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Special Issue "Treatment of Wastewater and Drinking Water through Advanced Technologies"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. José Manuel Poyatos

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada ,Granada 18071, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: membrane bioreactors (MBR); wastewater treatment; membrane technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water has become a challenge of global dimensions. Population growth, industrial development and urbanization increase have caused a high consumption of water resources and the deterioration of their quality. Thus, the supply of safe drinking water and wastewater management for public health constitute the most important priorities for water sustainability. In light of this, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants are necessary to treat raw water for drinking-water purposes and wastewater for water pollution control. In this regard, the development of advanced technologies for water treatment is essential to comply with the legislative requirements regarding the water quality.

This Special Issue aims to assemble contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of wastewater and drinking water. We seek contributions that analyze water treatment systems with the objective of modeling, designing and optimizing the different processes to improve the control and prediction of their behavior and to manage the future water supply.

Prof. Dr. José Manuel Poyatos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • advanced technology
  • biological treatment
  • design
  • drinking water
  • microbial kinetics
  • modeling
  • optimization
  • wastewater

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Kinetic Modelling of the Removal of Multiple Heavy Metallic Ions from Mine Waste by Natural Zeolite Sorption
Water 2017, 9(7), 482; doi:10.3390/w9070482
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
This study investigates the sorption of heavy metallic ions (HMIs), specifically lead (Pb2+), copper (Cu2+), iron (Fe3+), nickel (Ni2+) and zinc (Zn2+), by natural zeolite (clinoptilolite). These HMIs are combined in single-, dual-,
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This study investigates the sorption of heavy metallic ions (HMIs), specifically lead (Pb2+), copper (Cu2+), iron (Fe3+), nickel (Ni2+) and zinc (Zn2+), by natural zeolite (clinoptilolite). These HMIs are combined in single-, dual-, triple-, and multi-component systems. The batch mode experiments consist of a total initial concentration of 10 meq/L normality for all systems, acidified to a pH of 2 by concentrated nitric (HNO3) acid. A zeolite dosage of 4 g per 100 mL of synthetic nitrate salt aqueous solution is applied, for a contact period of 5 to 180 min. Existing kinetic models on HMIs sorption are limited for multi-component system combinations. Therefore, this study conducts kinetic analysis by both reaction and diffusion models, to quantify the sorption process. The study concludes that the process correlates best with the pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model. In the multi-component system combining all five HMIs, the initial sorption rate and theoretical equilibrium capacity are determined as 0.0033 meq/g·min and 0.1159 meq/g, respectively. This provides significant insight into the mechanisms associated with the sorption process, as well as contributing to the assessment of natural zeolite as a sorbent material in its application in industrial wastewater treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Power Ultrasonic Effects on Algae Cells at a Small Pilot Scale
Water 2017, 9(7), 470; doi:10.3390/w9070470
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
It has been recognized for several years that power ultrasound can effectively inactivate algae cells at a laboratory scale. However, although ultrasonic inactivation shows great potential, there are few reports of its use when applied on a large scale. In this study, we
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It has been recognized for several years that power ultrasound can effectively inactivate algae cells at a laboratory scale. However, although ultrasonic inactivation shows great potential, there are few reports of its use when applied on a large scale. In this study, we have investigated the uses of two types of ultrasonic equipment at a small and medium laboratory scale for the control of algae blooms which are commercially available in similar configurations for industrial scale operation. The following equipment was tested using cultured algae suspension: (a) Dual Frequency Reactor (DFR) operating on 1 L in batch mode and 3.5 L in recirculating mode with two resonating plates at different frequencies of 16 and 20 kHz (Advanced Sonic Processing Systems, USA); (b) Sonolator operating in a flow mode treating 5 L using hydrodynamic cavitation (Sonic Corporation, Stanford, CA, USA). The most effective inactivation was obtained using the DFR in batch mode at 60% power setting for 10 min which resulted in a reduction of 60% of the original concentration (measured using optical density OD). In a recirculating loop mode, the treatment of 3.5 L algae suspension with a DFR for 15 min resulted in a reduction of 46% (OD). Ultrasonic treatment of 5 L suspension in a recirculating loop using the Sonolator over 5 h resulted in a reduction of 30% (OD). This study is the first to explore the use of two commercially available ultrasonic systems (DFR and Sonolator) both capable of direct scale-up to industrial levels for the control of algae. It demonstrates that sonication in a recirculating process has the potential to be effective in the treatment of algal cells on a large scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Model of Suspended Solids Removal in the Primary Sedimentation Tanks for the Treatment of Urban Wastewater
Water 2017, 9(6), 448; doi:10.3390/w9060448
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Primary settling tanks are used to remove solids at wastewater treatment plants and are considered a fundamental part in their joint operation with the biological and sludge treatment processes. The aim of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the influence
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Primary settling tanks are used to remove solids at wastewater treatment plants and are considered a fundamental part in their joint operation with the biological and sludge treatment processes. The aim of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the influence of operational parameters, such as surface overflow rate, hydraulic retention time, and temperature, on the removal efficiency of suspended solids and organic matter by the measurement of chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand in the primary sedimentation process. The research was carried out in a semi-technical primary settling tank which was fed with real wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant. The physical process was strictly controlled and without the intervention of chemical additives. Three cycles of operation were tested in relation to the surface overflow rate, in order to check their influence on the different final concentrations. The results obtained show that the elimination efficiency can be increased by 11% for SS and 9% for chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand, for variations in the surface overflow rate of around ±0.6 m3/m2·h and variations in hydraulic retention time of around ±2 h. The results also show that current design criteria are quite conservative. An empirical mathematical model was developed in this paper relating SS removal efficiency to q, influent SS concentration, and sewage temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dual-Control of Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion Using Aeration and Solid Retention Time
Water 2017, 9(6), 426; doi:10.3390/w9060426
Received: 11 March 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is an advanced sewage sludge treatment which allows compliance with increasingly demanding regulations. Concerning sludge pasteurization, a certain average temperature must be assured in the digester during batch treatment. Aeration flow is the variable most manipulated to regulate
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Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is an advanced sewage sludge treatment which allows compliance with increasingly demanding regulations. Concerning sludge pasteurization, a certain average temperature must be assured in the digester during batch treatment. Aeration flow is the variable most manipulated to regulate the digester temperature. Additionally, the manipulation of the batch sludge flow—which is related to the solid-retention-time—is considered to improve temperature regulation despite variations in air and sludge temperatures and the variability of raw sludge organic content. Thus, a dual-input control structure was provided where the aeration and solid-retention-time contributed as faster and slower inputs, respectively. Two controllers intervened, and the set-point for the batch average temperature was chosen to meet the minimum effluent quality established by the US regulations or European recommendations, considering that lower set point temperatures save aeration costs. A set-point for the aeration allowed us to achieve an extra goal, which aimed at either reducing operation costs or increasing production rates. The two feedback controllers were designed following the robust control methodology known as quantitative feedback theory (QFT). Improvements were compared with single-input (aeration-flow) control strategy and open-loop control strategy. Simulations were performed on a benchmark non-linear simulation model for ATAD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Electrical Stimulation on the Degradation of Azo Dye in Three-Dimensional Biofilm Electrode Reactors
Water 2017, 9(5), 301; doi:10.3390/w9050301
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
Three-dimensional biofilm electrode reactors (3D-BERs) were constructed to degrade the azo dye Reactive Brilliant Red (RBR) X-3B. The 3D-BERs with different influent concentrations and external voltages were individually studied to investigate their influence on the removal of X-3B. Experimental results showed that 3D-BERs
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional biofilm electrode reactors (3D-BERs) were constructed to degrade the azo dye Reactive Brilliant Red (RBR) X-3B. The 3D-BERs with different influent concentrations and external voltages were individually studied to investigate their influence on the removal of X-3B. Experimental results showed that 3D-BERs have good X-3B removal efficiency; even when the influent concentration was 800 mg/L, removal efficiency of 73.4% was still achieved. In addition, the X-3B removal efficiency stabilized shortly after the influent concentration increased. In 3D-BERs, the average X-3B removal efficiency increased from 52.8% to 85.4% when the external voltage rose from 0 to 2 V. We further identified the intermediate products via UV-Vis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, and discussed the potential mechanism of degradation. After the conjugate structure of X-3B was destroyed, all of the substances generated mainly consisted of lower-molecular-weight organics. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperShort Note Valorization of Microalgae Biomass by Its Use for the Removal of Paracetamol from Contaminated Water
Water 2017, 9(5), 312; doi:10.3390/w9050312
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Microalgae are aquatic photosynthetic prokaryotic or eukaryotic microorganisms which cultivation for the fixation of CO2 and the production of biofuels has received large attention. However, the sustainable development of an algal biorefinery is still a challenge. In this context, the valorization of
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Microalgae are aquatic photosynthetic prokaryotic or eukaryotic microorganisms which cultivation for the fixation of CO2 and the production of biofuels has received large attention. However, the sustainable development of an algal biorefinery is still a challenge. In this context, the valorization of microalgae biomass for a wastewater adsorptive treatment may be an option to explore. Recently, the presence of emerging contaminants (ECs) in natural waters and the associated risks have led to a great concern, especially in the case of pharmaceuticals. In the present work, the elimination of paracetamol from water by biosorption onto microalgae, namely Synechocystis sp., has been studied. Kinetic and equilibrium parameters have been determined and compared with those obtained when using a commercial activated carbon under the same experimental conditions. Although the adsorption kinetics are very similar onto both materials, at the equilibrium, the Langmuir maximum capacity of the activated carbon (278 mg g−1) is five times higher than that of Synechocystis sp. (53 mg g−1). In any case, it must be considered that the utilization of microalgae may be considered an environmentally friendly process with important associated savings. Full article
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