. Chondroitin sulfates (CS), carbohydrate chains on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, exhibit great structural diversity and exert various influences on axons and growth cones as guidance cues or their modulators; however, the relationship between their structural diversity and function in axonal guidance is not well known. To uncover the roles of CS in axonal guidance, artificially modified hybrid molecules: CS derivatives of biotinylated CS and lipid-derivatized CS, were used. The experiments with biotinylated CS suggest that the growing axons act on their environment, modifying CS, and rendering it more favorable for their growth. The experiments with lipid-derivatized CS demonstrated that growth cones distinguish types of CS with different unit contents and are likely to discriminate the structural diversity of CS. The application of CS derivatives is useful in uncovering axon–environment interaction and structure–function relationship of CS directly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconjugates/Biohybrid Polymers)
Figures

Open AccessReview Hybrid Block Copolymers Constituted by Peptides and Synthetic Polymers: An Overview of Synthetic Approaches, Supramolecular Behavior and Potential Applications
Polymers 2013, 5(1), 188-224; doi:10.3390/polym5010188
Received: 7 January 2013 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 1 February 2013 / Published: 11 February 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hybrid block copolymers based on peptides and synthetic polymers, displaying different types of topologies, offer new possibilities to integrate the properties and functions of biomacromolecules and synthetic polymers in a single hybrid material. This review provides a current status report of the [...] Read more.
Hybrid block copolymers based on peptides and synthetic polymers, displaying different types of topologies, offer new possibilities to integrate the properties and functions of biomacromolecules and synthetic polymers in a single hybrid material. This review provides a current status report of the field concerning peptide-synthetic polymer hybrids. The first section is focused on the different synthetic approaches that have been used within the last three years for the preparation of peptide-polymer hybrids having different topologies. In the last two sections, the attractive properties, displayed in solution or in the solid state, together with the potential applications of this type of macromolecules or supramolecular systems are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconjugates/Biohybrid Polymers)
Open AccessReview Polyphosphazenes: Multifunctional, Biodegradable Vehicles for Drug and Gene Delivery
Polymers 2013, 5(1), 161-187; doi:10.3390/polym5010161
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 8 February 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly[(organo)phosphazenes] are a unique class of extremely versatile polymers with a range of applications including tissue engineering and drug delivery, as hydrogels, shape memory polymers and as stimuli responsive materials. This review aims to divulge the basic principles of designing polyphosphazenes for [...] Read more.
Poly[(organo)phosphazenes] are a unique class of extremely versatile polymers with a range of applications including tissue engineering and drug delivery, as hydrogels, shape memory polymers and as stimuli responsive materials. This review aims to divulge the basic principles of designing polyphosphazenes for drug and gene delivery and portray the huge potential of these extremely versatile materials for such applications. Polyphosphazenes offer a number of distinct advantages as carriers for bioconjugates; alongside their completely degradable backbone, to non-toxic degradation products, they possess an inherently and uniquely high functionality and, thanks to recent advances in their polymer chemistry, can be prepared with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities, as well as self-assembled supra-molecular structures. Importantly, the rate of degradation/hydrolysis of the polymers can be carefully tuned to suit the desired application. In this review we detail the recent developments in the chemistry of polyphosphazenes, relevant to drug and gene delivery and describe recent investigations into their application in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconjugates/Biohybrid Polymers)

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