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Molecules, Volume 17, Issue 8 (August 2012), Pages 8735-9999

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Open AccessArticle Release of Terpenes from Fir Wood during Its Long-Term Use and in Thermal Treatment
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9990-9999; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089990
Received: 8 June 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Building structures made from fir wood are often attacked by wood-destroying insects for which the terpenes it contains serve as attractants. One of the possibilities for extending the lifetime of structures is to use older wood with a lower content of terpenes and/or
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Building structures made from fir wood are often attacked by wood-destroying insects for which the terpenes it contains serve as attractants. One of the possibilities for extending the lifetime of structures is to use older wood with a lower content of terpenes and/or thermally modified wood. The study evaluated the levels of terpenes in naturally aged fir wood (108, 146, 279, 287 and 390 years) and their decrease by thermal treatment (the temperature of 60 °C and 120 °C, treatment duration of 10 h). Terpenes were extracted from wood samples by hexane and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicate that recent fir wood contained approximately 60 times more terpenes than the oldest wood (186:3.1 mg/kg). The thermal wood treatment speeded up the release of terpenes. The temperature of 60 °C caused a loss in terpenes in the recent fir wood by 62%, the temperature of 120 °C even by >99%. After the treatment at the temperature of 60 °C the recent fir wood had approximately the same quantity of terpenes as non-thermally treated 108 year old wood, i.e., approximately 60–70 mg/kg. After the thermal treatment at the temperature of 120 °C the quantity of terpenes dropped in the recent as well as the old fir wood to minimum quantities (0.7–1.1 mg/kg). The thermal treatment can thus be used as a suitable method for the protection of fir wood from wood-destroying insects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle BCL::EMAS — Enantioselective Molecular Asymmetry Descriptor for 3D-QSAR
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9971-9989; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089971
Received: 29 June 2012 / Revised: 15 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Stereochemistry is an important determinant of a molecule’s biological activity. Stereoisomers can have different degrees of efficacy or even opposing effects when interacting with a target protein. Stereochemistry is a molecular property difficult to represent in 2D-QSAR as it is an inherently three-dimensional
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Stereochemistry is an important determinant of a molecule’s biological activity. Stereoisomers can have different degrees of efficacy or even opposing effects when interacting with a target protein. Stereochemistry is a molecular property difficult to represent in 2D-QSAR as it is an inherently three-dimensional phenomenon. A major drawback of most proposed descriptors for 3D-QSAR that encode stereochemistry is that they require a heuristic for defining all stereocenters and rank-ordering its substituents. Here we propose a novel 3D-QSAR descriptor termed Enantioselective Molecular ASymmetry (EMAS) that is capable of distinguishing between enantiomers in the absence of such heuristics. The descriptor aims to measure the deviation from an overall symmetric shape of the molecule. A radial-distribution function (RDF) determines a signed volume of tetrahedrons of all triplets of atoms and the molecule center. The descriptor can be enriched with atom-centric properties such as partial charge. This descriptor showed good predictability when tested with a dataset of thirty-one steroids commonly used to benchmark stereochemistry descriptors (r2 = 0.89, q2 = 0.78). Additionally, EMAS improved enrichment of 4.38 versus 3.94 without EMAS in a simulated virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) for inhibitors and substrates of cytochrome P450 (PUBCHEM AID891). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QSAR and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Synthesis of a Series of Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as CCR4 Antagonists
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9961-9970; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089961
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed and synthesized based on known CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) antagonists. The activities of all the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated using a chemotaxis inhibition assay. Compound 6b was proven to be a potent CCR4 antagonist
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A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed and synthesized based on known CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) antagonists. The activities of all the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated using a chemotaxis inhibition assay. Compound 6b was proven to be a potent CCR4 antagonist that can block cell chemotaxis induced by macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC), and CKLF1, the natural ligands of CCR4. In addition, compound 6b is more effective than budesonide in the murine rhinitis model. The intravenous injection LD50 of compound 6b is 175 mg/kg and the oral LD50 is greater than 2,000 mg/kg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Laminarin Induces Apoptosis of Human Colon Cancer LOVO Cells through a Mitochondrial Pathway
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9947-9960; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089947
Received: 21 July 2012 / Revised: 11 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (497 KB)
Abstract
Many scientific studies have shown that laminarin has anti-tumor effects, but the anti-tumor mechanism was unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laminarin on the induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer LOVO cells and the molecular mechanism
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Many scientific studies have shown that laminarin has anti-tumor effects, but the anti-tumor mechanism was unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laminarin on the induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer LOVO cells and the molecular mechanism involved. LOVO cells were treated with different concentrations of laminarin at different times. Morphology observations were performed to determine the effects of laminarin on apoptosis of LOVO cells. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pH. Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) was used to analyze intracellular calcium ion concentration, mitochondrion permeability transition pore (MPTP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Western blotd were performed to analyze the expressions of Cyt-C, Caspase-9 and -3. The results showed the apoptosis morphology, which showed cell protuberance, concentrated cytoplasm and apoptotic bodies, was obvious after 72 h treatment. Laminarin treatment for 24 h increased the intracellular level of ROS and Ca2+; decreased pH value; activated intracellular MPTP and decreased MMP in dose-dependent manners. It also induced the release of Cyt-C and the activation of Caspase-9 and -3. In conclusion, laminarin induces LOVO cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that it could be a potent agent for cancer prevention and treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Alkaloids Isolated from the Lateral Root of Aconitum carmichaelii
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9939-9946; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089939
Received: 24 July 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new alkaloids, aconicarmine (1) and aconicaramide (5), were isolated from the EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii, together with five known compounds: fuziline (2), neoline (3), N-ethylhokbusine B (
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Two new alkaloids, aconicarmine (1) and aconicaramide (5), were isolated from the EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii, together with five known compounds: fuziline (2), neoline (3), N-ethylhokbusine B (4), 5-hydroxymethylpyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (6), and oleracein E (7). Their structures were elucidated by physical and NMR analysis. Pyrrole alkaloids were isolated from A. carmichaelii for the first time. In the in vitro assays, compounds 2 and 3 showed activity against pentobarbital sodium-induced cardiomyocytes damage by obviously recovering beating rhythm and increasing the cell viability, while compounds 5 and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Growth Inhibitors of Adult T-Cell Leukemia (ATL), from the Jamaican Plant Hyptis verticillata, and NMR Characterization of Hyptoside
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9931-9938; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089931
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Through bioassay-guided isolation, five compounds with growth inhibitory activity on S1T, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell line, were isolated from the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-metastatic Semi-synthetic Sulfated Maltotriose C-C Linked Dimers. Synthesis and Characterisation
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9912-9930; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089912
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This manuscript describes the preparation and the spectroscopic characterisation of semi-synthetic sulfated maltotriose C-C linked dimers (SMTCs) where the natural C-O-C anomeric bond was substituted by one direct central C-C bond. This C-C bond induces conformation and flexibility changes with respect to the
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This manuscript describes the preparation and the spectroscopic characterisation of semi-synthetic sulfated maltotriose C-C linked dimers (SMTCs) where the natural C-O-C anomeric bond was substituted by one direct central C-C bond. This C-C bond induces conformation and flexibility changes with respect to the usual anomeric bond. SMTCs neutral precursors came from maltotriosyl bromide electroreduction through maltotriosyl radical intermediate dimerisation. The new C-C bond configuration, named for convenience a,a, a,b and b,b as the natural anomeric bond, dictated the statistic ratio formation of three diastereoisomers. They were separated by silica gel flash chromatography followed by semi preparative HPLC chromatography. Each diastereoisomer was exhaustively sulfated to afford the corresponding SMTCs. SMTCs were huge characterised by NMR spectroscopy which provided the sulfation degree, too. a,a and a,b were found quite homogeneous samples with a high degree of sulfation (85–95%). b,b appeared a non-homogeneous sample whose average sulfation degree was evaluated at around 78%. Mass spectroscopy experiments confirmed the sulfation degree range. Some considerations were proposed about SMTCs structure-biological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Formation of Aldehyde and Ketone Compounds during Production and Storage of Milk Powder
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9900-9911; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089900
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 5 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Certain aldehyde and ketone compounds can be used as indicators, at a molecular level, of the oxidized flavor of milk powder instead of sensory evaluation. This study investigated the formation of aldehyde and ketone compounds as affected by the heat-related processing and storage
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Certain aldehyde and ketone compounds can be used as indicators, at a molecular level, of the oxidized flavor of milk powder instead of sensory evaluation. This study investigated the formation of aldehyde and ketone compounds as affected by the heat-related processing and storage of milk powder. The compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction fiber and determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the results, higher contents of hexanal, 2-heptanone, octanal and 3-octen-2-one were detected in concentrated milk and fresh milk powders than in raw milk and heated milk. The levels of these compounds increased with increasing time of storage of milk powder. Meanwhile, the DPPH radical scavenging activity decreased and peroxide value increased during the production and storage of milk powder. In addition, the pore volume distribution of milk powder particle was determined by nitrogen isotherm adsorption. The porosity of milk powder was significantly correlated to the changes of aldehyde and ketone compounds during storages periods of 3 months (r > 0.689, p < 0.05) and 6 months (r > 0.806, p < 0.01). Therefore attention should be paid to the detectable aldehyde and ketone molecules to control the oxidized flavor, which was influenced by pre-heating as well as concentration and drying during milk powder production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Straightforward Synthesis of Novel 1-(2′-α-O-D-Glucopyranosyl ethyl) 2-Arylbenzimidazoles
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9887-9899; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089887
Received: 27 June 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of novel 1-(2′-α-O-D-glucopyranosyl ethyl) 2-arylbenzimidazoles has been prepared via one-pot glycosylation of ethyl-1-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-2-arylbenzimidazole-5-carboxylate derivatives. Synthesis of the 2-arylbenzimidazole aglycones from 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid was accomplished in four high-yielding steps. The reduction and cyclocondensation steps for the aglycone synthesis proceeded efficiently
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A series of novel 1-(2′-α-O-D-glucopyranosyl ethyl) 2-arylbenzimidazoles has been prepared via one-pot glycosylation of ethyl-1-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-2-arylbenzimidazole-5-carboxylate derivatives. Synthesis of the 2-arylbenzimidazole aglycones from 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid was accomplished in four high-yielding steps. The reduction and cyclocondensation steps for the aglycone synthesis proceeded efficiently under microwave irradiation to afford the appropriate benzimidazoles in excellent yields within 2–3 min. Glycosylation of the hydroxyethyl aglycones with the perbenzylated 1-hydroxy- glucopyranose, pretreated with the Appel-Lee reagent, followed by catalytic hydrogenolysis delivered the desired 1-(2′-α-O-D-glucopyranosyl ethyl) 2-aryl-benzimidazoles in a simple and straightforward manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Bioactivity Evaluation of New 6-Aryl-5-cyano Thiouracils as Potential Antimicrobial and Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9868-9886; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089868
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several novel 6-aryl-5-cyano thiouracil derivatives were synthesized and explored for their activities as antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer agents. The antimicrobial evaluation revealed that compounds 7b and 7c possessed superior antibacterial activity against the Gram positive bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis compared to
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Several novel 6-aryl-5-cyano thiouracil derivatives were synthesized and explored for their activities as antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer agents. The antimicrobial evaluation revealed that compounds 7b and 7c possessed superior antibacterial activity against the Gram positive bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis compared to the reference drug amoxicillin. Moreover, compound 4i was found to be a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent and it also exhibited the highest antifungal activity against C. albicans, even higher than the reference drug amphotericin B (MIC = 2.34, 3.00 μg/mL respectively). Selected compounds were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity at a single 10−5 M concentration in accordance to the NCI (USA) protocol. The preliminary screening results showed that most of the compounds had limited cytotoxic activity against renal cancer UO-31 and/or A498 cell lines. Nevertheless, compounds 6d and 6i displayed potent growth inhibitory effect toward non-small cell lung cancer HOP-92 and leukemia MOLT-4 cell lines, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Active Ingredients of Jiang-Zhi-Ning: Study of the Nelumbo nucifera Alkaloids and Their Main Bioactive Metabolites
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9855-9867; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089855
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The object of this study was to identify the major active ingredients of the Chinese Traditional Medicine Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN) based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of plasma samples obtained from beagle dogs at different times after intragastric administration of JZN,
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The object of this study was to identify the major active ingredients of the Chinese Traditional Medicine Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN) based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of plasma samples obtained from beagle dogs at different times after intragastric administration of JZN, crude JZN extracts, different extracted fractions, different subfractions of the active fraction and different isolated ingredients. 2-Hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphin (2H1M), an alkaloid from Nelumbo nucifera, one of the herbs that make up JZN, was identified as the constituent showing the major pharmacodynamic effect. The major metabolites of 2H1M were analyzed and identified as N-demethyl-2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid and 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-sulphate. This study provided a comprehensive insight into the active components of JZN. Full article
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Open AccessReview Bioprospecting of Marine Invertebrates for New Natural Products — A Chemical and Zoogeographical Perspective
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9842-9854; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089842
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs) has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or
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Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs) has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or molecules from specific chemical groups. The present review focuses on new NPs identified from marine invertebrates between 2000 and 2009, and performs a detailed analysis on: (1) the chemical groups of these NPs; (2) the association of particular chemical groups to specific marine invertebrate taxa; and (3) the yielding of molecules from the same chemical group from organisms occurring in a particular geographic region. Our survey revealed an increasing number of new terpenoids being discovered between 2000 and 2009, contrasting with the decreasing trend in the discovery of new alkaloids and aliphatic molecules. Overall, no particular association was identified between marine invertebrate taxa and chemical groups of new NPs. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that most NPs recorded from cnidarians and mollusks were terpenoids, while most NPs identified in echinoderms were aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates. The geographical trends observed in our study do not support the idea of particular chemical groups of new NPs being associated with marine invertebrates from any specific geographical region, as NPs from different chemical groups were commonly distributed worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessCommunication Towards Recyclable NAD(P)H Regeneration Catalysts
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9835-9841; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089835
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Rh(III)-TsDPEN, an immobilized analog of the well-known [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H2O)]2+ was evaluated as a heterogeneous, recyclable regeneration catalyst for reduced oxidoreductase cofactors [NAD(P)H]. Repeated use of this catalyst was established and the catalytic properties were initially investigated. Apparently, Rh(III)-TsDPEN is
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Rh(III)-TsDPEN, an immobilized analog of the well-known [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H2O)]2+ was evaluated as a heterogeneous, recyclable regeneration catalyst for reduced oxidoreductase cofactors [NAD(P)H]. Repeated use of this catalyst was established and the catalytic properties were initially investigated. Apparently, Rh(III)-TsDPEN is prone to severe diffusion limitations, necessitating further developments. Overall, a promising concept for chemoenzymatic redox catalysis is proposed, which may overcome some of the current limitations such as catalyst cost and incompatibility of Rh with some biocatalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions)
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Open AccessReview Microfluidic Approaches to Bacterial Biofilm Formation
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9818-9834; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089818
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 59 | PDF Full-text (1823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial biofilms—aggregations of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substrates (EPS)—are an important subject of research in the fields of biology and medical science. Under aquatic conditions, bacterial cells form biofilms as a mechanism for improving survival and dispersion. In this review, we discuss
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Bacterial biofilms—aggregations of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substrates (EPS)—are an important subject of research in the fields of biology and medical science. Under aquatic conditions, bacterial cells form biofilms as a mechanism for improving survival and dispersion. In this review, we discuss bacterial biofilm development as a structurally and dynamically complex biological system and propose microfluidic approaches for the study of bacterial biofilms. Biofilms develop through a series of steps as bacteria interact with their environment. Gene expression and environmental conditions, including surface properties, hydrodynamic conditions, quorum sensing signals, and the characteristics of the medium, can have positive or negative influences on bacterial biofilm formation. The influences of each factor and the combined effects of multiple factors may be addressed using microfluidic approaches, which provide a promising means for controlling the hydrodynamic conditions, establishing stable chemical gradients, performing measurement in a high-throughput manner, providing real-time monitoring, and providing in vivo-like in vitro culture devices. An increased understanding of biofilms derived from microfluidic approaches may be relevant to improving our understanding of the contributions of determinants to bacterial biofilm development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Activity of Lavender Oil on Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9803-9817; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089803
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The air-dried aerial parts of Lavandula angustifolia Mill, a traditional Uygur herbal drug, is used as resuscitation-inducing therapy to treat neurodisfunctions, such as stroke. This study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effects of lavender oil against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in mice.
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The air-dried aerial parts of Lavandula angustifolia Mill, a traditional Uygur herbal drug, is used as resuscitation-inducing therapy to treat neurodisfunctions, such as stroke. This study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effects of lavender oil against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the intraluminal occlusion method with a nylon string. The neurodysfuntion was evaluated by neurological deficit and the infarct area was showed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) in brain tissue were measured to estimate the oxidative stress state. Neurological deficit, infarct size, histopathology changes and oxidative stress markers were evaluated after 22 h of reperfusion. In comparison with the model group, treatment with lavender oil significantly decreased neurological deficit scores, infarct size, the levels of MDA, carbonyl and ROS, and attenuated neuronal damage, upregulated SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and GSH/GSSG ratio. These results suggested that the neuroprotective effects of lavender oil against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury may be attributed to its antioxidant effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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