E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Sea Level Changes"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Aixue Hu

Climate Change Research Section (CCR), Global Climate Dynamics Laboratory (CGD), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), 1850 Table Mesa Dr. Boulder, CO 80305, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-303-497-1334
Fax: +1-303-497-1348
Interests: Global and regional sea level change in the past and future; Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and its impact on global and regional climate; influence of Decadal-interdecadal variability on global and regional climate

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Observational evidence shows that the global mean sea level has been rising over the 20th century at a rate of 1.8 cm per decade. Satellite observations in the most recent 20 years suggest the sea is rising at a rate of about 3.3 cm per decade. Coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 simulations indicate that the global sea level will rise up by 1 m by the end of the 21st century. If this rising sea is compounded with storm surges, it can generate a significant impact to coastal commnunities. Thus, it is important to sudy the changes of the sea level of the past and future in order to assess, not only the global mean sea level changes, but also the regional sea level changes, since the changes of sea level are not globally uniform. Moreover, the changes of the regional sea level are affected by both external forces and internal climate variability, such as changes of the Pacific decadal Oscilation, and the Atlantic overturning circulation. In this Special Issue, we welcome studies on sea level changes due to both external forces and internal variability, on the global and regional scales, for the past and the future.

Dr. Aixue Hu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sea level change
  • internal variability
  • decadal variability
  • external forcing
  • ice cap and glaciers and ice sheets
  • thermal steric sea level
  • dynamic sea level

Published Papers (5 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-5
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Role of Perturbing Ocean Initial Condition in Simulated Regional Sea Level Change
Water 2017, 9(6), 401; doi:10.3390/w9060401
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 27 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 5 June 2017
PDF Full-text (23419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiple lines of observational evidence indicate that the global climate has been getting warmer since the early 20th century. This warmer climate has led to a global mean sea level rise of about 18 cm during the 20th century, and over 6 cm
[...] Read more.
Multiple lines of observational evidence indicate that the global climate has been getting warmer since the early 20th century. This warmer climate has led to a global mean sea level rise of about 18 cm during the 20th century, and over 6 cm for the first 15 years of the 21st century. Regionally the sea level rise is not uniform due in large part to internal climate variability. To better serve the community, the uncertainties of predicting/projecting regional sea level changes associated with internal climate variability need to be quantified. Previous research on this topic has used single-model large ensembles with perturbed atmospheric initial conditions (ICs). Here we compare uncertainties associated with perturbing ICs in just the atmosphere and just the ocean using a state-of-the-art coupled climate model. We find that by perturbing the oceanic ICs, the uncertainties in regional sea level changes increase compared to those with perturbed atmospheric ICs. Thus, in order for us to better assess the full spectrum of the impacts of such internal climate variability on regional and global sea level rise, approaches that involve perturbing both atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Level Changes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Interannual and Decadal Variability in Tropical Pacific Sea Level
Water 2017, 9(6), 402; doi:10.3390/w9060402
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 5 June 2017
PDF Full-text (3570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A notable feature in the first 20-year satellite altimetry records is an anomalously fast sea level rise (SLR) in the western Pacific impacting island nations in this region. This observed trend is due to a combination of internal variability and external forcing. The
[...] Read more.
A notable feature in the first 20-year satellite altimetry records is an anomalously fast sea level rise (SLR) in the western Pacific impacting island nations in this region. This observed trend is due to a combination of internal variability and external forcing. The dominant mode of dynamic sea level (DSL) variability in the tropical Pacific presents as an east-west see-saw pattern. To assess model skill in simulating this variability mode, we compare 38 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models with 23-year satellite data, 55-year reanalysis products, and 60–year sea level reconstruction. We find that models underestimate variance in the Pacific sea level see-saw, especially at decadal, and longer, time scales. The interannual underestimation is likely due to a relatively low variability in the tropical zonal wind stress. Decadal sea level variability may be influenced by additional factors, such as wind stress at higher latitudes, subtropical gyre position and strength, and eddy heat transport. The interannual variability of the Niño 3.4 index is better represented in CMIP5 models despite low tropical Pacific wind stress variability. However, as with sea level, variability in the Niño 3.4 index is underestimated on decadal time scales. Our results show that DSL should be considered, in addition to sea surface temperature (SST), when evaluating model performance in capturing Pacific variability, as it is directly related to heat content in the ocean column. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Level Changes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Global Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Level Rise Estimation with Optimal Historical Time Lag Data
Water 2016, 8(11), 519; doi:10.3390/w8110519
Received: 28 August 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prediction of global temperatures and sea level rise (SLR) is important for sustainable development planning of coastal regions of the world and the health and safety of communities living in these regions. In this study, climate change effects on sea level rise is
[...] Read more.
Prediction of global temperatures and sea level rise (SLR) is important for sustainable development planning of coastal regions of the world and the health and safety of communities living in these regions. In this study, climate change effects on sea level rise is investigated using a dynamic system model (DSM) with time lag on historical input data. A time-invariant (TI-DSM) and time-variant dynamic system model (TV-DSM) with time lag is developed to predict global temperatures and SLR in the 21st century. The proposed model is an extension of the DSM developed by the authors. The proposed model includes the effect of temperature and sea level states of several previous years on the current temperature and sea level over stationary and also moving scale time periods. The optimal time lag period used in the model is determined by minimizing a synthetic performance index comprised of the root mean square error and coefficient of determination which is a measure for the reliability of the predictions. Historical records of global temperature and sea level from 1880 to 2001 are used to calibrate the model. The optimal time lag is determined to be eight years, based on the performance measures. The calibrated model was then used to predict the global temperature and sea levels in the 21st century using a fixed time lag period and moving scale time lag periods. To evaluate the adverse effect of greenhouse gas emissions on SLR, the proposed model was also uncoupled to project the SLR based on global temperatures that are obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios. The projected SLR estimates for the 21st century are presented comparatively with the predictions made in previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Level Changes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Interannual Variability in Global Mean Sea Level Estimated from the CESM Large and Last Millennium Ensembles
Water 2016, 8(11), 491; doi:10.3390/w8110491
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To better understand global mean sea level (GMSL) as an indicator of climate variability and change, contributions to its interannual variation are quantified in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble and Last Millennium Ensemble. Consistent with expectations, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation
[...] Read more.
To better understand global mean sea level (GMSL) as an indicator of climate variability and change, contributions to its interannual variation are quantified in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble and Last Millennium Ensemble. Consistent with expectations, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is found to exert a strong influence due to variability in rainfall over land (PL) and terrestrial water storage (TWS). Other important contributors include changes in ocean heat content (OHC) and precipitable water (PW). The temporal evolution of individual contributing terms is documented. The magnitude of peak GMSL anomalies associated with ENSO generally are of the order of 0.5 mm·K−1 with significant inter-event variability, with a standard deviation (σ) that is about half as large The results underscore the exceptional rarity of the 2010/2011 La Niña-related GMSL drop and estimate the frequency of such an event to be about only once in every 75 years. In addition to ENSO, major volcanic eruptions are found to be a key driver of interannual variability. Associated GMSL variability contrasts with that of ENSO as TWS and PW anomalies initially offset the drop due to OHC reductions but short-lived relative to them. Responses up to 25 mm are estimated for the largest eruptions of the Last Millennium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Level Changes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sea Level Acceleration in the China Seas
Water 2016, 8(7), 293; doi:10.3390/w8070293
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 18 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
PDF Full-text (4825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While global mean sea level rise (SLR) and acceleration (SLA) are indicators of climate change and are informative regarding the current state of the climate, assessments of regional and local SLR are essential for policy makers responding to, and preparing for, changes in
[...] Read more.
While global mean sea level rise (SLR) and acceleration (SLA) are indicators of climate change and are informative regarding the current state of the climate, assessments of regional and local SLR are essential for policy makers responding to, and preparing for, changes in sea level. In this work, three acceleration detection techniques are used to demonstrate the robust SLA in the China Seas. Interannual to multidecadal sea level variations (periods >2 years), which are mainly related to natural internal climate variability and significantly affect estimation of sea level acceleration, are removed with empirical mode decomposition (EMD) analysis prior to the acceleration determination. Consistent SLAs of 0.085 ± 0.020 mm·yr−2 (1950–2013) and 0.074 ± 0.032 mm·yr−2 (1959–2013) in regional tide gauge records are shown to result from the three applied approaches in the Bohai Sea (BS) and East China Sea (ECS), respectively. The SLAs can be detected in records as short as 20 years if long-term sea level variability is adequately removed. The spatial distribution of SLA derived from a sea level reconstruction shows significant SLA in the BS, Yellow Sea (YS) and Yangtze River Estuary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Level Changes)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Water Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Water Edit a special issue Review for Water
loading...
Back to Top