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Special Issue "Land Use and Sustainability"

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A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Brian Deal

University of Illinois, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, 111 Temple Buell Hall, 611 Taft Dr., Champaign, IL 61820, USA
Phone: +1 217 333 1911
Fax: +1 217 244 1717
Interests: land use; urban planning; spatial modeling; dynamic modeling; green infrastructure; energy systems; energy conservation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Imagine the future of 21st century urban society: megacities are straining global resources; mega-regions, with regional governments are challenging established political identities; common values towards development and stewardship proliferate worldwide; an ubiquitous internet infrastructure penetrates all walks of life; and the inescapable realities of climate change are an omnipresent part of everyday existence.

Developing more sustainable communities with the resilience to adapt to this potential future requires, in part, land use planning practices that create and maintain efficient infrastructure, ensure close-knit neighborhoods, preserve natural systems, and encourage a sense of community. It also requires the engagement of decision makers at multiple levels and the prescription of innovative solutions.
Land use regulations, transportation infrastructure investments, storm and waste water management, and building standards are some of the traditional tools used to shape the development of human habitats. Adapting these tools, and developing a new palette to work from is critical if we are to effectively address the great challenges to sustaining the built environment that lie ahead.

This issue looks at land use sustainability from an evolutionary perspective. What are the approaches, methods and tools needed to shape the development of human habitats and ensure their sustainability into an uncertain future?

Brian Deal, Ph. D.
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • land use sustainability
  • climate change
  • local impacts
  • models
  • green infrastructure
  • land use regulation
  • sustainable transportation
  • smart growth

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Change of Land Use Patterns in the Areas Close to the Airport Development Area and Some Implicating Factors
Sustainability 2011, 3(9), 1517-1530; doi:10.3390/su3091517
Received: 15 April 2011 / Revised: 25 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 September 2011 / Published: 20 September 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the description of land use change in the suburbs near Suvarnabhumi International Airport, with a focus on land use patterns before and during airport development. According to geographic information system (GIS), land use patterns are categorized into three main groups, namely intensive urban development land, areas developed under environmental conditions, and natural land. Steps of land use changes, land use planning and related factors concerning number of population, dwelling units and factories were analyzed. In the short term, urban development dramatically increases by 39.97% whereas the areas developed under environmental conditions decreased by 37.52%, with significant correlation (P < 0.05). The natural land which is typically grassland and watercourses changed insignificantly (P > 0.05). Urbanization of the areas where the airport is located increased between 10.07% and 15.57%. The changes of land use comply with the Integrated Town and Country Planning. The areas where urbanization is small are under the area designated as the green area. Urban expansion is mainly a result of increase in residential areas which is closely related to number of population. Such changes indicate a need for more effective urban development planning and management to conserve environmental quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Destitution through “Development”: A Case Study of the Laka Laka Project in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Sustainability 2010, 2(10), 3239-3257; doi:10.3390/su2103239
Received: 11 August 2010 / Revised: 28 September 2010 / Accepted: 5 October 2010 / Published: 15 October 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined environmental and socioeconomic outcomes of a water project in rural Bolivia, and sought insights on how and why its planning was so flawed. The project destroyed an ancient, sustainable irrigation system, and replaced it with one that provides insufficient [...] Read more.
This study examined environmental and socioeconomic outcomes of a water project in rural Bolivia, and sought insights on how and why its planning was so flawed. The project destroyed an ancient, sustainable irrigation system, and replaced it with one that provides insufficient and diminishing quantities of water to many fewer people, appears to be causing land degradation and groundwater depletion, and has fueled conflicts. The study shows that even relatively small, NGO-led projects can generate significant negative impacts, and raises questions about the pressures on development agencies to charge ahead with projects, despite obvious potential for such impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2734-2745; doi:10.3390/su2092734
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 9 August 2010 / Accepted: 25 August 2010 / Published: 31 August 2010
PDF Full-text (139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical [...] Read more.
There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and enemy tribes, led to the establishment of the fire dependent and fire tolerant longleaf pine across the southern landscape. In the last 3 centuries however, the range of longleaf ecosystem has been gradually replaced first by agriculture and then by loblolly pine farming. The joint effects of agricultural expansion, intense logging of the longleaf in the late 1800s, expanded fire control since the early 20th century, and subsequent bare-root planting beginning in the 1930s, has permitted loblolly pine to become dominantly established in the south. Longleaf and loblolly pines represent two distinct woodland uses and represent separate human values. This study investigated the change from longleaf pine use to loblolly pine farming in Southern US from perspectives of human values of land and natural resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Low Impact Development Design—Integrating Suitability Analysis and Site Planning for Reduction of Post-Development Stormwater Quantity
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2467-2482; doi:10.3390/su2082467
Received: 29 June 2010 / Revised: 14 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 3 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A land-suitability analysis (LSA) was integrated with open-space conservation principles, based on watershed physiographic and soil characteristics, to derive a low-impact development (LID) residential plan for a three hectare site in Coshocton OH, USA. The curve number method was used to estimate [...] Read more.
A land-suitability analysis (LSA) was integrated with open-space conservation principles, based on watershed physiographic and soil characteristics, to derive a low-impact development (LID) residential plan for a three hectare site in Coshocton OH, USA. The curve number method was used to estimate total runoff depths expected from different frequency storms for: (i) the pre-development condition, (ii) a conventional design, (iii) LID design based on the LSA of same building size; and (iv) LID design based on the LSA with reduced building footprints. Post-development runoff depths for the conventional design increased by 55 percent over those for the pre-development condition. Runoff depth for the same building size LSA-LID design was only 26 percent greater than that for the pre-development condition, and 17% for the design with reduced building sizes. Results suggest that prudent use of LSA may improve prospects and functionality of low-impact development, reduce stormwater flooding volumes and, hence, lower site-development costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Agent Planning Support-System for Assessing Externalities of Urban Form Scenarios: Results of Case Studies
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2253-2278; doi:10.3390/su2072253
Received: 21 May 2010 / Revised: 9 June 2010 / Accepted: 8 July 2010 / Published: 19 July 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between various planning-ideas and sustainability is described, using a dedicated multi-agent model and demonstrated by a case study. The analysis supports planning based on preferences and behavior of a target population. Two objectives are addressed: (1) Examine the effect of [...] Read more.
The relationship between various planning-ideas and sustainability is described, using a dedicated multi-agent model and demonstrated by a case study. The analysis supports planning based on preferences and behavior of a target population. Two objectives are addressed: (1) Examine the effect of different planning ideas-scenarios on the development of the built-environment and, in particular, how different planning scenarios can contribute to a sustainable built environment, and (2) Demonstrate the relevancy of the multi-agent model as a tool for planning and evaluating planning alternatives. Four planning scenarios are included and three performance indicators measuring aspects of sustainability (accessibility, mobility, and viability) are employed in the analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Impact of Land Use Policy on Urban-Rural Sustainability Using the FoPIA Approach in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 1991-2009; doi:10.3390/su2071991
Received: 2 June 2010 / Accepted: 19 June 2010 / Published: 5 July 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a sustainability impact assessment (SIA) of policy induced land use changes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The regional problems include rapid expansions of urban areas, due to high population pressure, and the conversion of paddy fields and forests [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a sustainability impact assessment (SIA) of policy induced land use changes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The regional problems include rapid expansions of urban areas, due to high population pressure, and the conversion of paddy fields and forests into settlements. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of two land use policies on social, economic, and environmental Land Use Functions (LUFs) in Yogyakarta. The following scenarios were developed for the SIA: a forest protection scenario (S1), a paddy field conservation scenario (S2), and a counterfactual (no policy) scenario of ‘Business As Usual’ (BAU). The Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment (FoPIA) was applied to conduct an expert-based impact assessment. For the specification of the regional sustainability context, a set of nine key LUFs and associated indicators were developed, including three social, three economic, and three environmental sustainability criteria. The resulting scenario impacts of the assessment differed considerably, with positive impacts of the S1 and S2 scenarios on seven of nine LUFs, and negative impacts of the BAU scenario on six LUFs. The perception of the FoPIA method by the regional stakeholders was positive. We conclude that this method contributes toward an enhanced regional understanding of policy effects and sustainability, particularly in data-poor environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle The Real Estate and Economic Crisis: An Opportunity for Urban Return and Rehabilitation Policies in Spain
Sustainability 2010, 2(6), 1571-1601; doi:10.3390/su2061571
Received: 18 April 2010 / Revised: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 3 June 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the early 1980s, suburbanization and periurbanization processes became widespread in major cities within Spain. An interesting stage of returning to city centers commenced that materialized in the start of rehabilitation policies within historic centers. These processes coincided with weak population growth, [...] Read more.
In the early 1980s, suburbanization and periurbanization processes became widespread in major cities within Spain. An interesting stage of returning to city centers commenced that materialized in the start of rehabilitation policies within historic centers. These processes coincided with weak population growth, an acute industrial economic crisis, and new democratic policies in municipal councils. Three decades later, we may be witnessing similar processes, although with different origins. The consequences of a construction-based economic model have been disastrous in Spain, from both an economic as well as an environmental point of view. The artificial land boom was significant throughout the country, but was especially prominent within the Mediterranean areas that specialize in tourism and real estate (second homes). The burst of the real estate bubble has shown the irrationality of the economic model and the serious social and environmental consequences that the model has entailed. Within this context, some of the territorial transformation processes that occurred in Spain during the real estate boom period are being studied for the first time. Additionally, changes in land policies (urban renewal of centers and urban renewal in general) within the current economic and real estate crisis are analyzed. An urban rehabilitation that gradually includes new spaces for intervention and for introducing new sustainable methods for recovering degraded spaces, such as the Master Plan for Platja de Palma, a mature tourism destination that seeks a final ‘0 CO2 balance’ scenario, among other objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Conservation Value of Residential Open Space: Designation and Management Language of Florida’s Land Development Regulations
Sustainability 2010, 2(6), 1536-1552; doi:10.3390/su2061536
Received: 15 April 2010 / Revised: 27 April 2010 / Accepted: 26 May 2010 / Published: 1 June 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conservation value of open space depends upon the quantity and quality of the area protected, as well as how it is designed and managed. This study reports the results of a content analysis of Florida county Land Development Regulations. Codes were [...] Read more.
The conservation value of open space depends upon the quantity and quality of the area protected, as well as how it is designed and managed. This study reports the results of a content analysis of Florida county Land Development Regulations. Codes were reviewed to determine the amount of open space required, how open space is protected during construction, the delegation of responsibilities, and the designation of funds for management. Definitions of open space varied dramatically across the state. Most county codes provided inadequate descriptions of management recommendations, which could lead to a decline in the conservation value of the protected space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Land Use Scenario Modeling for Flood Risk Mitigation
Sustainability 2010, 2(5), 1327-1344; doi:10.3390/su2051327
Received: 24 March 2010 / Revised: 20 April 2010 / Accepted: 5 May 2010 / Published: 11 May 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is generally accepted that flood risk has been increasing in Europe in the last decades. Accordingly, it becomes a priority to better understand its drivers and mechanisms. Flood risk is evaluated on the basis of three factors: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. [...] Read more.
It is generally accepted that flood risk has been increasing in Europe in the last decades. Accordingly, it becomes a priority to better understand its drivers and mechanisms. Flood risk is evaluated on the basis of three factors: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. If one of these factors increases, then so does the risk. Land use change models used for ex-ante assessment of spatial trends provide planners with powerful tools for territorial decision making. However, until recently this type of model has been largely neglected in strategic planning for flood risk mitigation. Thus, ex-ante assessment of flood risk is an innovative application of land use change models. The aim of this paper is to propose a flood risk mitigation approach using exposure scenarios. The methodology is applied in the Pordenone province in northern Italy. In the past 50 years Pordenone has suffered several heavy floods, the disastrous consequences of which demonstrated the vulnerability of the area. Results of this study confirm that the main driving force of increased flood risk is found in new urban developments in flood-prone areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Devolved Regions, Fragmented Landscapes: The Struggle for Sustainability in Madrid
Sustainability 2010, 2(5), 1252-1281; doi:10.3390/su2051252
Received: 30 March 2010 / Revised: 7 April 2010 / Accepted: 28 April 2010 / Published: 5 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article reflects on the recent unsustainable land use changes in the Autonomous Community of Madrid and asserts the need for progress towards economically, environmentally and socially sustainable development models. Following research undertaken over the last six years there are encouraging signs [...] Read more.
This article reflects on the recent unsustainable land use changes in the Autonomous Community of Madrid and asserts the need for progress towards economically, environmentally and socially sustainable development models. Following research undertaken over the last six years there are encouraging signs of agreement between stakeholders and the problem has begun to “open up”. Here a new phase of problem solving is initiated, in which particular tendencies toward unsustainability are identified using a variety of basic indicators. These “Sustainability Action Areas” can be targeted for collaborative sustainability initiatives involving groups of municipalities aggregated according to their response to particular indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Monitoring Land Use: Capturing Change through an Information Fusion Approach
Sustainability 2010, 2(5), 1182-1203; doi:10.3390/su2051182
Received: 10 March 2010 / Revised: 6 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 29 April 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Social and environmental factors affecting land use change are among the most significant drivers transforming the planet. Such change has been and continues to be monitored through the use of satellite imagery, aerial photography, and technical reports. While these monitoring tools are [...] Read more.
Social and environmental factors affecting land use change are among the most significant drivers transforming the planet. Such change has been and continues to be monitored through the use of satellite imagery, aerial photography, and technical reports. While these monitoring tools are useful in observing the empirical results of land use change and issues of sustainability, the data they provide are often not useful in capturing the fundamental policies, social drivers, and unseen factors that shape how landscapes are transformed. In addition, some monitoring approaches can be prohibitively expensive and too slow in providing useful data at a timescale in which data are needed. This paper argues that techniques using information fusion and conducting assessments of continuous data feeds can be beneficial for monitoring primary social and ecological mechanisms affecting how geographic settings are changed over different time scales. We present a computational approach that couples open source tools in order to conduct an analysis of text data, helping to determine relevant events and trends. To demonstrate the approach, we discuss a case study that integrates varied newspapers from two Midwest states in the United States, Iowa and Nebraska, showing how potentially significant issues and events can be captured. Although the approach we present is useful for monitoring current web-based data streams, we argue that such a method should ultimately be integrated closely with less managed systems and modeling techniques to enhance not only land use monitoring but also to better forecast and understand landscape change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle External Costs as Driving Forces of Land Use Changes
Sustainability 2010, 2(4), 1035-1054; doi:10.3390/su2041035
Received: 23 March 2010 / Revised: 7 April 2010 / Accepted: 15 April 2010 / Published: 19 April 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land conversion is often not carried out in a sustainable way. The loss of arable land and biodiversity, concern about food security and rising costs of infrastructure due to urban sprawl are just some of the problems under discussion. This paper compares [...] Read more.
Land conversion is often not carried out in a sustainable way. The loss of arable land and biodiversity, concern about food security and rising costs of infrastructure due to urban sprawl are just some of the problems under discussion. This paper compares Germany, China and Cambodia. The article points out that, despite huge differences in institutions and governance, unsustainable land use changes mostly have some patterns in common: The beneficiaries of land conversion are often well-organized actors, whereas the costs of land conversion are often shifted to poorly organized groups and to society as a whole. A sustainable land use policy has to look for a better coupling of benefits and costs of land use changes. In order to achieve this goal, the article suggests completing the planning law with a suitable economic framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle How Does Car Parking Availability and Public Transport Accessibility Influence Work-Related Travel Behaviors?
Sustainability 2010, 2(2), 576-590; doi:10.3390/su2020576
Received: 6 January 2010 / Accepted: 11 February 2010 / Published: 12 February 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the relationships between car parking, public transport, travel behaviors, and health outcomes for adults (n = 1,188) traveling to a worksite. Public transport was used for 12.1% of the work-related commute. Those who had higher levels of walking, no [...] Read more.
This study investigated the relationships between car parking, public transport, travel behaviors, and health outcomes for adults (n = 1,188) traveling to a worksite. Public transport was used for 12.1% of the work-related commute. Those who had higher levels of walking, no worksite car park access, lived proximal to a public transport stop, had limited automobile availability, traveled to the main business district, perceived public transport as accessible, or did not have company car access were more likely to use public transportation. Accordingly, proximal residential transit stops and restrictions for company car accessibility and parking at the worksite are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Evolution of Sustainability in American Forest Resource Management Planning in the Context of the American Forest Management Textbook
Sustainability 2009, 1(4), 838-854; doi:10.3390/su1040838
Received: 14 September 2009 / Accepted: 14 October 2009 / Published: 22 October 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
American forest resource management and planning goes back to the European roots of American Forestry. Timber management plans, documents based on forest regulation for timber production, were the foundation of American forestry. These types of management plans predominated until World War II. [...] Read more.
American forest resource management and planning goes back to the European roots of American Forestry. Timber management plans, documents based on forest regulation for timber production, were the foundation of American forestry. These types of management plans predominated until World War II. Multiple use forestry developed after World War II and issues like recreation, wildlife, water quality, and wilderness became more important. In the 1970’s harvest scheduling became part of the planning process, allowing for optimization of multiple goals. By 2001 social, environmental, and economic goals were integrated into the timber production process. American forestry experienced distinct historical periods of resource planning, ranging from classic sustained yield timber production, to multiple use-sustained yield, to sustainable human-forest systems. This article traces the historical changes in forest management planning philosophy using the forest management textbooks of the time. These textbooks provide insight into the thought process of the forestry profession as changes in the concept of sustainability occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Sustainability and Urban Dynamics: Assessing Future Impacts on Ecosystem Services
Sustainability 2009, 1(3), 346-362; doi:10.3390/su1030346
Received: 22 May 2009 / Accepted: 8 July 2009 / Published: 22 July 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable management of a region’s critical and valued ecosystem resources requires an understanding about how these resource systems might function into the future. In urbanized areas, this requires the ability to frame the role of resources within the context of urban dynamics [...] Read more.
Sustainable management of a region’s critical and valued ecosystem resources requires an understanding about how these resource systems might function into the future. In urbanized areas, this requires the ability to frame the role of resources within the context of urban dynamics and the implications of policy and investment choices. In this paper we describe a three-step approach to assessing the impact of future urban development on ecosystem services: 1) characterize key ecosystem resources and services, 2) forecast future land-use changes, and 3) assess how future land-use changes will affect ecosystem services. Each of these steps can be carried out with different levels of sophistication and detail. All steps involve a combination of science and process: the science provides information that is deliberated upon by stakeholders in public forums before conclusions are drawn. We then illustrate the approach by describing how it was used in two regions in the state of Illinois in the United States. In the first instance, an early application of this approach, a simple overlay was used to identify development pressure on an environmentally sensitive river bluff; this finding altered thinking about public policy choices. In the second instance, the more fine-grained analysis was conducted for several ecosystem services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2499-2522; doi:10.3390/su2082499
Received: 11 June 2010 / Revised: 1 July 2010 / Accepted: 4 August 2010 / Published: 4 August 2010
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (952 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing [...] Read more.
Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement to produce food in cities of developed countries including the United States. In these regions, urban agriculture offers a new frontier for land use planners and landscape designers to become involved in the development and transformation of cities to support community farms, allotment gardens, rooftop gardening, edible landscaping, urban forests, and other productive features of the urban environment. Despite the growing interest in urban agriculture, urban planners and landscape designers are often ill-equipped to integrate food-systems thinking into future plans for cities. The challenge (and opportunity) is to design urban agriculture spaces to be multifunctional, matching the specific needs and preferences of local residents, while also protecting the environment. This paper provides a review of the literature on urban agriculture as it applies to land use planning in the United States. The background includes a brief historical perspective of urban agriculture around the world, as well as more recent examples in the United States. Land use applications are considered for multiple scales, from efforts that consider an entire city, to those that impact a single building or garden. Barriers and constraints to urban agriculture are discussed, followed by research opportunities and methodological approaches that might be used to address them. This work has implications for urban planners, landscape designers, and extension agents, as opportunities to integrate urban agriculture into the fabric of our cities expand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)

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