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Special Issue "Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Antivirals & Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Luis Martinez-Sobrido

University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 672, KMRB 3-9615 Rochester, 14642 NY, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 585-276-4733
Fax: +1 585 473 9573
Interests: microbiology and immunology; evasion of the innate immune response by viruses; type I interferon (IFN); arenaviruses; influenza viruses

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Avian Bornaviruses Escape Recognition by the Innate Immune System
Viruses 2010, 2(4), 927-938; doi:10.3390/v2040927
Received: 2 March 2010 / Accepted: 25 March 2010 / Published: 1 April 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Like other pathogens that readily persist in animal hosts, members of the Bornaviridae family have evolved effective mechanisms to evade the innate immune response. The prototype of this virus family, Borna disease virus employs an unusual replication strategy that removes the triphosphates from
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Like other pathogens that readily persist in animal hosts, members of the Bornaviridae family have evolved effective mechanisms to evade the innate immune response. The prototype of this virus family, Borna disease virus employs an unusual replication strategy that removes the triphosphates from the 5’ termini of the viral RNA genome. This strategy allows the virus to avoid activation of RIG-I and other innate immune response receptors in infected cells. Here we determined whether the newly discovered avian bornaviruses (ABV) might use a similar strategy to evade the interferon response. We found that de novo infection of QM7 and CEC32 quail cells with two different ABV strains was efficiently inhibited by exogenous chicken IFN-α. IFN-α also reduced the viral load in QM7 and CEC32 cells persistently infected with both ABV strains, suggesting that ABV is highly sensitive to type I IFN. Although quail cells persistently infected with ABV contained high levels of viral RNA, the supernatants of infected cultures did not contain detectable levels of biologically active type I IFN. RNA from cells infected with ABV failed to induce IFN-β synthesis if transfected into human cells. Furthermore, genomic RNA of ABV was susceptible to 5’-monophosphate-specific RNase, suggesting that it lacks 5’-triphospates like BDV. These results indicate that bornaviruses of mammals and birds use similar strategies to evade the host immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)

Review

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Open AccessReview Buying Time—The Immune System Determinants of the Incubation Period to Respiratory Viruses
Viruses 2010, 2(11), 2541-2558; doi:10.3390/v2112541
Received: 22 October 2010 / Revised: 1 November 2010 / Accepted: 2 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
PDF Full-text (1320 KB)
Abstract
Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus
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Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the “stealth phase”, defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the “stealth phase” phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview Inhibition of the Type I Interferon Antiviral Response During Arenavirus Infection
Viruses 2010, 2(11), 2443-2480; doi:10.3390/v2112443
Received: 8 October 2010 / Revised: 22 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 5 November 2010
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (267 KB)
Abstract
Arenaviruses merit interest both as tractable experimental model systems to study acute and persistent viral infections, and as clinically-important human pathogens. Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans. In addition, evidence indicates that the globally-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
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Arenaviruses merit interest both as tractable experimental model systems to study acute and persistent viral infections, and as clinically-important human pathogens. Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans. In addition, evidence indicates that the globally-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a human pathogen of clinical significance in congenital infections, and also poses a great danger to immunosuppressed individuals. Arenavirus persistence and pathogenesis are facilitated by their ability to overcome the host innate immune response. Mammalian hosts have developed both membrane toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), resulting in activation of the transcription factors IRF3 or IRF7, or both, which together with NF-κB and ATF-2/c-JUN induce production of type I interferon (IFN-I). IFN-I plays a key role in host anti-microbial defense by mediating direct antiviral effects via up-regulation of IFN-I stimulated genes (ISGs), activating dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NK) cells, and promoting the induction of adaptive responses. Accordingly, viruses have developed a plethora of strategies to disrupt the IFN-I mediated antiviral defenses of the host, and the viral gene products responsible for these disruptions are often major virulence determinants.IRF3- and IRF7-dependent induction of host innate immune responses is frequently targeted by viruses. Thus, the arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) was shown to inhibit the IFN‑I response by interfering with the activation of IRF3. This NP anti-IFN activity, together with alterations in the number and function of DCs observed in mice chronically infected with LCMV, likely play an important role in LCMV persistence in its murine host. In this review we will discuss current knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which arenaviruses can subvert the host innate immune response and their implications for understanding HF arenaviral disease as well as arenavirus persistence in their natural hosts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview How Flaviviruses Activate and Suppress the Interferon Response
Viruses 2010, 2(2), 676-691; doi:10.3390/v2020676
Received: 24 November 2009 / Revised: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 4 February 2010 / Published: 23 February 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The flavivirus genus includes viruses with a remarkable ability to produce disease on a large scale. The expansion and increased endemicity of dengue and West Nile viruses in the Americas exemplifies their medical and epidemiological importance. The rapid detection of viral infection and
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The flavivirus genus includes viruses with a remarkable ability to produce disease on a large scale. The expansion and increased endemicity of dengue and West Nile viruses in the Americas exemplifies their medical and epidemiological importance. The rapid detection of viral infection and induction of the innate antiviral response are crucial to determining the outcome of infection. The intracellular pathogen receptors RIG-I and MDA5 play a central role in detecting flavivirus infections and initiating a robust antiviral response. Yet, these viruses are still capable of producing acute illness in humans. It is now clear that flaviviruses utilize a variety of mechanisms to modulate the interferon response. The non-structural proteins of the various flaviviruses reduce expression of interferon dependent genes by blocking phosphorylation, enhancing degradation or down-regulating expression of major components of the JAK/STAT pathway. Recent studies indicate that interferon modulation is an important factor in the development of severe flaviviral illness. This suggests that an increased understanding of viral-host interactions will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics to treat these viral infections and improved biological models to study flavivirus pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Figures

Open AccessReview Dual Role of p53 in Innate Antiviral Immunity
Viruses 2010, 2(1), 298-313; doi:10.3390/v2010298
Received: 1 September 2009 / Revised: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 22 January 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tumor suppressor p53 is widely known as ‘the guardian of the genome’ due to its ability to prevent the emergence of transformed cells by the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, recent studies indicate that p53 is also a direct transcriptional
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Tumor suppressor p53 is widely known as ‘the guardian of the genome’ due to its ability to prevent the emergence of transformed cells by the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, recent studies indicate that p53 is also a direct transcriptional target of type I interferons (IFNs) and thus, it is activated by these cytokines upon viral infection. p53 has been shown to contribute to virus-induced apoptosis, therefore dampening the ability of a wide range of viruses to replicate and spread. Interestingly, recent studies also indicate that several IFN-inducible genes such as interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), IRF5, IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) are in fact, p53 direct transcriptional targets. These findings indicate that p53 may play a key role in antiviral innate immunity by both inducing apoptosis in response to viral infection, and enforcing the type I IFN response, and provide a new insight into the evolutionary reasons why many viruses encode p53 antagonistic proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
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Open AccessReview Evasion of the Interferon-Mediated Antiviral Response by Filoviruses
Viruses 2010, 2(1), 262-282; doi:10.3390/v2010262
Received: 3 September 2009 / Revised: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The members of the filoviruses are recognized as some of the most lethal viruses affecting human and non-human primates. The only two genera of the Filoviridae family, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), comprise the main etiologic agents of severe hemorrhagic fever
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The members of the filoviruses are recognized as some of the most lethal viruses affecting human and non-human primates. The only two genera of the Filoviridae family, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), comprise the main etiologic agents of severe hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in central Africa, with case fatality rates ranging from 25 to 90%. Fatal outcomes have been associated with a late and dysregulated immune response to infection, very likely due to the virus targeting key host immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that are necessary to mediate effective innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite major progress in the development of vaccine candidates for filovirus infections, a licensed vaccine or therapy for human use is still not available. During the last ten years, important progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of filovirus pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence implicate the impairment of the host interferon (IFN) antiviral innate immune response by MARV or EBOV as an important determinant of virulence. In vitro and in vivo experimental infections with recombinant Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV), the best characterized filovirus, demonstrated that the viral protein VP35 plays a key role in inhibiting the production of IFN-α/β. Further, the action of VP35 is synergized by the inhibition of cellular responses to IFN-α/β by the minor matrix viral protein VP24. The dual action of these viral proteins may contribute to an efficient initial virus replication and dissemination in the host. Noticeably, the analogous function of these viral proteins in MARV has not been reported. Because the IFN response is a major component of the innate immune response to virus infection, this chapter reviews recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of IFN-mediated antiviral evasion by filovirus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Figures

Open AccessReview The IKK Kinases: Operators of Antiviral Signaling
Viruses 2010, 2(1), 55-72; doi:10.3390/v2010055
Received: 11 August 2009 / Revised: 30 December 2009 / Accepted: 6 January 2010 / Published: 8 January 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of a cell to combat an intracellular pathogen requires a mechanism to recognize the threat and elicit a transcriptional response against it. In the context of virus infection, the cell must take measures to inhibit viral replication, meanwhile, convey warning signals
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The ability of a cell to combat an intracellular pathogen requires a mechanism to recognize the threat and elicit a transcriptional response against it. In the context of virus infection, the cell must take measures to inhibit viral replication, meanwhile, convey warning signals to neighboring cells of the imminent threat. This immune response is predominantly mediated by the production of cytokines, notably, interferon beta (IFNβ). IFNβ signaling results in the transcriptional induction of over one hundred antiviral gene products whose timely expression renders infected cells more capable of inhibiting virus replication, while providing the uninfected cells with the reinforcements to generate a less permissive cellular environment. Induction of IFNβ and many aspects of the antiviral response pivot on the function of the IKK and IKK-related kinases. Despite sharing high levels of homology and some degree of functional redundancy, the classic IKK kinases: IKKα and IKKβ, and the IKK-related kinases: TBK1 and IKKε, perform distinct roles in regulating the host antiviral defense. These kinases serve as molecular operators in their cooperative ability to integrate incoming cellular cues and act on a range of essential antiviral transcription factors to reshape the cellular transcriptome during infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview Henipaviruses Employ a Multifaceted Approach to Evade the Antiviral Interferon Response
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1190-1203; doi:10.3390/v1031190
Received: 2 October 2009 / Revised: 2 December 2009 / Accepted: 3 December 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hendra and Nipah virus, which constitute the genus Henipavirus, are zoonotic paramyxoviruses that have been associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe disease and mortality in humans since their emergence in the late 1990s. Similar to other paramyxoviruses, their ability to evade the
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Hendra and Nipah virus, which constitute the genus Henipavirus, are zoonotic paramyxoviruses that have been associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe disease and mortality in humans since their emergence in the late 1990s. Similar to other paramyxoviruses, their ability to evade the host interferon (IFN) response is conferred by the P gene. The henipavirus P gene encodes four proteins; the P, V, W and C proteins, which have all been described to inhibit the antiviral response. Further studies have revealed that these proteins have overlapping but unique properties which enable the virus to block multiple signaling pathways in the IFN response. The best characterized of these is the JAK-STAT signaling pathway which is targeted by the P, V and W proteins via an interaction with the transcription factor STAT1. In addition the V and W proteins can both limit virus-induced induction of IFN but they appear to do this via distinct mechanisms that rely on unique sequences in their C-terminal domains. The ability to generate recombinant Nipah viruses now gives us the opportunity to determine the precise role for each of these proteins and address their contribution to pathogenicity. Additionally, the question of whether these multiple anti-IFN strategies are all active in the different mammalian hosts for henipaviruses, particularly the fruit bat reservoir, warrants further exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview Rotavirus Antagonism of the Innate Immune Response
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1035-1056; doi:10.3390/v1031035
Received: 14 September 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 20 November 2009 / Published: 24 November 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rotavirus is a primary cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children. The virus is sensitive to the antiviral effects triggered by the interferon (IFN)-signaling pathway, an important component of the host cell innate immune response. To counteract these effects, rotavirus
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Rotavirus is a primary cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children. The virus is sensitive to the antiviral effects triggered by the interferon (IFN)-signaling pathway, an important component of the host cell innate immune response. To counteract these effects, rotavirus encodes a nonstructural protein (NSP1) that induces the degradation of proteins involved in regulating IFN expression, such as members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family. In some instances, NSP1 also subverts IFN expression by causing the degradation of a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex responsible for activating NF-κB. By antagonizing multiple components of the IFN-induction pathway, NSP1 aids viral spread and contributes to rotavirus pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview Bunyaviruses and the Type I Interferon System
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1003-1021; doi:10.3390/v1031003
Received: 21 September 2009 / Revised: 11 November 2009 / Accepted: 20 November 2009 / Published: 23 November 2009
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (98 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The family Bunyaviridae contains more than 350 viruses that are distributed throughout the world. Most members of the family are transmitted by arthopods, and several cause disease in man, domesticated animals and crop plants. Despite being recognized as an emerging threat, details of
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The family Bunyaviridae contains more than 350 viruses that are distributed throughout the world. Most members of the family are transmitted by arthopods, and several cause disease in man, domesticated animals and crop plants. Despite being recognized as an emerging threat, details of the virulence mechanisms employed by bunyaviruses are scant. In this article we summarise the information currently available on how these viruses are able to establish infection when confronted with a powerful antiviral interferon system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview Interferon Response and Viral Evasion by Members of the Family Rhabdoviridae
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 832-851; doi:10.3390/v1030832
Received: 18 September 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 9 November 2009 / Published: 9 November 2009
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (90 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Like many animal viruses, those of the Rhabdoviridae family, are able to antagonize the type I interferon response and cause disease in mammalian hosts. Though these negative-stranded RNA viruses are very simple and code for as few as five proteins, they have been
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Like many animal viruses, those of the Rhabdoviridae family, are able to antagonize the type I interferon response and cause disease in mammalian hosts. Though these negative-stranded RNA viruses are very simple and code for as few as five proteins, they have been seen to completely abrogate the type I interferon response early in infection. In this review, we will discuss the viral organization and type I interferon evasion of rhabdoviruses, focusing on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus (RABV). Despite their structural similarities, VSV and RABV have completely different mechanisms by which they avert the host immune response. VSV relies on the matrix protein to interfere with host gene transcription and nuclear export of anti-viral mRNAs. Alternatively, RABV uses its phosphoprotein to interfere with IRF-3 phosphorylation and STAT1 signaling. Understanding the virus-cell interactions and viral proteins necessary to evade the immune response is important in developing effective vaccines and therapeutics for this viral family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview Activation and Evasion of Innate Antiviral Immunity by Herpes Simplex Virus
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 737-759; doi:10.3390/v1030737
Received: 17 August 2009 / Revised: 3 November 2009 / Accepted: 5 November 2009 / Published: 5 November 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a human pathogenic virus, has evolved several strategies to evade the production and function of interferons (IFNs) and cytokines generated by the innate immune system to restrict the virus. Equilibrium exists between the virus and the immune response, and
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a human pathogenic virus, has evolved several strategies to evade the production and function of interferons (IFNs) and cytokines generated by the innate immune system to restrict the virus. Equilibrium exists between the virus and the immune response, and a shift in this delicate balance either restricts the virus or enhances virus spread and tissue damage. Therefore, understanding of the cytokine response generated after HSV infection and the underlying virus-cell interactions is essential to improve our understanding of viral pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on induction and evasion of the innate immune response by HSV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview Murine Coronavirus Cell Type Dependent Interaction with the Type I Interferon Response
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 689-712; doi:10.3390/v1030689
Received: 2 September 2009 / Revised: 30 October 2009 / Accepted: 4 November 2009 / Published: 4 November 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coronaviruses infect many species of animal including humans, causing acute and chronic diseases of many organ systems. Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection of the mouse, provides animal models for the study of central nervous system disease, including encephalitis and demyelinating diseases
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Coronaviruses infect many species of animal including humans, causing acute and chronic diseases of many organ systems. Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection of the mouse, provides animal models for the study of central nervous system disease, including encephalitis and demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and for hepatitis. While there are many studies of the adaptive immune response to MHV, there has until recently been scant information on the type I interferon (IFN) response to MHV. The relationship between MHV and the IFN-α/β response is paradoxical. While the type I IFN response is a crucial aspect of host defense against MHV in its natural host, there is little if any induction of IFN following infection of mouse fibroblast cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, MHV is relatively resistant to the antiviral effects of IFN-α/β in mouse fibroblast cell lines and in human 293T cells. MHV can, under some circumstances, compromise the antiviral effects of IFN signaling. The nucleocapsid protein as well as the nsp1 and nsp3 proteins of MHV has been reported to have IFN antagonist activity. However, in primary cell types such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and macrophages, IFN is induced by MHV infection and an antiviral state is established. Other primary cell types such as neurons, astrocytes and hepatocytes fail to produce IFN following infection and, in vivo, likely depend on IFN produced by pDCs and macrophages for protection from MHV. Thus MHV induction of IFN-α/β and the ability to induce an antiviral state in response to interferon is extremely cell type dependent. IFN induced protection from MHV pathogenesis likely requires the orchestrated activities of several cell types, however, the cell types involved in limiting MHV replication may be different in the liver and in the immune privileged CNS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview Antagonism of Innate Immunity by Paramyxovirus Accessory Proteins
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 574-593; doi:10.3390/v1030574
Received: 8 September 2009 / Revised: 22 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 28 October 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (139 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
Paramyxovirinae, a subfamily of Paramyxoviridae, are negative strand RNA viruses comprised of many important human and animal pathogens, which share a high degree of genetic and structural homology. The accessory proteins expressed from the P/V/C gene are major factors in the
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Paramyxovirinae, a subfamily of Paramyxoviridae, are negative strand RNA viruses comprised of many important human and animal pathogens, which share a high degree of genetic and structural homology. The accessory proteins expressed from the P/V/C gene are major factors in the pathogenicity of the viruses, because of their ability to abrogate various facets of type I interferon (IFN) induction and signaling. Most of the paramyxoviruses exhibit a commonality in their ability to antagonize innate immunity by blocking IFN induction and the Jak/STAT pathway. However, the manner in which the accessory proteins inhibit the pathway differs among viruses. Similarly, there are variations in the capability of the viruses to counteract intracellular detectors (RNA helicases, mda-5 and RIG-I). Furthermore, a functional specificity in the antagonism of the IFN response has been reported, suggesting that specificity in the circumvention of innate immunity restricts viral host range. Available evidence indicates that paramyxoviruses employ specific strategies to antagonize the IFN response of their specific hosts, which is one of the major factors that determine viral pathogenicity and host range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview Activation of the Antiviral Kinase PKR and Viral Countermeasures
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 523-544; doi:10.3390/v1030523
Received: 11 August 2009 / Revised: 26 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interferon-induced double-stranded (ds)RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) limits viral replication by an eIF2α-mediated block of translation. Although many negative-strand RNA viruses activate PKR, the responsible RNAs have long remained elusive, as dsRNA, the canonical activator of PKR, has not been detected in cells
[...] Read more.
The interferon-induced double-stranded (ds)RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) limits viral replication by an eIF2α-mediated block of translation. Although many negative-strand RNA viruses activate PKR, the responsible RNAs have long remained elusive, as dsRNA, the canonical activator of PKR, has not been detected in cells infected with such viruses. In this review we focus on the activating RNA molecules of different virus families, in particular the negative-strand RNA viruses. We discuss the recently identified non-canonical activators 5’-triphosphate RNA and the vRNP of influenza virus and give an update on strategies of selected RNA and DNA viruses to prevent activation of PKR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
Open AccessReview Effect of Type-I Interferon on Retroviruses
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 545-573; doi:10.3390/v1030545
Received: 10 August 2009 / Revised: 5 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Type-I interferons (IFN-I) play an important role in the innate immune response to several retroviruses. They seem to be effective in controlling the in vivo infection, though many of the clinical signs of retroviral infection may be due to their continual presence which
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Type-I interferons (IFN-I) play an important role in the innate immune response to several retroviruses. They seem to be effective in controlling the in vivo infection, though many of the clinical signs of retroviral infection may be due to their continual presence which over-stimulates the immune system and activates apoptosis. IFN-I not only affect the immune system, but also operate directly on virus replication. Most data suggest that the in vitro treatment with IFN-I of retrovirus infected cells inhibits the final stages of virogenesis, avoiding the correct assembly of viral particles and their budding, even though the mechanism is not well understood. However, in some retroviruses IFN-I may also act at a previous stage as some retroviral LTRs posses sequences homologous to the IFNstimulated response element (ISRE). When stimulated, ISREs control viral transcription. HIV-1 displays several mechanisms for evading IFN-I, such as through Tat and Nef. Besides IFN-α and IFN-β, some other type I IFN, such as IFN-τ and IFN-ω, have potent antiviral activity and are promising treatment drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)

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