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Molecules, Volume 17, Issue 9 (September 2012), Pages 10000-11293

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Open AccessCorrection Hasegawa, T., et al. Structure-Odor Relationships of α­Santalol Derivatives with Modified Side Chains. Molecules, 2012, 17, 2259-2270
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11292-11293; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911292
Received: 23 July 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 21 September 2012
PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors are sorry to report that some of the 13C-NMR data reported in their recently published paper [1] were incorrect. While this manuscript was in preparation and pending recording of some 13C-NMR spectra the data of α-santalol was used as
[...] Read more.
The authors are sorry to report that some of the 13C-NMR data reported in their recently published paper [1] were incorrect. While this manuscript was in preparation and pending recording of some 13C-NMR spectra the data of α-santalol was used as a placeholder. Upon revising the manuscript according to the reviewers’ comments, they mistakenly thought that all spectral data had been replaced by the correct measured data. Consequently the authors wish to make at this time the following corrections to the paper. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Flavonoids and Polysaccharides Extract from Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Leaves
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11281-11291; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911281
Received: 2 August 2012 / Revised: 11 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 21 September 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, antioxidant properties of flavonoids and polysaccharides from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves were evaluated in several in vitro systems, e.g., scavenging activities on hydroxyl, superoxide anion, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and reducing power. Flavonoids showed
[...] Read more.
In the present study, antioxidant properties of flavonoids and polysaccharides from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves were evaluated in several in vitro systems, e.g., scavenging activities on hydroxyl, superoxide anion, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and reducing power. Flavonoids showed much better activity than polysaccharides in scavenging activities on free radicals. When compared to the positive control, ascorbic acid, both showed weaker antioxidant potential. However, flavonoids possessed comparable superoxide anion, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities to ascorbic acid at high concentration (600 μg/mL). Meanwhile, it was found that flavonoids had prominent effects on the reducing power, which was equivalent to ascorbic acid, and was significantly higher than polysaccharides. These results clearly indicate that flavonoids are effective in scavenging free radicals and have the potential to be powerful antioxidants. Thus, tobacco leaves could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics or nutraceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Association of KIF6 Variant with Lipid Level and Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease Events Risk in the Han Chinese Population
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11269-11280; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911269
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 21 September 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
KIF6 is a class of molecular motor from the kinesin superfamily. Recently, multiple large studies consisting mainly of Europeans have shown that KIF6 Trp719Arg SNP may be a new predictive factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) event risk. The allelic frequency distribution of
[...] Read more.
KIF6 is a class of molecular motor from the kinesin superfamily. Recently, multiple large studies consisting mainly of Europeans have shown that KIF6 Trp719Arg SNP may be a new predictive factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) event risk. The allelic frequency distribution of rs20455 is different in various populations, yet studies among the Han population, one of the largest ethnic groups in the World, have not been conducted. This study is aimed to evaluate the association of KIF6 Trp719Arg variant with angiographic CAD and serum lipid levels in the Han population from northern China. In this case-controlled study, peripheral blood samples were collected from 356 patients and 568 controls of Han Chinese origin. Genotyping was performed by a high-resolution melting curve. The impact of rs20455 on CAD and non-fatal MI was evaluated in a dominant genetic model with stepwise multiple regression analysis. There were no significant differences of genotypes and allele frequency between angiographic CAD and control groups (p > 0.05); however, that of MI and non-MI subgroups were significant differences (p < 0.05). After adjusting for significant risk factors, angiographic CAD risk was not significantly increased in 719Arg allele carriers compared with non-carriers. Further analysis revealed that the non-fatal MI risk and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in 719Arg allele carriers than non-carriers. In conclusion, KIF6 719Arg allele was not an independent risk factor for angiographic CAD susceptibility in Han populations from northern China. However, it was associated with a significantly higher TG level, which may indicate an increased myocardial infarction risk in angiographic CAD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Sample Processing on the Analysis of Carotenoids in Maize
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11255-11268; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911255
Received: 4 September 2012 / Revised: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 13 September 2012 / Published: 21 September 2012
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We performed a number of tests with the aim to develop an effective extraction method for the analysis of carotenoid content in maize seed. Mixtures of methanol–ethyl acetate (6:4, v/v) and methanol–tetrahydrofuran (1:1, v/v) were the most effective solvent systems for carotenoid extraction
[...] Read more.
We performed a number of tests with the aim to develop an effective extraction method for the analysis of carotenoid content in maize seed. Mixtures of methanol–ethyl acetate (6:4, v/v) and methanol–tetrahydrofuran (1:1, v/v) were the most effective solvent systems for carotenoid extraction from maize endosperm under the conditions assayed. In addition, we also addressed sample preparation prior to the analysis of carotenoids by liquid chromatography (LC). The LC response of extracted carotenoids and standards in several solvents was evaluated and results were related to the degree of solubility of these pigments. Three key factors were found to be important when selecting a suitable injection solvent: compatibility between the mobile phase and injection solvent, carotenoid polarity and content in the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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Open AccessArticle A Phytoanticipin Derivative, Sodium Houttuyfonate, Induces in Vitro Synergistic Effects with Levofloxacin against Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11242-11254; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911242
Received: 9 August 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance has become the main deadly factor in infections, as bacteria can protect themselves by hiding in a self-constructed biofilm. Consequently, more attention is being paid to the search for “non-antibiotic drugs” to solve this problem. Phytoanticipins, the natural antibiotics from plants,
[...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance has become the main deadly factor in infections, as bacteria can protect themselves by hiding in a self-constructed biofilm. Consequently, more attention is being paid to the search for “non-antibiotic drugs” to solve this problem. Phytoanticipins, the natural antibiotics from plants, could be a suitable alternative, but few works on this aspect have been reported. In this study, a preliminary study on the synergy between sodium houttuyfonate (SH) and levofloxacin (LFX) against the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of LFX and SH, anti-biofilm formation and synergistic effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and quantification of alginate were determined by the microdilution method, crystal violet (CV) assay, checkerboard method, and hydroxybiphenyl colorimetry. The biofilm morphology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed by fluorescence microscope and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that: (i) LFX and SH had an obvious synergistic effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL and 128 μg/mL, respectively; (ii) ½ × MIC SH combined with 2 × MIC LFX could suppress the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa effectively, with up to 73% inhibition; (iii) the concentration of alginate decreased dramatically by a maximum of 92% after treatment with the combination of antibiotics; and (iv) more dead cells by fluorescence microscope and more removal of extracellular polymeric structure (EPS) by SEM were observed after the combined treatment of LFX and SH. Our experiments demonstrate the promising future of this potent antimicrobial agent against biofilm-associated infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Gymnosperma glutinosum Leaves
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11229-11241; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911229
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 7 September 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane extracts of Gymnosperma glutinosum (Asteraceae) leaves, collected in North Mexico, afforded the known compounds hentriacontane (1) and (+)-13S,14R,15-trihydroxy-ent-labd-7-ene (2), as well as the new ent-labdane diterpene (−)-13S
[...] Read more.
Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane extracts of Gymnosperma glutinosum (Asteraceae) leaves, collected in North Mexico, afforded the known compounds hentriacontane (1) and (+)-13S,14R,15-trihydroxy-ent-labd-7-ene (2), as well as the new ent-labdane diterpene (−)-13S,14R,15-trihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-labd-8(9)-ene (3). In addition, D-glycero-D-galactoheptitol (4) was isolated from the methanolic extract of this plant. Their structures were established on the basis of high-field 1D- and 2D NMR methods supported by HR-MS data. The cytotoxic activity was determined by using the in vitro L5178Y-R lymphoma murine model. Hentriacontane (1) and the new ent-labdane 3 showed weak cytotoxicity, whereas the ent-labdane 2 showed significant (p < 0.05) and concentration dependent cytotoxicity (up to 78%) against L5178Y-R cells at concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 250 µg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Salvianolic Acid A Protects the Peripheral Nerve Function in Diabetic Rats through Regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 Axis
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11216-11228; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911216
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 6 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (2612 KB)
Abstract
Salvianolic acid A (SalA) is one of the main efficacious, water-soluble constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. This study investigated the protective effects of SalA on peripheral nerve in diabetic rats. Administration of SalA (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg, ig) was started from the
[...] Read more.
Salvianolic acid A (SalA) is one of the main efficacious, water-soluble constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. This study investigated the protective effects of SalA on peripheral nerve in diabetic rats. Administration of SalA (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg, ig) was started from the 5th week after strepotozotocin (STZ60 mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection and continued for 8 weeks. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) were used to assess peripheral nerve function. The western blot methods were employed to test the expression levels of serine-threonine liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), silent information regulator protein3 (sirtuin 3/Sirt3) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in sciatic nerve. Results showed that SalA administration could increase PWMT and MNCV in diabetic rats; reduce the deterioration of sciatic nerve pathology; increase AMPK phosphorylation level, up-regulate PGC-1α, Sirt3 and nNOS expression, but had no influence on LKB1. These results suggest that SalA has protective effects against diabetic neuropathy. The beneficial effects of SalA on peripheral nerve function in diabetic rats might be attributed to improvements in glucose metabolism through regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 axis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Honey
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11199-11215; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911199
Received: 15 July 2012 / Revised: 25 August 2012 / Accepted: 2 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Antioxidant Activity Potential of Lantadene A, a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid of Lantana Plants
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11185-11198; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911185
Received: 9 August 2012 / Revised: 8 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 19 September 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (336 KB)
Abstract
Lantadenes are pentacyclic triterpenoids present in the leaves of the plant Lantana camara. In the present study, in vitro antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of lantadene A was evaluated using established in vitro models such as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP),
[...] Read more.
Lantadenes are pentacyclic triterpenoids present in the leaves of the plant Lantana camara. In the present study, in vitro antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of lantadene A was evaluated using established in vitro models such as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•), hydroxyl radical (OH•), nitric oxide radical (NO•), superoxide anion scavenging activities and ferrous ion chelating assay. Interestingly, lantadene A showed considerable in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity activities in a dose dependant manner when compared with the standard antioxidant in nitric oxide scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and ferrous ion chelating assay. These findings show that the lantadene A possesses antioxidant activity with different mechanism of actions towards the different free radicals tested. Since lantadene A is a very popular drug in modern medicine, it is a promising candidate for use as an antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition of Hexane Extract of Citrus aurantifolia and Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Activity of Some of Its Constituents
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11173-11184; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911173
Received: 10 August 2012 / Revised: 12 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 19 September 2012
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (208 KB)
Abstract
The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the active compounds from the hexane extract of the fruit peels of Citrus aurantiifolia, which showed activity against one sensitive and three monoresistant (isoniazid, streptomycin or ethambutol) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
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The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the active compounds from the hexane extract of the fruit peels of Citrus aurantiifolia, which showed activity against one sensitive and three monoresistant (isoniazid, streptomycin or ethambutol) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The active extract was fractionated by column chromatography, yielding the following major compounds: 5-geranyloxypsoralen (1); 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (2); 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (3); 5-methoxypsoralen (4); and 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (5). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. In addition, GC-MS analysis of the hexane extract allowed the identification of 44 volatile compounds, being 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (15.79%), 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (8.27%), 1-methoxy-ciclohexene (8.0%), corylone (6.93%), palmitic acid (6.89%), 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (6.08%), a-terpineol (5.97%), and umbelliferone (4.36%), the major constituents. Four isolated coumarins and 16 commercial compounds identified by GC-MS were tested against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and three multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The constituents that showed activity against all strains were 5 (MICs = 25–50 mg/mL), 1 (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL), palmitic acid (MICs = 25–50 mg/mL), linoleic acid (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL), oleic acid (MICs = 100 mg/mL), 4-hexen-3-one (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL), and citral (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL). Compound 5 and palmitic acid were the most active ones. The antimycobacterial activity of the hexane extract of C. aurantifolia could be attributed to these compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Profile of Trifolium pratense L.
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11156-11172; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911156
Received: 20 August 2012 / Revised: 5 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (226 KB)
Abstract
In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of Trifolium pratense L. (Leguminosae) leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay.
[...] Read more.
In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of Trifolium pratense L. (Leguminosae) leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent) the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, in vivo experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx) in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of T. pratense leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined Trifolium pratense species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antitrypanosomal Alkaloids from the Marine Bacterium Bacillus pumilus
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11146-11155; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911146
Received: 18 July 2012 / Revised: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (210 KB)
Abstract
Fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus isolated from the black coral Antipathes sp. led to the isolation of five compounds: cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Pro) (1), 3-hydroxyacetylindole (2), N-acetyl-b-oxotryptamine (3
[...] Read more.
Fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus isolated from the black coral Antipathes sp. led to the isolation of five compounds: cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Pro) (1), 3-hydroxyacetylindole (2), N-acetyl-b-oxotryptamine (3), cyclo-(L-Phe-L-Pro) (4), and 3-formylindole (5). The structures of compounds 15 were established by spectroscopic analyses, including HRESITOF-MS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY). Compounds 2, 3 and 5 caused the inhibition on the growth of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), with IC50 values of 20.6, 19.4 and 26.9 μM, respectively, with moderate cytotoxicity against Vero cells. Compounds 15 were found to be inactive when tested against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani, therefore showing selectivity against T. cruzi parasites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of Peperomia pellucida L. (Ketumpangan Air) Grown in Malaysia
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11139-11145; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911139
Received: 19 July 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (184 KB)
Abstract
This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated Peperomia pellucida to be rich
[...] Read more.
This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated Peperomia pellucida to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22%) suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that Peperomia pellucida would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Crude Extracts on Starch Digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) Contents of Porridges
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11124-11138; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911124
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 27 August 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (240 KB)
Abstract
Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch,
[...] Read more.
Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
Open AccessArticle Biological Activity and Safety of Tripterygium Extract Prepared by Sodium Carbonate Extraction
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11113-11123; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules170911113
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (201 KB)
Abstract
The commercial preparation named “Tripterygium glycosides” prepared by column chromatography has been used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with significant efficacy but concurrent toxicity. The aim of this study was to reduce the toxicity of Tripterygium extracts, using cytotoxicity
[...] Read more.
The commercial preparation named “Tripterygium glycosides” prepared by column chromatography has been used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with significant efficacy but concurrent toxicity. The aim of this study was to reduce the toxicity of Tripterygium extracts, using cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of the three principal active components of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. (TWHF) as guiding parameters. Column chromatography was replaced by sodium carbonate extraction for removing the acidic compounds and enriching epoxyditerpenoids and alkaloids in the extract. Results showed that the therapeutic index (IC50/EC50) on murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cells and rat mesangial HBZY-1 cells of the extract prepared by sodium carbonate extraction was significantly higher than that of Tripterygium glycosides (0.8 and 5.2 vs. 0.3 and 2.6, p < 0.05), while its cytotoxicity on human liver HL7702 cells was significantly lower (14.5 ± 1.4 vs. 6.8 ± 0.9, p < 0.05). Further acute oral toxicity experiments showed that the LD50 value of this extract was 1,210 mg/kg compared to 257 mg/kg for Tripterygium glycosides. All the above results suggest that Tripterygium extract prepared by sodium carbonate extraction may represent a potentially optimal source of medicine with good therapeutic index. Full article
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