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Molecules, Volume 17, Issue 8 (August 2012), Pages 8735-9999

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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 9,9′-[1,2-Ethanediylbis(oxymethylene)]bis-2-amino-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one, an Impurity of Acyclovir
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8735-8741; doi:10.3390/molecules17088735
Received: 16 June 2012 / Revised: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The synthesis of 9,9'-[1,2-ethanediylbis(oxymethylene)]bis-2-amino-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one, a minor impurity of acyclovir, is described. Starting with commercial N-(9-acetyl-6-oxo-1H-purin-2-yl)acetamide, the process uses an acid catalysed phase transfer catalysis (PTC) process to produce the selective alkylation at the 9 position of the guanine ring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle Negative-Pressure Cavitation Extraction of Four Main Vinca Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus Leaves
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8742-8752; doi:10.3390/molecules17088742
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 11 July 2012 / Accepted: 13 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, an improved method termed negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE) followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for the extraction and quantification of vindoline (VDL), catharanthine (CTR), vincristine (VCR) and vinblastine (VLB) from Catharanthus roseus leaves. The optimized
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In the present study, an improved method termed negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE) followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for the extraction and quantification of vindoline (VDL), catharanthine (CTR), vincristine (VCR) and vinblastine (VLB) from Catharanthus roseus leaves. The optimized method employed 60-mesh particles, 80% ethanol, a negative pressure of −0.075 MPa, a solid to liquid ratio of 1:20, 30 min of extraction and three extraction cycles. Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of VDL, CTR, VCR and VLB are 0.5783, 0.2843, 0.018 and 0.126 mg/g DW, respectively. These extraction yields are equivalent to those from the well-known ultrasonic extraction method and higher than the yields from maceration extraction and heating reflux extraction. Our results suggest that NPCE-RP-HPLC represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and quantification of vinca alkaloids for pilot- and industrial-scale applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Enzymatic Process for Vanillin Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8753-8761; doi:10.3390/molecules17088753
Received: 23 May 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vanillin was extracted from vanilla beans using pretreatment with cellulase to produce enzymatic hydrolysis, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the processing parameters of this extraction. The effects of heating time, enzyme quantity and temperature on enzymatic extraction of vanillin
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Vanillin was extracted from vanilla beans using pretreatment with cellulase to produce enzymatic hydrolysis, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the processing parameters of this extraction. The effects of heating time, enzyme quantity and temperature on enzymatic extraction of vanillin were evaluated. Extraction yield (mg/g) was used as the response value. The results revealed that the increase in heating time and the increase in enzyme quantity (within certain ranges) were associated with an enhancement of extraction yield, and that the optimal conditions for vanillin extraction were: Heating time 6 h, temperature 60 °C and enzyme quantity 33.5 mL. Calculated from the final polynomial functions, the optimal response of vanillin extraction yield was 7.62 mg/g. The predicted results for optimal reaction conditions were in good agreement with experimental values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Testing of New Amido-Substituted Triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBDT) Derivatives
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8762-8772; doi:10.3390/molecules17088762
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (270 KB)
Abstract
A series of amido-substituted triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBDT) derivatives was synthesized from isatoic anhydride, and their cytotoxicity against the MRC-5 and Mahlavu cell lines was evaluated. The results suggest that compound PBDT-7i with the meta-trifluoromethylbenzoyl substituent can selectively inhibit the
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A series of amido-substituted triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBDT) derivatives was synthesized from isatoic anhydride, and their cytotoxicity against the MRC-5 and Mahlavu cell lines was evaluated. The results suggest that compound PBDT-7i with the meta-trifluoromethylbenzoyl substituent can selectively inhibit the growth of Mahlavu cells and has low toxicity towards MRC-5 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Two New Compounds Isolated from Liriope muscari
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8773-8781; doi:10.3390/molecules17088773
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (298 KB)
Abstract
Two new compounds, (2S,3R)-methyl 7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-carboxylate (1) and (4R,5S)-5-(3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4-isopropyldihydrofuran-2-one (2), tentatively named norcurlignan and limlactone, respectively, were isolated from Liriope muscari, together with the known compound (−)-pinoresinol (3). The
[...] Read more.
Two new compounds, (2S,3R)-methyl 7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-carboxylate (1) and (4R,5S)-5-(3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4-isopropyldihydrofuran-2-one (2), tentatively named norcurlignan and limlactone, respectively, were isolated from Liriope muscari, together with the known compound (−)-pinoresinol (3). The structures of these compounds were elucidated and characterized on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR, CD and MS data. The in vitro antioxidant activities of compounds 13 were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods. Full article
Open AccessArticle Investigation of Non-Enzymatic Glycosylation of Human Serum Albumin Using Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8782-8794; doi:10.3390/molecules17088782
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 8 July 2012 / Accepted: 13 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (772 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Non-enzymatic glycosylation or glycation involves covalent attachment of reducing sugar residues to proteins without enzyme participation. Glycation of glucose to human serum albumin in vivo is related to diabetes and many other diseases. We present an approach using liquid chromatography coupled to an
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Non-enzymatic glycosylation or glycation involves covalent attachment of reducing sugar residues to proteins without enzyme participation. Glycation of glucose to human serum albumin in vivo is related to diabetes and many other diseases. We present an approach using liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization source of a hybrid ion trap-time of flight (IT-TOF-MS/MS) tandem mass spectrometer to identify the glycation sites on serum albumin from both a healthy person and a diabetic patient. The MetID software, which is commonly used for screening metabolites, is adapted for peptide fingerprinting based on both m/z values and isotopic distribution profiles. A total of 21 glycation sites from the healthy person and 16 glycation sites from the diabetic patient were identified successfully. We also demonstrate the use of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to estimate the incorporation ratio of glucose to albumin during glycation. Results from this study show that the glycation in healthy person is more complicated than previously thought. Further analysis of incorporation ratio distribution may be necessary to accurately reflect the change of serum albumin glycation in diabetic patients. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication On the Reaction of 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran and (2-Iodoethynyl)(phenyl)iodonium Triflate. A Unique Case of Oxygen Transfer from the Diels-Alder Adduct to the Diene
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8795-8803; doi:10.3390/molecules17088795
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 26 June 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Reaction of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPIBF) with 2-(iodoethynyl)(phenyl)-iodonium triflate at room temperature gave the expected Diels-Alder adduct, but using an excess of DFIBF (2 equiv.) and performing the reaction at 55 °C or heating at this temperature during the concentration stage, the initial orange solution
[...] Read more.
Reaction of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPIBF) with 2-(iodoethynyl)(phenyl)-iodonium triflate at room temperature gave the expected Diels-Alder adduct, but using an excess of DFIBF (2 equiv.) and performing the reaction at 55 °C or heating at this temperature during the concentration stage, the initial orange solution or product mixture became dark brown and the products 1,2-phenylene-1,2-bis(phenylmethanone) and 2-(3-iodo-1,4-diphenylnaphthyl)(phenyl)iodonium triflate were obtained, which suggests an oxygen transfer between DPIBF and the initial adduct. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diels-Alder Reaction)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8804-8821; doi:10.3390/molecules17088804
Received: 14 May 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total
[...] Read more.
The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Some Novel Biologically Active Disperse Dyes Derived from 4-Methyl-2,6-dioxo-1-propyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-pyridine-3-carbonitrile as Coupling Component and Their Colour Assessment on Polyester Fabrics
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8822-8831; doi:10.3390/molecules17088822
Received: 7 June 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of novel azo-disperse dyes containing alkylhydrazonopyridinone structures were synthesized. 4-Methyl-2,6-dioxo-1-propyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (8) is synthesized by one-pot synthesis using ethyl cyanoacetate, propylamine, and ethyl acetoacetate. Compound 8 is then coupled with aromatic and heteroaromatic diazonium salts to afford the corresponding aryl-
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A series of novel azo-disperse dyes containing alkylhydrazonopyridinone structures were synthesized. 4-Methyl-2,6-dioxo-1-propyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (8) is synthesized by one-pot synthesis using ethyl cyanoacetate, propylamine, and ethyl acetoacetate. Compound 8 is then coupled with aromatic and heteroaromatic diazonium salts to afford the corresponding aryl- and heteroaryl-4-methyl-2,6-dioxo-1-propyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitriles 12a,b and 13a–c. Structural assignments to the dyes were made using NMR spectroscopic methods. A high temperature dyeing method was employed to apply these dyes to polyester fabrics. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed very good light fastness levels and good wash fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the prepared dyes against Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Activity of 23-Hydroxybetulinic Acid C-28 Ester Derivatives as Antitumor Agent Candidates
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8832-8841; doi:10.3390/molecules17088832
Received: 29 May 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (227 KB)
Abstract
23-Hydroxybetulinic acid (1) served as the precursor for the synthesis of C-28 ester derivatives. The target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antitumor activities against five cell lines (A549, BEL-7402, SF-763, B16 and HL-60). Among the obtained compounds, 6i
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23-Hydroxybetulinic acid (1) served as the precursor for the synthesis of C-28 ester derivatives. The target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antitumor activities against five cell lines (A549, BEL-7402, SF-763, B16 and HL-60). Among the obtained compounds, 6i had the most potent antitumor activity, with the IC50 values of 8.35 µM in HL-60 cells and showed similar antitumor activity as cyclophosphamide in H22 liver tumor and as 5-fluorouracil in B16 melanoma in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Total Flavone of Cunninghamia lanceolata
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8842-8850; doi:10.3390/molecules17088842
Received: 21 May 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 13 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (260 KB)
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of total flavone of branches and leaves of Cunninghamia lanceolata (TFC) to provide a scientific basis for its clinical use and resource development. TFC was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity
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The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of total flavone of branches and leaves of Cunninghamia lanceolata (TFC) to provide a scientific basis for its clinical use and resource development. TFC was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in mice or rats using chemical and thermal models of nociception, including acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate latency test, formalin test and carrageenan induced paw oedema test. Results showed that TFC given orally can significantly attenuate acetic acid-induced writhing in mice in a dose-dependent manner. In the hot plate latency test, TFC showed common activity in prolonging duration time only at the highest dose (400 mg/kg). Each dose of TFC could not significantly inhibit the first phase but was active in the later phase of formalin-induced pain, whereas morphine showed notable activity in the two phases. In the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model, TFC could significantly and dose-dependently reduce the carrageenan-induced paw edema at the third and fifth hour, and decrease the content of PEG2 in paw edema tissue and that of COX-2 in blood serum. It may be concluded that TFC showed both anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, showing that it can be of importance in drug development, especially in the field of pain and inflammation. Full article
Open AccessArticle An ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene in Croton antisyphiliticus Mart.
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8851-8858; doi:10.3390/molecules17088851
Received: 9 May 2012 / Revised: 13 June 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Croton antisyphiliticus is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of microbial infections, especially those affecting the genital tract. Crude extract, fractions and pure compound isolated from roots of this species were investigated to validate their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and
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Croton antisyphiliticus is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of microbial infections, especially those affecting the genital tract. Crude extract, fractions and pure compound isolated from roots of this species were investigated to validate their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The compound ent-kaur-16-en-18-oic acid was isolated as a major component (0.7% of crude extract), and its MIC value determined against S. aureus (ATCC 6538) was 250 μg/mL. This is the first phytochemical work on the species monitored with antimicrobial assay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessCommunication Amperometric Biosensor for Oxalate Determination in Urine Using Sequential Injection Analysis
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8859-8871; doi:10.3390/molecules17088859
Received: 16 May 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An amperometric flow biosensor for oxalate determination in urine samples after enzymatic reaction with oxalate oxidase immobilized on a modified magnetic solid is described. The solid was magnetically retained on the electrode surface of an electrode modified with Fe (III)-tris-(2-thiopyridone) borate placed into
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An amperometric flow biosensor for oxalate determination in urine samples after enzymatic reaction with oxalate oxidase immobilized on a modified magnetic solid is described. The solid was magnetically retained on the electrode surface of an electrode modified with Fe (III)-tris-(2-thiopyridone) borate placed into a sequential injection system preceding the amperometric detector. The variables involved in the system such as flow rate, aspired volumes (modified magnetic suspension and sample) and reaction coil length were evaluated using a Taguchi parameter design. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of oxalate was linear between 3.0–50.0 mg·L−1, with a limit of detection of 1.0 mg·L−1. The repeatability for a 30.0 mg·L−1 oxalate solution was 0.7%. The method was validated by comparing the obtained results to those provided by the spectrophotometric method; no significant differences were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Screening and Analysis of the Potential Bioactive Components in Rabbit Plasma after Oral Administration of Hot-Water Extracts from Leaves of Bambusa textilis McClure
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8872-8885; doi:10.3390/molecules17088872
Received: 8 June 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bambusa textilis McClure is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant belonging to the Bambusoideae subfamily and used to treat chronic fever and infectious diseases. To investigate the bioactive compounds absorbed in the rabbit blood after oral administration of hot-water extracts from the
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Bambusa textilis McClure is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant belonging to the Bambusoideae subfamily and used to treat chronic fever and infectious diseases. To investigate the bioactive compounds absorbed in the rabbit blood after oral administration of hot-water extracts from the leaves of B. textilis McClure, a validated chromatographic fingerprint method was established using LC-Q-TOF-MS. Twenty compounds in bamboo leaves and three potential bioactive compounds in rabbit plasma were detected. Of the twenty detected compounds in vitro, fifteen of which were tentatively identified either by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with that of reference compounds or by reviewing the literature. Three potential bioactive compounds, including (E)-p-coumaric acid, (Z)-p-coumaric acid, and apigenin-8-C-β-D-(2"-O-α-L-rhamnosyl)-gluco-pyranoside, were detected in both the leaves of B. textilis McClure and rabbit plasma. Of the three compounds, apigenin-8-C-β-D-(2"-O-α-L-rhamnosyl)glucopyranoside was identified based on its UV, MS, and NMR spectra. This study provides helpful chemical information for further pharmacology and active mechanism research on B. textilis McClure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Polyphenols Extract of Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) on Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8886-8897; doi:10.3390/molecules17088886
Received: 11 June 2012 / Revised: 15 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study examines the effect of polyphenols extract of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) (APE) on high cholesterol diet fed rats (HCD). APE was orally administrated by gavage at doses of 10, 40 and 200 mg total phenolics/kg
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The present study examines the effect of polyphenols extract of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) (APE) on high cholesterol diet fed rats (HCD). APE was orally administrated by gavage at doses of 10, 40 and 200 mg total phenolics/kg body weight of rats once a day for 28 days. At the end of four weeks, serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and markers of oxidative stress viz., malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the serum and liver of HCD and normal rats were assessed and compared. The results showed that administration of APE was significantly effective in decreasing the serum levels of TC, LDL-C and MDA, increasing the serum level of HDL-C and antioxidant capacity. In addition, oral gavage of APE could also increase the antioxidant capacity, CAT and GSH-Px activities in liver. These results suggested that APE exerted a high hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities, which might be characterized by a protective effect on cardiovascular health in vivo. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Photodegradation of Quercetin: Relation to Oxidation
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8898-8907; doi:10.3390/molecules17088898
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The photostability of quercetin in alcoholic solutions was studied. Both UVA and UVB light induced degradation of quercetin, yielding a single product 1 deriving from oxidation and addition of an alcohol molecule to the 2,3 double bond. The same mechanism operated when quercetin
[...] Read more.
The photostability of quercetin in alcoholic solutions was studied. Both UVA and UVB light induced degradation of quercetin, yielding a single product 1 deriving from oxidation and addition of an alcohol molecule to the 2,3 double bond. The same mechanism operated when quercetin was dissolved in alkaline solutions, and again a product 2 due to oxidation and addition of water was characterized. Comparison with quercetin analogs confirmed that, despite the presence of five hydroxy groups in quercetin, those in positions 3, 3′, and 4′ are mainly involved in the antioxidant activity of the compound , as well as in its photolability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of ent-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8908-8916; doi:10.3390/molecules17088908
Received: 29 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 23 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH)2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was
[...] Read more.
Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH)2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry 2012)
Open AccessArticle Gastroprotection of Suaveolol, Isolated from Hyptis suaveolens, against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Wistar Rats: Role of Prostaglandins, Nitric Oxide and Sulfhydryls
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8917-8927; doi:10.3390/molecules17088917
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 23 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hyptis suaveolens is a medicinal plant that is, according to traditional medicine, considered useful in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Although its gastroprotective activity was reported, the active compounds have not been identified. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify
[...] Read more.
Hyptis suaveolens is a medicinal plant that is, according to traditional medicine, considered useful in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Although its gastroprotective activity was reported, the active compounds have not been identified. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify at least one active compound potentially responsible for the gastroprotective activity of H. suaveolens by using a bioassay guided study with an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer experimental model in rats. The results show that the hexane extract had protective activity (close to 70% when using doses between 10 and 100 mg/kg), and that the compound suaveolol, isolated from this extract, was one of the active gastroprotective agents. This is the first report about the gastroprotective activity of suaveolol. Rats treated with this compound at 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg showed 12.6, 21.3, 39.6 and 70.2% gastroprotection respectively. The effect elicited by suaveolol (at 100 mg/kg) was attenuated by pretreatment with either NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (70 mg/kg, i.p.), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c.), a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg, s.c.), a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggests that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of this compound involves NO, prostaglandins and sulfhydryl groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Anti-Platelet Aggregation and Vasorelaxing Effects of the Constituents of the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8928-8937; doi:10.3390/molecules17088928
Received: 10 May 2012 / Revised: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol (1). Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation
[...] Read more.
In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol (1). Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation of their antiplatelet aggregation and vasorelaxing bioactivities. Among the tested compounds, [6]-gingerol (13) and [6]-shogaol (17) exhibited potent anti-platelet aggregation bioactivity. In addition, [10]-gingerol (15) inhibited the Ca2+-dependent contractions in high K+ medium. According to the results in the present research, the bioactivity of ginger could be related to the anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing mechanism. Full article
Open AccessArticle Detection of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix in Complex Preparations by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8938-8954; doi:10.3390/molecules17088938
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Detection of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix (PAR) in different complex preparations is challenging due to the relatively lower content of PAR and interference from more complicated components in complex preparations with different multiple constituent herbs. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography-
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Detection of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix (PAR) in different complex preparations is challenging due to the relatively lower content of PAR and interference from more complicated components in complex preparations with different multiple constituent herbs. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography- triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for detecting sulfur-fumigated PAR in different complex preparations. Paeoniflorin, the major component of PAR, and paeoniflorin sulfonate, the characteristic artifact transformed from paeoniflorin during sulfur-fumigation of PAR, were used as chemical markers. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan was employed to maximize sensitivity and selectivity. Through optimizing full mass scan and daughter ion scan conditions, two mass transitions were selected and employed respectively for unequivocal identification of paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate. The detection limits for paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate using MRM were much lower than those detected with UV 270 nm. Paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate could be simultaneously detected in different commercial PAR-containing complex preparations without interference of other components using the established method, indicating that the newly established method was selective and sensitive enough for screening sulfur-fumigated PAR in commercial complex preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Syntheses of Enantiopure Aliphatic Secondary Alcohols and Acetates by Bioresolution with Lipase B from Candida antarctica
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8955-8967; doi:10.3390/molecules17088955
Received: 24 April 2012 / Revised: 27 June 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435®, CALB) efficiently catalyzed the kinetic resolution of some aliphatic secondary alcohols: (±)-4-methylpentan-2-ol (1), (±)-5-methylhexan-2-ol (3), (±)-octan-2-ol (4), (±)-heptan-3-ol (5) and (±)-oct-1-en-3-ol (6). The
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The lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435®, CALB) efficiently catalyzed the kinetic resolution of some aliphatic secondary alcohols: (±)-4-methylpentan-2-ol (1), (±)-5-methylhexan-2-ol (3), (±)-octan-2-ol (4), (±)-heptan-3-ol (5) and (±)-oct-1-en-3-ol (6). The lipase showed excellent enantioselectivities in the transesterifications of racemic aliphatic secondary alcohols producing the enantiopure alcohols (>99% ee) and acetates (>99% ee) with good yields. Kinetic resolution of rac-alcohols was successfully achieved with CALB lipase using simple conditions, vinyl acetate as acylating agent, and hexane as non-polar solvent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocatalysis and Biotransformations in Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Polyphenolic Profile and Nutritional Value of Non-Traditional Fruit Species in the Czech Republic — A Comparative Study
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8968-8981; doi:10.3390/molecules17088968
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dry matter, organic acids, ascorbic acid, minerals (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium) and polyphenolic profile of a number of non-traditional fruit species and their genotypes, namely blue honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.), Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), black mulberry (Morus nigra
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Dry matter, organic acids, ascorbic acid, minerals (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium) and polyphenolic profile of a number of non-traditional fruit species and their genotypes, namely blue honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.), Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), black mulberry (Morus nigra), Tomentosa cherry (Prunus tomentosa Thunb.) and jostaberry (Ribes nigrum x Grossularia uva-crispa) were investigated. The results showed that Lonicera genotypes displayed high levels of ascorbic acid and they were rich in minerals, with the cultivar ‘Amfora’ achieving the leading position in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content among all lesser known fruit species. Amelanchier cultivars represented a valuable source of ascorbic acid and calcium, ‘Tišňovský’ and ‘Smoky’ together with Morus nigra ‘Jugoslavska’ accumulated the highest level of examined polyphenolic compounds. Regular consumption of studied less common fruit species can bring health benefits so they can represent a high potential value for fruit growers and in addition they can be utilised as functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Prediction of Acute Mammalian Toxicity Using QSAR Methods: A Case Study of Sulfur Mustard and Its Breakdown Products
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 8982-9001; doi:10.3390/molecules17088982
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 19 July 2012 / Accepted: 23 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR), has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance’s database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that
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Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR), has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance’s database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (the LD50) for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD50 value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD50 value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s) of interest, during emergency responses, LD50 values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD50 models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD) are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD50 values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QSAR and Its Applications)
Open AccessArticle Preparative Isolation and Purification of Three Sesquiterpenoid Lactones from Eupatorium lindleyanum DC. by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9002-9009; doi:10.3390/molecules17089002
Received: 20 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for the preparative separation of three sesquiterpenoid lactones from Eupatorium lindleyanum DC. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:4:2:3, v/v/v/v) was selected. From 540 mg of the n-butanol fraction of Eupatorium
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A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for the preparative separation of three sesquiterpenoid lactones from Eupatorium lindleyanum DC. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:4:2:3, v/v/v/v) was selected. From 540 mg of the n-butanol fraction of Eupatorium lindleyanum DC., 10.8 mg of 3β-hydroxy-8β-[4'-hydroxy-tigloyloxy]-costunolide, 17.9 mg of eupalinolide A and 19.3 mg of eupalinolide B were obtained in a one-step HSCCC separation, with purities of 91.8%, 97.9% and 97.1%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. Their structures were further identified by ESI-MS and 1H-NMR. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chiral Zn(II)-Bisamidine Complex as a Lewis-Brønsted Combined Acid Catalyst: Application to Asymmetric Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions of α-Ketoesters
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9010-9022; doi:10.3390/molecules17089010
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 21 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 July 2012 / Published: 30 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (967 KB) | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Focusing on the steric and electronic properties of the resonance-stabilized amidine framework, a cationic metal-bisamidine complex was designed as a conjugated combined Lewis-Brønsted acid catalyst. The chiral Zn(II)-bisamidine catalyst prepared from the 2,2'-bipyridyl derived bisamidine ligand, ZnCl2, and AgSbF6 promoted
[...] Read more.
Focusing on the steric and electronic properties of the resonance-stabilized amidine framework, a cationic metal-bisamidine complex was designed as a conjugated combined Lewis-Brønsted acid catalyst. The chiral Zn(II)-bisamidine catalyst prepared from the 2,2'-bipyridyl derived bisamidine ligand, ZnCl2, and AgSbF6 promoted asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction of α-ketoester and α,α-disubstituted silyl enol ether to afford the α-hydroxyester having sequential quarternary carbons in good yield, albeit with low enantioselectivity. Addition of 1.0 equivalent of the fluoroalcohol having suitable acidity and bulkiness dramatically increased the enantioselectivity (up to 68% ee). DFT calculations suggested that this additive effect would be caused by self-assembly of the fluoroalcohol on the Zn(II)-bisamidine catalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stereoselective Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Antigenicity Against Human Sera and Structure-Activity Relationships of Carbohydrate Moieties from Toxocara larvae and Their Analogues
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9023-9042; doi:10.3390/molecules17089023
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 23 July 2012 / Published: 30 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stereocontrolled syntheses of biotin-labeled oligosaccharide portions containing the Galβ1-3GalNAc core of the TES-glycoprotein antigen obtained from larvae of the parasite Toxocara and their analogues have been accomplished. Trisaccharides Fuc2Meα1-2Gal4Meβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (A), Fucα1-2Gal4Meβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (B), Fuc2Meα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (C), Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (D
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Stereocontrolled syntheses of biotin-labeled oligosaccharide portions containing the Galβ1-3GalNAc core of the TES-glycoprotein antigen obtained from larvae of the parasite Toxocara and their analogues have been accomplished. Trisaccharides Fuc2Meα1-2Gal4Meβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (A), Fucα1-2Gal4Meβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (B), Fuc2Meα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (C), Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-OR (D) and a disaccharide Fuc2Meα1-2Gal4Meβ1-OR (E) (R = biotinylated probe) were synthesized by block synthesis using 5-(methoxycarbonyl)pentyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1®3)-2-azide-4-O-benzyl-2-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside as a common glycosyl acceptor. We examined the antigenicity of these five oligosaccharides by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results demonstrate that the O-methyl groups in these oligosaccharides are important for their antigenicity and the biotinylated oligosaccharides A, B, C and E have high serodiagnostic potential to detect infections caused by Toxocara larvae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry 2012)
Open AccessArticle Acuminatol and Other Antioxidative Resveratrol Oligomers from the Stem Bark of Shorea acuminata
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9043-9055; doi:10.3390/molecules17089043
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 30 July 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new resveratrol dimer, acuminatol (1), was isolated along with five known compounds from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Shorea acuminata. Their structures and stereochemistry were determined by spectroscopic methods, which included the extensive use of 2D
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A new resveratrol dimer, acuminatol (1), was isolated along with five known compounds from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Shorea acuminata. Their structures and stereochemistry were determined by spectroscopic methods, which included the extensive use of 2D NMR techniques. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (RSA) and the β-carotene-linoleic acid (BCLA) assays, and compared with those of the standards of ascorbic acid (AscA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). All compounds tested exhibited good to moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (IC50s 0.84 to 10.06 mM) and displayed strong inhibition of β-carotene oxidation (IC50s 0.10 to 0.22 mM). The isolated compounds were evaluated on the Vero cell line and were found to be non-cytotoxic with LC50 values between 161 to 830 µM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Cationic Glycidyl-Based Poly(aminoester)-Folic Acid Targeting Conjugates and Study on Gene Delivery
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9056-9069; doi:10.3390/molecules17089056
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 July 2012 / Published: 30 July 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new poly(aminoester) (EPAE-FA) containing folic acid and amino groups in the backbone and side chain was synthesized. EPAE-FA self-assembled readily with the plasmid DNA (pCMV-βgal) in HEPES buffer and was characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, fluorescence images, and XTT cell
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A new poly(aminoester) (EPAE-FA) containing folic acid and amino groups in the backbone and side chain was synthesized. EPAE-FA self-assembled readily with the plasmid DNA (pCMV-βgal) in HEPES buffer and was characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, fluorescence images, and XTT cell viability assays. To evaluate the transfection effect of graft ratio of FA on the EPAE system, EPAE-FA polymers with two different graft ratios (EPAE-FA12k and EPAE-FA14k) were also prepared. This study found that all EPAE-FA polymers were able to bind plasmid DNA and yielded positively charged complexes with nano-sized particles ( < 200 nm). To assess the transfection efficiency mediated by EPAE and EPAE-FA polymers, we performed in vitro transfection activity assays using FR-negative (COS-7) and FR-positive (HeLa) cells. The EPAE-FA12k/DNA and EPAE-FA14k/DNA complexes were able to transfect HeLa cell in vitro with higher transfection efficiency than PEI25k/DNA at the similar weight ratio. These results demonstrated that the introduction of FA into EPAE system had a significant effect on transferring ability for FR-positive cells (HeLa). Examination of the cytotoxicity of PEI25k and EPAE-FA system revealed that EPAE-FA system had lower cytotoxicity. In this paper, EPAE-FA seemed to be a novel cationic poly(aminoester) for gene delivery and an interesting candidate for further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Pharmacological Function of Ulinastatin in Experimental Animals
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9070-9080; doi:10.3390/molecules17089070
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 21 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organ protection is a routine therapy in severe injuries. Our aim was to evaluate the beneficial effects of ulinastatin in experimental rats. Rats were randomly divided into a sham control, a model control and an ulinastatin-treated group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)
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Organ protection is a routine therapy in severe injuries. Our aim was to evaluate the beneficial effects of ulinastatin in experimental rats. Rats were randomly divided into a sham control, a model control and an ulinastatin-treated group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined. Serum amylase, serum aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CKMD) activities, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and cardiac troponin I (nTnl) levels were examined. Results showed that ulinastatin decreased MDA levels and ameliorated the down-regulation of SOD activity. In addition, ulinastatin pretreatment may decrease serum AST, LDH and CKMD activities, IL-8, TNF-α, and nTnl levels, and enhance NO level. Our results demonstrated that oxidative injury occurred after IR and that ulinastatin exhibits significant protective effects against these effects. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Vitamin D Treatment on Skeletal Muscle Histology and Ultrastructural Changes in a Rodent Model
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9081-9089; doi:10.3390/molecules17089081
Received: 22 May 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D is well known for its role in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and in promoting bone mineralization; however, more of its pleiotropic effects have been described recently. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of vitamin D
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Vitamin D is well known for its role in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and in promoting bone mineralization; however, more of its pleiotropic effects have been described recently. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of vitamin D treatment on skeletal muscles changes under different dietary conditions using an animal model. Four groups of C57BL/6J mice (n = 11 each) were maintained on either low fat diet (LFD) or high fat diet ‎‎(HFD) with and without 1α,25–dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) for 16 weeks. Animal weigh was recorded at baseline and then regular intervals, and at the end of the study, skeletal muscle tissues were harvested for the evaluation of the histopathological and ultrastructural changes. When control C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat diet for 12 weeks, body weight gain was significantly increased compared with mice fed a LFD. (30.2% vs. 8.4%, p < 0.01). There was a significant gradual decrease in the weight of HFD fed mice that were treated with vitamin D as compared with a steady increase in the weights of controls (6.8% vs. 28.7%, p < 0.01). While the LFD group showed some ultrastructural changes, HDF fed on mice showed great muscle structural abnormalities. The whole sarcosome along with its membrane and cristae were severely damaged with scattered myocytes in HFD group. Furthermore, the mitochondria appeared weak and were on the verge of degenerations. The bands were diminished with loss of connections among myofibrils. These changes were attenuated in the HFD group treated with vitamin D with tissues have regained their normal structural appearance. The current findings indicate an important effect of vitamin D on skeletal muscle histology under HFD conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of New Phosphorus-Containing (Co)Polyesters Using Solid-Liquid Phase Transfer Catalysis and Product Characterization
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9090-9103; doi:10.3390/molecules17089090
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (290 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is directed towards the development of safe, and thermally stable solid polymer electrolytes. Linear phosphorus-containing (co)polyesters are described, including their synthesis, thermal analysis, conductivity, and non-flammability. Polycondensation of phenylphosphonic dichloride (PPD) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 12000) with and without bisphenol A
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This paper is directed towards the development of safe, and thermally stable solid polymer electrolytes. Linear phosphorus-containing (co)polyesters are described, including their synthesis, thermal analysis, conductivity, and non-flammability. Polycondensation of phenylphosphonic dichloride (PPD) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 12000) with and without bisphenol A (BA) was carried out using solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis. Potassium phosphate is used as base. Yields in the range of 85.0–88.0%, and inherent viscosities in the range of 0.32–0.58 dL/g were obtained. The polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, FT-IR, 1H- and 31P-NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Their flammability was investigated by measuring limiting oxygen index values. The polymers are flame retardants and begin to lose weight in the 190 °C–231 °C range. Solid phosphorus- containing (co)polyesters were complexed with lithium triflate and the resulting ionic conductivity was determined. Conductivities in the range of 10−7–10−8 S cm−1 were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transfer Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Ursolic Acid Inhibits Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Injury and Prevents Development of Lung Cancer
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9104-9115; doi:10.3390/molecules17089104
Received: 8 June 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cigarette smoking is the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. The present study was aimed to explore the chemopreventive effect of ursolic acid (UA) on these diseases. In the CSE treated normal human bronchial epithelial cell model, UA alleviated
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Cigarette smoking is the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. The present study was aimed to explore the chemopreventive effect of ursolic acid (UA) on these diseases. In the CSE treated normal human bronchial epithelial cell model, UA alleviated cytotoxicity caused by CSE, recovered the intracellular redox balance, and relieved the stimulation of external deleterious factors as well. UA mitigated CSE-induced DNA damage through the Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) pathway. Moreover, UA inhibited lung cancer development in the model established by A549 cells in nude mice in vivo. For the first time, our results indicate that UA could be developed as a potential lung cancer chemopreventive agent. Full article
Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Chlorella-Derived Peptide Against UVC-Induced Cytotoxicity through Inhibition of Caspase-3 Activity and Reduction of the Expression of Phosphorylated FADD and Cleaved PARP-1 in Skin Fibroblasts
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9116-9128; doi:10.3390/molecules17089116
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
UVC irradiation induces oxidative stress and leads to cell death through an apoptotic pathway. This apoptosis is caused by activation of caspase-3 and formation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In this study, the underlying mechanisms of Chlorella derived peptide (CDP) activity against UVC-induced cytotoxicity
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UVC irradiation induces oxidative stress and leads to cell death through an apoptotic pathway. This apoptosis is caused by activation of caspase-3 and formation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In this study, the underlying mechanisms of Chlorella derived peptide (CDP) activity against UVC-induced cytotoxicity were investigated. Human skin fibroblasts were treated with CDP, vitamin C, or vitamin E after UVC irradiation for a total energy of 15 J/cm2. After the UVC exposure, cell proliferation and caspase-3 activity were measured at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h later. Expression of phosphorylated FADD and cleaved PARP-1 were measured 16 h later. DNA damage (expressed as pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts DNA concentration) and fragmentation assay were performed 24 h after the UVC exposure. Results showed that UVC irradiation induced cytotoxicity in all groups except those treated with CDP. The caspase-3 activity in CDP-treated cells was inhibited from 12 h onward. Expression of phosphorylated FADD and cleaved PARP-1 were also reduced in CDP-treated cells. Moreover, UVC-induced DNA damage and fragmentation were also prevented by the CDP treatment. This study shows that treatment of CDP provides protective effects against UVC-induced cytotoxicity through the inhibition of caspase-3 activity and the reduction of phosphorylated FADD and cleaved PARP-1 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Amphiphilic Neomycin B-based Bilipid Conjugates and Fluorinated Neomycin B-based Lipids
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9129-9141; doi:10.3390/molecules17089129
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Investigating the effect of lipid hydrophobicity on the activity of amphiphilic neomycin B conjugates, six polycationic amphiphiles (PAs) were created. Four of the new compounds incorporated either palmitic or arachidic di-lipid lysine tails, while two had single fluorinated undecanoic acid tails. The basicity
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Investigating the effect of lipid hydrophobicity on the activity of amphiphilic neomycin B conjugates, six polycationic amphiphiles (PAs) were created. Four of the new compounds incorporated either palmitic or arachidic di-lipid lysine tails, while two had single fluorinated undecanoic acid tails. The basicity of half of the compounds was increased through the incorporation of six guanidine moieties, in order to assess the effect of base strength on antimicrobial activity. A panel of ten bacteria was used for the testing, with seven strains obtained from the American Type Culture Collection series and three clinical isolates from Canadian Intensive Care Units. When compared to previous results with hydrocarbon monolipids the PAs all compounds were found to have reduced activity, though the hemolytic activity of the compounds with fluorinated tails was sharply reduced, with only a moderate reduction in antimicrobial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Medicinal Chemistry of Antibiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Real Time Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Activity of an Active Fraction of Eurycoma longifolia Root Studied by in Situ Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9207-9219; doi:10.3390/molecules17089207
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 8 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The inhibitory effect of active fractions of Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) root, namely TAF355 and TAF401, were evaluated against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). In our previous study, we demonstrated that T. gondii was susceptible to TAF355 and TAF401 with IC50
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The inhibitory effect of active fractions of Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) root, namely TAF355 and TAF401, were evaluated against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). In our previous study, we demonstrated that T. gondii was susceptible to TAF355 and TAF401 with IC50 values of 1.125 µg/mL and 1.375 µg/mL, respectively. Transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations were used to study the in situ antiparasitic activity at the IC50 value. Clindamycin was used as positive control. SEM examination revealed cell wall alterations with formation of invaginations followed by completely collapsed cells compared to the normal T. gondii cells in response to the fractions. The main abnormality noted via TEM study was decreased cytoplasmic volume, leaving a state of structural disorganization within the cell cytoplasm and destruction of its organelles as early as 12 h of treatment, which indicated of rapid antiparasitic activity of the E. longifolia fractions. The significant antiparasitic activity shown by the TAF355 and TAF401 active fractions of E. longifolia suggests their potential as new anti-T. gondii agent candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Cyclization-Carbonylation-Cyclization Coupling Reaction of Propargyl Ureas with Palladium(II)-Bisoxazoline Catalyst
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9220-9230; doi:10.3390/molecules17089220
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract The cyclization-carbonylation-cyclization coupling reaction (CCC-coupling reaction) of propargyl ureas catalyzed by PdII(box) complexes afforded symmetrical ketones bearing two 2-amino-2-oxazoline groups in good to moderate yields. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influences of Dryopteris crassirhizoma Extract on the Viability, Growth and Virulence Properties of Streptococcus mutans
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9231-9244; doi:10.3390/molecules17089231
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dryopteris crassirhizoma is traditionally used as an herbal remedy for various diseases, and has been identified in a previous study as a potential anti-caries agent. In this study, the effect of a methanol extract of D. crassirhizoma on the viability, growth and virulence
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Dryopteris crassirhizoma is traditionally used as an herbal remedy for various diseases, and has been identified in a previous study as a potential anti-caries agent. In this study, the effect of a methanol extract of D. crassirhizoma on the viability, growth and virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic dental pathogen, was investigated. In addition, the phytochemical composition of the extract was analyzed. The extract showed bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity against oral bacteria (MIC and MBC of S. mutans: 62.5 and 250 μg/mL, respectively). At two times the MBC, the extract significantly eliminated S. mutans up to 99.9% after 1 h incubation. The extract also dose-dependently reduced growth rates of S. mutans at sub-MIC levels. Furthermore, at sub-MIC levels, virulence properties (acid production, acid tolerance, glucosyltransferase activity and sucrose-dependent adherence) of S. mutans were also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of mono and disaccharides (44.9%), fatty acids (12.3%) and sugar alcohols (6.8%) in the extract. These data indicate that the extract might be useful for the control of dental caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle 3-Phenylcoumarins as Inhibitors of HIV-1 Replication
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9245-9257; doi:10.3390/molecules17089245
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have synthesized fourteen 3-phenylcoumarin derivatives and evaluated their anti-HIV activity. Antiviral activity was assessed on MT-2 cells infected with viral clones carrying the luciferase gene as reporter. Inhibition of HIV transcription and Tat function were tested on cells stably transfected with the
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We have synthesized fourteen 3-phenylcoumarin derivatives and evaluated their anti-HIV activity. Antiviral activity was assessed on MT-2 cells infected with viral clones carrying the luciferase gene as reporter. Inhibition of HIV transcription and Tat function were tested on cells stably transfected with the HIV-LTR and Tat protein. Six compounds displayed NF-κB inhibition, four resulted Tat antagonists and three of them showed both activities. Three compounds inhibited HIV replication with IC50 values < 25 µM. The antiviral effect of the 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative 19 correlates with its specific inhibition of Tat functions, while compound 8, 3-(2-chlorophenyl)coumarin, seems to act through a mechanism unrelated to the molecular targets considered in this research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Extraction of Betulin, Trimyristin, Eugenol and Carnosic Acid Using Water-Organic Solvent Mixtures
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9274-9282; doi:10.3390/molecules17089274
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano) and white oak
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A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano) and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates the use of water in organic solvents to extract natural products from plants. Measurement of the free-radical scavenging activity using by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) indicated that the extraction of plant material using ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water (4.5:4.5:1, v/v/v) was exhaustive when carried out at room temperature for 96 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Cytoprotective Effect of Benzyl N'-(5-Chloro-indol-3-yl-methylidene)-hydrazinecarbodithioate Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9306-9320; doi:10.3390/molecules17089306
Received: 9 May 2012 / Revised: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
Indolic compounds have attracted a lot of attention due to their interesting biological properties. The present study was performed to evaluate the subacute toxicity and anti-ulcer activity of BClHC against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Experimental animal groups were orally pre-treated with different doses of
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Indolic compounds have attracted a lot of attention due to their interesting biological properties. The present study was performed to evaluate the subacute toxicity and anti-ulcer activity of BClHC against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Experimental animal groups were orally pre-treated with different doses of BClHC (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) in 10% Tween 20 solution (vehicle). Blank and ulcer control groups were pre-treated with vehicle. The positive group was orally pretreated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole. After one hour, all groups received absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg) to generate gastric mucosal injury except the blank control group which was administered the vehicle solution. After an additional hour, all rats were sacrificed, and the ulcer areas of the gastric walls determined. Grossly, the ulcer control group exhibited severe mucosal injury, whereas pre-treatment with either derivative or omeprazole resulted in significant protection of gastric mucosal injury. Flattening of gastric mucosal folds was also observed in rats pretreated with BClHC. Histological studies of the gastric wall of ulcer control group revealed severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with either BClHC or omeprazole where there were marked gastric protection along with reduction or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer. Subacute toxicity study with a higher dose of derivative (5 g/kg) did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. In conclusions, the present finding suggests that benzyl N'-(5-chloroindol-3-ylmethylidene)hydrazinecarbodithioate promotes ulcer protection as ascertained by the comparative decreases in ulcer areas, reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of New Thiazolidinones Containing Coumarin Moieties and Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9321-9334; doi:10.3390/molecules17089321
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 21 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New coumarin derivatives, namely (2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)-N-(4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl)acetamide, N-(2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl)-2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)acetamide, 2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)-N-(4-oxo-2-(2,3,4trimethoxyphenyl)thiazolidin-3-yl)acetamide and N-(2-(4-bromophenyl)-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl)-2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)acetamide) were synthesized starting from 4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin. The structures of the obtained compounds were confirmed by analytical IR and NMR spectra to
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New coumarin derivatives, namely (2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)-N-(4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl)acetamide, N-(2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl)-2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)acetamide, 2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)-N-(4-oxo-2-(2,3,4trimethoxyphenyl)thiazolidin-3-yl)acetamide and N-(2-(4-bromophenyl)-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl)-2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)acetamide) were synthesized starting from 4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin. The structures of the obtained compounds were confirmed by analytical IR and NMR spectra to elucidate the different positions of protons and carbons and as well as theoretical studies (DFT/B3LYP). The new compounds were screened for antibacterial activity. Most of them are more active against E. coli S. aureus and B. subtilis than standard references. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle A Convenient Ultrasound-Promoted Synthesis of Some New Thiazole Derivatives Bearing a Coumarin Nucleus and Their Cytotoxic Activity
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9335-9347; doi:10.3390/molecules17089335
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Successful implementation of ultrasound irradiation for the rapid synthesis of a novel series of 3-[1-(4-substituted-5-(aryldiazenyl)thiazol-2-yl)hydrazono)ethyl]-2H-chromen-2-ones 5ah, via reactions of 2-(1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)ethylidene) thiosemicarbazide (2) and the hydrazonoyl halides 3(4), was demonstrated. Also,
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Successful implementation of ultrasound irradiation for the rapid synthesis of a novel series of 3-[1-(4-substituted-5-(aryldiazenyl)thiazol-2-yl)hydrazono)ethyl]-2H-chromen-2-ones 5ah, via reactions of 2-(1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)ethylidene) thiosemicarbazide (2) and the hydrazonoyl halides 3(4), was demonstrated. Also, a new series of 5-arylidene-2-(2-(1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)ethylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazol-4(5H)-ones 10ad were synthesized from reaction of 2 with chloroacetic acid and different aldehydes. Moreover, reaction of 2-cyano-N'-(1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)ethylidene)-acetohydrazide (12) with substituted benzaldehydes gave the respective arylidene derivatives 13ac under the conditions employed. The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on elemental analyses and spectral data. Also, the cytototoxic activities of the thiazole derivative 5a was evaluated against HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes). It was found that compound 5a possess potent cytotoxic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanolic Extract of Corchorus olitorius Leaf in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells via a Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9348-9360; doi:10.3390/molecules17089348
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Corchorus olitorius L., is a culinary and medicinal herb, widely used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia. Many studies have shown that C. olitorius contains several antioxidants and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities in various in vitro and in vivo
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Corchorus olitorius L., is a culinary and medicinal herb, widely used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia. Many studies have shown that C. olitorius contains several antioxidants and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities in various in vitro and in vivo settings. Recently, C. olitorius has been approved for its antitumor activity; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of C. olitorius (ECO) on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and gain some insights into the underlying mechanisms of its action. We found that HepG2 cells, treated with ECO for 24 h at a concentration higher than 12.5 μg/mL, displayed a strong reduction in cell viability, whereas normal FL83B hepatocytes were not affected. DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation were evidenced by the increased subG1 population of ECO-treated HepG2 cells. ECO triggered the activation of procaspases-3 and -9 and caused the cleavage of downstream substrate, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), followed by down-regulation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) signaling. Moreover, the increased release of cytochrome c from mitochondria with decreased membrane potential demonstrated the apoptosis induced through the caspases cascade. Our findings indicated that ECO might be effective against hepatocellular carcinoma through induction of apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Bulb Extracts of Six Lilium Species Native to China
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9361-9378; doi:10.3390/molecules17089361
Received: 10 July 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (488 KB)
Abstract
Lily (Lilium) is used as an important edible and medical plant species with a vague taxonomic classification and a long history in China. Bulbs of six Lilium species (L. regale, L. concolor, L. pumilum, L. leucanthum,
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Lily (Lilium) is used as an important edible and medical plant species with a vague taxonomic classification and a long history in China. Bulbs of six Lilium species (L. regale, L. concolor, L. pumilum, L. leucanthum, L. davidii var. unicolor and L. lancifolium) native to China were investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their phenolic composition and dietary antioxidant potential. The results showed that all bulb extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activities, which generally correlated positively with the total phenolic contents (r = 0.68 to 0.94), total flavonoid contents (r = 0.51 to 0.89) and total flavanol contents (r = 0.54 to 0.95). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that rutin and kaempferol were the major phenolic components in the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that L. regale belonged to the group with high phenolic content and strong antioxidant power. L. concolor and L. pumilum were arranged in one group characterized by moderate phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, while L. leucanthum, L. davidii var. unicolor and L. lancifolium were clustered in the third group with low phenolic content and weak antioxidant activity. These strongly suggest that lily bulbs may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for food and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Spectroscopy and Speciation Studies on the Interactions of Aluminum (III) with Ciprofloxacin and β-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate in Aqueous Solutions
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9379-9396; doi:10.3390/molecules17089379
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, both experimental and theoretical approaches, including absorption spectra, fluorescence emission spectra, 1H- and 31P-NMR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), pH-potentiometry and theoretical approaches using the BEST & SPE computer programs were applied to study the competitive complexation between
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In this study, both experimental and theoretical approaches, including absorption spectra, fluorescence emission spectra, 1H- and 31P-NMR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), pH-potentiometry and theoretical approaches using the BEST & SPE computer programs were applied to study the competitive complexation between ciprofloxacin (CIP) and b-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) with aluminum (III) in aqueous solutions. Rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) was used to analyze the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of the ligands, the binary complexes and the ternary complexes. It is found, at the mM total concentration level and pH = 7.0, the bidentate mononuclear species [Al(CIP)]2+ and [Al(NADP)] predominate in the aqueous solutions of the Al(III)-CIP and Al(III)-NADP systems, and the two complexes have similar conditional stability constants. However, the pH-potentiometry results show at the mM total concentration level and pH = 7.0, the ternary species [Al(CIP)(HNADP)] predominates in the ternary complex system. Comparing predicted NMR spectra with the experimental NMR results, it can be concluded that for the ternary complex, CIP binds to aluminum ion between the 3-carboxylic and 4-carbonyl groups, while the binding site of oxidized coenzyme II is through the oxygen of phosphate, which is linked to adenosine ribose, instead of pyrophosphate. The results also suggested CIP has the potential to be a probe molecular for the detection of NADP and the Al(III)-NADP complexes under physiological condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement in the Water Retention Characteristics of Sandy Loam Soil Using a Newly Synthesized Poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic Acid)/AlZnFe2O4 Superabsorbent Hydrogel Nanocomposite Material
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9397-9412; doi:10.3390/molecules17089397
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (672 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of some novel and efficient crop nutrient-based superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites (SHNCs), is currently becoming increasingly important to improve the crop yield and productivity, due to their water retention properties. In the present study a poly(Acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4
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The use of some novel and efficient crop nutrient-based superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites (SHNCs), is currently becoming increasingly important to improve the crop yield and productivity, due to their water retention properties. In the present study a poly(Acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite was synthesized and its physical properties characterized using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), FE-SEM and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The effects of different levels of SHNC were studied to evaluate the moisture retention properties of sandy loam soil (sand 59%, silt 21%, clay 19%, pH 7.4, EC 1.92 dS/m). The soil amendment with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 w/w% of SHNC enhanced the moisture retention significantly at field capacity compared to the untreated soil. Besides, in a separate experiment, seed germination and seedling growth of wheat was found to be notably improved with the application of SHNC. A delay in wilting of seedlings by 5–8 days was observed for SHNC-amended soil, thereby improving wheat plant growth and establishment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle N-Substituted 5-Chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H)-ones: Synthesis, Insecticidal Activity Against Plutella xylostella (L.) and SAR Study
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9413-9420; doi:10.3390/molecules17089413
Received: 5 July 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of N-substituted 5-chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives were synthesized based on our previous work; all compounds were characterized by spectral data and tested for in vitro insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella. The results showed that the synthesized pyridazin-3(2H)-one
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A series of N-substituted 5-chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives were synthesized based on our previous work; all compounds were characterized by spectral data and tested for in vitro insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella. The results showed that the synthesized pyridazin-3(2H)-one compounds possessed good insecticidal activities, especially the compounds 4b, 4d, and 4h which showed > 90% activity at 100 mg/L. The structure-activity relationships (SAR) for these compounds were also discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle A New Natural Lactone from Dimocarpus longan Lour. Seeds
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9421-9425; doi:10.3390/molecules17089421
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract A new natural product named longanlactone was isolated from Dimocarpus longan Lour. seeds. Its structure was determined as 3-(2-acetyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-5-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one by spectroscopic methods and HRESIMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Antifungal Activity of Salicylanilides and Their Esters with 4-(Trifluoromethyl)benzoic Acid
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9426-9442; doi:10.3390/molecules17089426
Received: 19 June 2012 / Revised: 19 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 7 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Searching for novel antimicrobial agents still represents a current topic in medicinal chemistry. In this study, the synthesis and analytical data of eighteen salicylanilide esters with 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid are presented. They were assayed in vitro as potential antimycotic agents against eight fungal strains,
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Searching for novel antimicrobial agents still represents a current topic in medicinal chemistry. In this study, the synthesis and analytical data of eighteen salicylanilide esters with 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid are presented. They were assayed in vitro as potential antimycotic agents against eight fungal strains, along with their parent salicylanilides. The antifungal activity of the presented derivatives was not uniform and moulds showed a higher susceptibility with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ³ 0.49 µmol/L than yeasts (MIC ³ 1.95 µmol/L). However, it was not possible to evaluate a range of 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoates due to their low solubility. In general, the most active salicylanilide was N-(4-bromophenyl)-4-chloro-2-hydroxybenzamide and among esters, the corresponding 2-(4-bromophenylcarbamoyl)-5-chlorophenyl 4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoate exhibited the lowest MIC of 0.49 µmol/L. However, the esterification of salicylanilides by 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid did not result unequivocally in a higher antifungal potency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Medicinal Chemistry of Antifungals)
Open AccessArticle Echinoclerodane A: A New Bioactive Clerodane-Type Diterpenoid from a Gorgonian Coral Echinomuricea sp.
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9443-9450; doi:10.3390/molecules17089443
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 7 August 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new clerodane-type diterpenoid, echinoclerodane A (1), was isolated from a Formosan gorgonian coral Echinomuricea sp. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Echinoclerodane A (1) is the first clerodane-type compound obtained from the marine organisms belonging
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A new clerodane-type diterpenoid, echinoclerodane A (1), was isolated from a Formosan gorgonian coral Echinomuricea sp. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Echinoclerodane A (1) is the first clerodane-type compound obtained from the marine organisms belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. Echinoclerodane A (1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity toward MOLT-4, HL-60, DLD-1 and LoVo tumor cells and inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anion and the release of elastase by human neutrophils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Antiplasmodial and Leishmanicidal Activities of 2-Cyano-3-(4-phenylpiperazine-1-carboxamido) Quinoxaline 1,4-Dioxide Derivatives
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9451-9461; doi:10.3390/molecules17089451
Received: 28 June 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 7 August 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malaria and leishmaniasis are two of the World’s most important tropical parasitic diseases. Thirteen new 2-cyano-3-(4-phenylpiperazine-1-carboxamido) quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (CPCQs) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial and antileishmanial activity against erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum and axenic forms of Leishmania
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Malaria and leishmaniasis are two of the World’s most important tropical parasitic diseases. Thirteen new 2-cyano-3-(4-phenylpiperazine-1-carboxamido) quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (CPCQs) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial and antileishmanial activity against erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum and axenic forms of Leishmania infantum. Their toxicity against VERO cells (normal monkey kidney cells) was also assessed. None of the tested compounds was efficient against Plasmodium, but two of them showed good activity against Leishmania. Toxicity on VERO was correlated with leishmanicidal properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication Effect of Acute and Fractionated Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9462-9468; doi:10.3390/molecules17089462
Received: 27 June 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ionizing radiation has become an inevitable health concern emanating from natural sources like space travel and from artificial sources like medical therapies. In general, exposure to ionizing radiation such as γ-rays is one of the methods currently used to stress specific model systems.
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Ionizing radiation has become an inevitable health concern emanating from natural sources like space travel and from artificial sources like medical therapies. In general, exposure to ionizing radiation such as γ-rays is one of the methods currently used to stress specific model systems. In this study, we elucidated the long-term effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on DCX-positive cells in hippocampal neurogenesis. Groups of two-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at acute dose (5 Gy) or fractional doses (1 Gy × 5 times and 0.5 Gy × 10 times). Six months after exposure to γ-irradiation, the hippocampus was analyzed. Doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry was used to measure changes of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The number of DCX-positive cells was significantly decreased in all acute and fractionally irradiation groups. The long-term changes in DCX-positive cells triggered by radiation exposure showed a very different pattern to the short-term changes which tended to return to the control level in previous studies. Furthermore, the number of DCX-positive cells was relatively lower in the acute irradiation group than the fractional irradiation groups (approximately 3.6-fold), suggesting the biological change on hippocampal neurogenesis was more susceptible to being damaged by acute than fractional irradiation. These results suggest that the exposure to γ-irradiation as a long-term effect can trigger biological responses resulting in the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Demethylzeylasteral Exhibits Strong Inhibition towards UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 and 2B7
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9469-9475; doi:10.3390/molecules17089469
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms can result in severe clinical results, including clinical drug-drug interactions (DDI) and metabolic disorders of endogenous substances. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition of demethylzeylasteral (an important active component isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.) towards
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Inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms can result in severe clinical results, including clinical drug-drug interactions (DDI) and metabolic disorders of endogenous substances. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition of demethylzeylasteral (an important active component isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.) towards three important UGT isoforms UGT1A6, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. The results showed that 100 μM of demethylzeylasteral exhibited strong inhibition towards UGT1A6 and UGT2B7, with negligible influence towards UGT1A9. Furthermore, Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots showed the inhibition of UGT1A6 and UGT2B7 by demethylzeylasteral was best fit to competitive inhibition, and the inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki) were calculated to be 0.6 μM and 17.3 μM for UGT1A6 and UGT2B7, respectively. This kind of inhibitory effect need much attention when demethylzeylasteral and demethylzeyasteral-containing herbs (e.g., Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.) were co-administered with the drugs mainly undergoing UGT1A6, UGT2B7-catalyzed metabolism. However, when extrapolating the in vivo clinical results using our present in vitro data, many complex factors might affect final results, including the contribution of UGT1A6 and UGT2B7 to the metabolism of compounds, and the herbal or patients’ factors affecting the in vivo concentration of demethylzeylasteral. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Preservation of Bacillus firmus Strain 37 and Optimization of Cyclodextrin Biosynthesis by Cells Immobilized on Loofa Sponge
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9476-9488; doi:10.3390/molecules17089476
Received: 28 April 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The preservation of Bacillus firmus strain 37 cells by lyophilization was evaluated and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) production by cells immobilized on loofa sponge. Interactions were studied with the variables temperature, pH and dextrin concentration using
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The preservation of Bacillus firmus strain 37 cells by lyophilization was evaluated and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) production by cells immobilized on loofa sponge. Interactions were studied with the variables temperature, pH and dextrin concentration using a central composite design (CCD). Immobilization time influence on β-CD production was also investigated. B. firmus strain 37 cells remained viable after one year of storage, showing that the lyophilization is a suitable method for preservation of the microorganism. From the three-dimensional diagrams and contour plots, the best conditions for β-CD production were determined: temperature 60 °C, pH 8, and 18% dextrin. Considering that the amount of dextrin was high, a new assay was carried out, in which dextrin concentrations of 10, 15, and 18% were tested and the temperature of 60 °C and pH 8 were maintained. The results achieved showed very small differences and therefore, for economic reasons, the use of 10% dextrin is suggested. Increasing the immobilization time of cells immobilized on synthetic sponge the β-CD production decreased and did not change for cells immobilized on loofa sponge. The results of this research are important for microorganism preservation and essential in the optimization of the biosynthesis of CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Computerized Modeling of Adenosine Triphosphate, Adenosine Triarsenate and Adenosine Trivanadate
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9489-9495; doi:10.3390/molecules17089489
Received: 26 May 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Computerized molecular models of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine tri-arsenate and adenosine trivanadate have been generated using the molecular mechanics technique. The analysis of structural parameters indicated that, at least theoretically, adenosine triarsenate is a realistic candidate for replacement of adenosine triphosphate in biochemical pathways.
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Computerized molecular models of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine tri-arsenate and adenosine trivanadate have been generated using the molecular mechanics technique. The analysis of structural parameters indicated that, at least theoretically, adenosine triarsenate is a realistic candidate for replacement of adenosine triphosphate in biochemical pathways. On the contrary, the structural arrangement of the inorganic segment of adenosine trivanadate does not seem to be capable of withstanding a swift hydrolytical splitting in aqueous milieu. It was shown that the universal force field as implemented in Gaussian software packages is an appropriate tool for the optimization of less-common bioactive compositions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characteristics of ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc Hybrid Solar Cells Prepared by Oblique-Angle Deposition
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9496-9505; doi:10.3390/molecules17089496
Received: 10 April 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) and ZnO/InN inorganic semiconductor films prepared by oblique-angle deposition (OAD) were layered to form heterojunction organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic solar cells. Among the available organic materials, phthalocyanines, particularly the non-planar ones such as PbPc, are notable for their
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In this work, lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) and ZnO/InN inorganic semiconductor films prepared by oblique-angle deposition (OAD) were layered to form heterojunction organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic solar cells. Among the available organic materials, phthalocyanines, particularly the non-planar ones such as PbPc, are notable for their absorption in the visible and near infrared regions. The organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc showed short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), and power conversion efficiencies (η) of 1.2 mA/cm2, 0.6 V and 0.144%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Podophyllotoxin Type-Lignans from the Steam Bark of Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9506-9519; doi:10.3390/molecules17089506
Received: 28 June 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hydroalcoholic extract of the steam bark of B. fagaroides var. fagaroides displayed potent cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines, namely KB (ED50 = 9.6 × 10−2 μg/mL), PC-3 (ED50 = 2.5 × 10−1 μg/mL), MCF-7 (ED50
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The hydroalcoholic extract of the steam bark of B. fagaroides var. fagaroides displayed potent cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines, namely KB (ED50 = 9.6 × 10−2 μg/mL), PC-3 (ED50 = 2.5 × 10−1 μg/mL), MCF-7 (ED50 = 6.6 μg/mL), and HF-6 (ED50 = 7.1 × 10−3 μg/mL). This extract also showed anti-tumour activity when assayed on mice inoculated with L5178Y lymphoma cells. Bioactivity-directed isolation of this extract, afforded seven podophyllotoxin-type lignans identified as podophyllotoxin (1), β-peltatin-A-methylether (2), 5′-desmethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (3), desmethoxy-yatein (4), desoxypodophyllotoxin (5), burseranin (6), and acetyl podophyllotoxin (7) by 1D and 2DNMR and FAB-MS analyses, and comparison with reported values. All the isolated compounds showed potent cytotoxic activity in the cell lines tested, especially compound 3, which exhibited greater activity than camptothecin and podophyllotoxin against PC-3 (ED50 = 1.0 × 10−5 μg/mL), and KB (ED50 = 1.0 × 10−5 μg/mL). This is the first report of the isolation of podophyllotoxin and its acetate in a Bursera species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Three New Myrsinol Diterpenes from Euphorbia prolifera and Their Neuroprotective Activities
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9520-9528; doi:10.3390/molecules17089520
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three new myrsinol diterpenes were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia prolifera. Their structures were elucidated as 2α-O-isobutyryl-3β,5α,7β,10,15β-penta-O-acetyl-14α-O-benzoyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (1), 2α-
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Three new myrsinol diterpenes were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia prolifera. Their structures were elucidated as 2α-O-isobutyryl-3β,5α,7β,10,15β-penta-O-acetyl-14α-O-benzoyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (1), 2α-O-isobutyryl-3β-O-propion-yl-5α,7β,10,15β-tetra-O-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (2), and 2α,14α-di-O-benzoyl-3β,5α,7β,10,15β-penta-O-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (3) on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR). Their neuroprotective activities were evaluated and compounds 1 and 2 showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Hologram QSAR Models of 4-[(Diethylamino)methyl]-phenol Inhibitors of Acetyl/Butyrylcholinesterase Enzymes as Potential Anti-Alzheimer Agents
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9529-9539; doi:10.3390/molecules17089529
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hologram QSAR models were developed for a series of 36 inhibitors (29 training set and seven test set compounds) of acetyl/butyrylcholinesterase (AChE/BChE) enzymes, an attractive molecular target for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatment. The HQSAR models (N = 29) exhibited significant cross-validated (AChE, q
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Hologram QSAR models were developed for a series of 36 inhibitors (29 training set and seven test set compounds) of acetyl/butyrylcholinesterase (AChE/BChE) enzymes, an attractive molecular target for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatment. The HQSAR models (N = 29) exhibited significant cross-validated (AChE, q2 = 0.787; BChE, q2 = 0. 904) and non-cross-validated (AChE, r2 = 0.965; BChE, r2 = 0.952) correlation coefficients. The models were used to predict the inhibitory potencies of the test set compounds, and agreement between the experimental and predicted values was verified, exhibiting a powerful predictive capability. Contribution maps show that structural fragments containing aromatic moieties and long side chains increase potency. Both the HQSAR models and the contribution maps should be useful for the further design of novel, structurally related cholinesterase inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QSAR and Its Applications)
Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and in Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Eucalyptus gillii Essential Oil and Extracts
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9540-9558; doi:10.3390/molecules17089540
Received: 28 June 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, essential oil and various extracts (hexane, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water) of Eucalyptus gilii were screened for their chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas
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In this study, essential oil and various extracts (hexane, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water) of Eucalyptus gilii were screened for their chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), respectively. Thirty four compounds were identified, corresponding to 99.5% of the total essential oil. Tannins [104.9–251.3 g catechin equivalent (CE)/Kg dry mass], flavonoids [3.3–34.3 g quercetin equivalent (QE)/Kg dry mass], phenolics [4.7–216.6 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/Kg dry mass] and anthocyannins [1.2–45.3 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent (C3GE)/Kg dry mass] of various extracts were investigated. Free radical scavenging capacity of all samples was determinedt. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the IC50 of essential oil was 163.5 ± 10.7 mg/L and in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) assay, it was 94.7 ± 7.1 mg/L. Among the various extracts, the water extract showed the best result (IC50 = 11.4 ± 0.6 mg/L) in the DPPH assay which was comparable to vitamin C (IC50 = 4.4 ± 0.2 mg/L). The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against different bacterial and fungal strains. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive to the essential oil and extracts than Gram negative ones. Anthocyanins seem to have a major effect on the growth of Bacillus subtilis (R2 = 0.79). A significant antifungal activity was observed against the yeast and fungi. Correlations between chemical composition and antioxidant activities were studied and R2 values were about 0.96 for the effect of phenolics on the DPPH assay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Accumulation of Unusual Gangliosides GQ3 and GP3 in Breast Cancer Cells Expressing the GD3 Synthase
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9559-9572; doi:10.3390/molecules17089559
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glycosphingolipids from the ganglio-series are usually classified in four series according to the presence of 0 to 3 sialic acid residues linked to lactosylceramide. The transfer of sialic acid is catalyzed in the Golgi apparatus by specific sialyltransferases that show high specificity toward
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Glycosphingolipids from the ganglio-series are usually classified in four series according to the presence of 0 to 3 sialic acid residues linked to lactosylceramide. The transfer of sialic acid is catalyzed in the Golgi apparatus by specific sialyltransferases that show high specificity toward glycolipid substrates. ST8Sia I (EC 2.4.99.8, SAT-II, SIAT 8a) is the key enzyme controlling the biosynthesis of b- and c-series gangliosides. ST8Sia I is expressed at early developmental stages whereas in adult human tissues, ST8Sia I transcripts are essentially detected in brain. ST8Sia I together with b- and c-series gangliosides are also over-expressed in neuroectoderm-derived malignant tumors such as melanoma, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma and in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer, where they play a role in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion and angiogenesis. We have stably expressed ST8Sia I in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and analyzed the glycosphingolipid composition of wild type (WT) and GD3S+ clones. As shown by mass spectrometry, MCF-7 expressed a complex pattern of neutral and sialylated glycosphingolipids from globo- and ganglio-series. WT MCF-7 cells exhibited classical monosialylated gangliosides including GM3, GM2, and GM1a. In parallel, the expression of ST8Sia I in MCF-7 GD3S+ clones resulted in a dramatic change in ganglioside composition, with the expression of b- and c-series gangliosides as well as unusual tetra- and pentasialylated lactosylceramide derivatives GQ3 (II3Neu5Ac4-Gg2Cer) and GP3 (II3Neu5Ac5-Gg2Cer). This indicates that ST8Sia I is able to act as an oligosialyltransferase in a cellular context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry 2012)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro and in Vivo Antitumor Effect of Trachylobane-360, a Diterpene from Xylopia langsdorffiana
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9573-9589; doi:10.3390/molecules17089573
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trachylobane-360 (ent-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid) was isolated from Xylopia langsdorffiana. Studies have shown that it has weak cytotoxic activity against tumor and non-tumor cells. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of trachylobane-360, as well as its cytotoxicity
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Trachylobane-360 (ent-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid) was isolated from Xylopia langsdorffiana. Studies have shown that it has weak cytotoxic activity against tumor and non-tumor cells. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of trachylobane-360, as well as its cytotoxicity in mouse erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the in vivo toxicological aspects related to trachylobane-360 administration, hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses of the treated animals were performed. The compound exhibited a concentration-dependent effect in inducing hemolysis with HC50 of 273.6 µM, and a moderate in vitro concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells with IC50 values of 150.8 µM and 150.4 µM, evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion test and MTT reduction assay, respectively. The in vivo inhibition rates of sarcoma 180 tumor development were 45.60, 71.99 and 80.06% at doses of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg of trachylobane-360 and 25 mg/kg of 5-FU, respectively. Biochemical parameters were not altered. Leukopenia was observed after 5-FU treatment, but this effect was not seen with trachylobane-360 treatment. The histopathological analysis of liver and kidney showed that both organs were mildly affected by trachylobane-360 treatment. Trachylobane-360 showed no immunosuppressive effect. In conclusion, these data reinforce the anticancer potential of this natural diterpene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Design and Synthesis of a Novel Ganglioside Ligand for Influenza A Viruses
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9590-9620; doi:10.3390/molecules17089590
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel ganglioside bearing Neua2-3Gal and Neua2-6Gal structures as distal sequences was designed as a ligand for influenza A viruses. The efficient synthesis of the designed ganglioside was accomplished by employing the cassette coupling approach as a key reaction, which was executed between
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A novel ganglioside bearing Neua2-3Gal and Neua2-6Gal structures as distal sequences was designed as a ligand for influenza A viruses. The efficient synthesis of the designed ganglioside was accomplished by employing the cassette coupling approach as a key reaction, which was executed between the non-reducing end of the oligosaccharide and the cyclic glucosylceramide moiety. Examination of its binding activity to influenza A viruses revealed that the new ligand is recognized by Neua2-3 and 2-6 type viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Populene D Analogues: Design, Concise Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9621-9630; doi:10.3390/molecules17089621
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 2 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An efficient and concise synthesis of nine populene D analogues was performed using an iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization as the key transformation. The antiproliferative activity of these new pyrans against several cancer cell lines was then investigated. Among them, an isochromene with moderate activity
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An efficient and concise synthesis of nine populene D analogues was performed using an iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization as the key transformation. The antiproliferative activity of these new pyrans against several cancer cell lines was then investigated. Among them, an isochromene with moderate activity (mean logGI50 = 0.91) was found. Additionally, compounds with selectivity toward the tumor cell lines NCI-ADR/RES, OVCAR-3, and HT29 were discovered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Anti-diabetic Activities and Chemical Analysis of Polypeptide-k and Oil Isolated from Seeds of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd)
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9631-9640; doi:10.3390/molecules17089631
Received: 10 July 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 4 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The amino acid and fatty acid composition of polypeptide k and oil isolated from the seeds of Momordica charantia was analysed. The analysis revealed polypeptide k contained 9 out of 11 essential amino acids, among a total of 18 types of amino acids.
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The amino acid and fatty acid composition of polypeptide k and oil isolated from the seeds of Momordica charantia was analysed. The analysis revealed polypeptide k contained 9 out of 11 essential amino acids, among a total of 18 types of amino acids. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine and glycine were the most abundant (17.08%, 9.71%, 9.50% and 8.90% of total amino acids, respectively). Fatty acid analysis showed unusually high amounts of C18-0 (stearic acid, 62.31% of total fatty acid). C18-1 (oleic acid) and C18-2 (linoleic acid) were the other major fatty acid detected (12.53% and 10.40%, respectively). The oil was devoid of the short fatty acids (C4-0 to C8-0). Polypeptide k and oil were also subjected to in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition assays. Both polypeptide k and seed oil showed potent inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme (79.18% and 53.55% inhibition, respectively). α-Amylase was inhibited by 35.58% and 38.02%, respectively. Collectively, the in vitro assay strongly suggests that both polypeptide k and seed oil from Momordica charantia are potent potential hypoglycemic agents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Deoxycalyciphylline B, a Hepatotoxic Alkaloid from Daphniphyllum calycinum
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9641-9651; doi:10.3390/molecules17089641
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Daphniphyllum calycinum (DC), a main component of Chinese patent drug Fengliao-Changweikang, is effectively used to cure bowel disease in the clinic. It was recorded that DC possessed slight toxicity, which was caused by the alkaloids existing in its extract. Unfortunately, to date the
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Daphniphyllum calycinum (DC), a main component of Chinese patent drug Fengliao-Changweikang, is effectively used to cure bowel disease in the clinic. It was recorded that DC possessed slight toxicity, which was caused by the alkaloids existing in its extract. Unfortunately, to date the toxicity level and toxic constituents are still unclear. The present study is designed to illustrate the acute toxicity and induced organ damages of the total alkaloids as well as to determine the toxic constituents. Based on the above studies, not only was the acute toxicity determined but also hepatic toxicity was characterized by increased plasma biomarkers of ALT and AST and liver cell inflammatory infiltrate as well necrosis that was firstly observed. Significantly, deoxycalyciphylline B exhibited exactly the same hepatic toxicity so it was identified as the main toxic constituent in DC. An obvious dose-effect relationship between the toxic compound and induced hepatic injuries was also observed. Moreover, the Chinese patent drug Fengliao-Changweikang contained low levels of the toxic compound, compared with the total alkaloids. Therefore, this Chinese patent drug could be regarded to be safe in this point of view. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Some New Thiazolopyrimidine, Thiazolodipyrimidine and Thiazolopyrimidothiazolopyrimidine Derivatives with Potential Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9652-9667; doi:10.3390/molecules17089652
Received: 7 July 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biginelli reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, thiourea and the appropriate aromatic aldehyde was used to produce ethyl 4-aryl-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-pyrimidine-5-carboxylates, that reacted with bromomalononitrile to give ethyl 3-amino-5-aryl-2-cyano-7-methyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylates rather than the isomeric 7H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidines. Thiazolopyrimidine derivatives reacted with carbon
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Biginelli reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, thiourea and the appropriate aromatic aldehyde was used to produce ethyl 4-aryl-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-pyrimidine-5-carboxylates, that reacted with bromomalononitrile to give ethyl 3-amino-5-aryl-2-cyano-7-methyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylates rather than the isomeric 7H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidines. Thiazolopyrimidine derivatives reacted with carbon disulphide to yield ethyl 9-aryl-7-methyl-2,4-dithioxo-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-thiazolo[3,2-a:4,5-d']dipyrimidine-8-carboxylates, that reacted with phenacyl bromide to produce ethyl 8-methyl-10-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-substituted-5-thioxo-2(un)subatituted-10H-thiazolo[3'',2'':1',2']pyrimido[4',5':4,5]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-9-carboxylates. The aforementioned reactions were carried out using both conventional chemical methods and with the assistance of microwave irradaition. Comparison between both methods showed that the microwave assisted method is preferable because of the time reduction and yield improvements achieved. The new compounds were tested for their biological activity as antioxidants, antibacterial or antifungal agents. Some of the new compounds were found to have moderate to good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of the Aerial Parts of Common and Tartary Buckwheat Plants
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9668-9682; doi:10.3390/molecules17089668
Received: 29 May 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (367 KB)
Abstract
The analysis of major and minor flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of stems, leaves, flowers, unripe seeds and ripe seeds of common and tartary buckwheat plants collected during different growth periods was addressed in this study. The highest rutin contents were observed in flowers
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The analysis of major and minor flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of stems, leaves, flowers, unripe seeds and ripe seeds of common and tartary buckwheat plants collected during different growth periods was addressed in this study. The highest rutin contents were observed in flowers and leaves collected from common and tartary buckwheat at early flowering as well as flowering and seed formation states. A low quercetin contents were found in all studied aerial part of buckwheat plants. Quercitrin (quercetin-3-rhamnoside) was only found in flowers collected at different growth periods while flavone C-glucosides were accumulated preferentially only in unripe seeds collected from common buckwheat at an early flowering state. The rank of antioxidant capacity provided for aerial parts of common and tartary buckwheat at early flowering state was as follows: flowers > leaves > stems. The highest contribution of rutin to the antioxidant capacity of the aerial parts of common and tartary buckwheat was found for stems followed by leaves, flowers and unripe seeds. The results demonstrate that flowers from common and tartary buckwheat collected at early flowering as well as flowering and seed formation states have the future potential to be a useful food ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods in Polyphenol Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 3-Aryl-quinoxaline-2-carbonitrile 1,4-Di-N-oxide Derivatives as Hypoxic Selective Anti-tumor Agents
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9683-9696; doi:10.3390/molecules17089683
Received: 6 July 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of 3-aryl-2-quinoxaline-carbonitrile 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for hypoxic and normoxic cytotoxic activity against human SMMC-7721, K562, KB, A549 and PC-3 cell lines. Many of these new compounds displayed more potent hypoxic cytotoxic activity compared with TX-402
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A series of 3-aryl-2-quinoxaline-carbonitrile 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for hypoxic and normoxic cytotoxic activity against human SMMC-7721, K562, KB, A549 and PC-3 cell lines. Many of these new compounds displayed more potent hypoxic cytotoxic activity compared with TX-402 and TPZ in the tumor cells based evaluation, which confirmed our hypothesis that the replacement of the 3-amine with the substituted aryl ring of TX-402 increases the hypoxic anti-tumor activity. The preliminary SAR revealed that 3-chloro was a favorable substituent in the phenyl ring for hypoxic cytotoxicity and 7-methyl or 7-methoxy substituted derivatives exhibited better hypoxic selectivity against most of the tested cell lines. The most potent compound, 7-methyl-3-(3-chlorophenyl)-quinoxaline-2-carbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (9h) was selected for further anti-tumor evaluation and mechanistic study. It also exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against BEL-7402, HepG2, HL-60, NCI-H460, HCT-116 and CHP126 cell lines in hypoxia with IC50 values ranging from 0.31 to 3.16 μM, and preliminary mechanism study revealed that 9h induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessCommunication Diterpenoids from the Buds of Pinus banksiana Lamb.
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9716-9727; doi:10.3390/molecules17089716
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 5 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three new diterpenoids, namely 7α-hydroxyabieta-8,11,13,15-tetraen-18-oic acid, 7β,15,18-trihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene, 13,15-dihydroxypodocarpa-8,11,13-triene, and 12 other known compounds were isolated from buds of Pinus banksiana Lamb. All these compounds, except for 7-oxodehydroabietinol, were isolated for the first time from this plant. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic
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Three new diterpenoids, namely 7α-hydroxyabieta-8,11,13,15-tetraen-18-oic acid, 7β,15,18-trihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene, 13,15-dihydroxypodocarpa-8,11,13-triene, and 12 other known compounds were isolated from buds of Pinus banksiana Lamb. All these compounds, except for 7-oxodehydroabietinol, were isolated for the first time from this plant. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic studies and comparison with published data. All isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Overall, two compounds, 7-oxodehydroabietinol and 18-nor-4,15-dihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-trien-7-one, showed moderate cytotoxicity against a human lung carcinoma cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Exposure to Anacardiaceae Volatile Oils and Their Constituents Induces Lipid Peroxidation within Food-Borne Bacteria Cells
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9728-9740; doi:10.3390/molecules17089728
Received: 13 July 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA). The major constituents in Anacardium humile
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The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA). The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E)-caryophyllene (31.0%) and α-pinene (22.0%), and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E)-caryophyllene (15.4%) and germacrene-D (11.5%). Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E)-β-ocimene (44.1%) and α-terpinolene (15.2%), whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of δ-3-carene (78.8%). However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high δ-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Fungal Strains as Catalysts for the Biotransformation of Halolactones by Hydrolytic Dehalogenation with the Dimethylcyclohexane System
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9741-9753; doi:10.3390/molecules17089741
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bicyclic chloro-, bromo- and iodo-γ-lactones with dimethylcyclohexane rings were used as substrates for bioconversion by several fungal strains (Fusarium, Botrytis and Beauveria). Most of the selected microorganisms transformed these lactones by hydrolytic dehalogenation into the new compound cis-2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]- nonan-8-one,
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Bicyclic chloro-, bromo- and iodo-γ-lactones with dimethylcyclohexane rings were used as substrates for bioconversion by several fungal strains (Fusarium, Botrytis and Beauveria). Most of the selected microorganisms transformed these lactones by hydrolytic dehalogenation into the new compound cis-2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]- nonan-8-one, mainly the (−)-isomer. When iodo-γ-lactone was used as the substrate, two products were observed: a hydroxy-γ-lactone and an unsaturated lactone. The structures of all substrates and products were established on the basis of their spectral data. The mechanism of dehalogenation of three halolactones was also studied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidative Properties of Defatted Dabai Pulp and Peel Prepared by Solid Phase Extraction
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9754-9773; doi:10.3390/molecules17089754
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in
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Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C18 cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Cloning, Purification, and Characterization of a Heat- and Alkaline-Stable Endoglucanase B from Aspergillus niger BCRC31494
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9774-9789; doi:10.3390/molecules17089774
Received: 7 June 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Endoglucanase B (EGLB) derived from Aspergillus niger BCRC31494 has been used in the food fermentation industry because of its thermal and alkaline tolerance. It was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. According to sequence analysis, the gene open reading frame comprises 1,217
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Endoglucanase B (EGLB) derived from Aspergillus niger BCRC31494 has been used in the food fermentation industry because of its thermal and alkaline tolerance. It was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. According to sequence analysis, the gene open reading frame comprises 1,217 bp with five introns (GenBank GQ292753). According to sequence and protein domain analyses, EGLB was assigned to glycosyl hydrolase family 5 of the cellulase superfamily. Several binding sites were found in the promoter region. The purified recombinant enzyme was induced by 0.5% methanol, and it exhibited optimal activity at 70 °C and pH 4. EGLB was stable for 3 h at temperatures below 60 °C, with more than 90% of its activity remaining. The enzyme was specific for substrates with β-1,3 and β-1,4 linkages. In Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis, the Km and Vmax values of EGLB for β-D-glucan were 134 mg/mL and 4.68 U/min/mg, respectively. The enzyme activity was increased by 1.86-fold by Co2+ and by 2-fold by Triton X-100 and Tween 80. These favorable properties make EGLB a potential candidate for use in laundry and textile industrial applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Disaccharides Containing 6-Deoxy-a-L-talose as Potential Heparan Sulfate Mimetics
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9790-9802; doi:10.3390/molecules17089790
Received: 28 June 2012 / Revised: 5 August 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A 6-deoxy-a-L-talopyranoside acceptor was readily prepared from methyl a-L-rhamnopyranoside and glycosylated with thiogalactoside donors using NIS/TfOH as the promoter to give good yields of the desired a-linked disaccharide (69–90%). Glycosylation with a 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-glucosyl trichloroacetimidate donor was not completely stereoselective (a:b = 6:1), but
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A 6-deoxy-a-L-talopyranoside acceptor was readily prepared from methyl a-L-rhamnopyranoside and glycosylated with thiogalactoside donors using NIS/TfOH as the promoter to give good yields of the desired a-linked disaccharide (69–90%). Glycosylation with a 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-glucosyl trichloroacetimidate donor was not completely stereoselective (a:b = 6:1), but the desired a-linked disaccharide could be isolated in good overall yield (60%) following conversion into its corresponding tribenzoate derivative. The disaccharides were designed to mimic the heparan sulfate (HS) disaccharide GlcN(2S,6S)-IdoA(2S). However, the intermediates readily derived from these disaccharides were not stable to the sulfonation/deacylation conditions required for their conversion into the target HS mimetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry 2012)
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Activity of Lavender Oil on Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9803-9817; doi:10.3390/molecules17089803
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The air-dried aerial parts of Lavandula angustifolia Mill, a traditional Uygur herbal drug, is used as resuscitation-inducing therapy to treat neurodisfunctions, such as stroke. This study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effects of lavender oil against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in mice.
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The air-dried aerial parts of Lavandula angustifolia Mill, a traditional Uygur herbal drug, is used as resuscitation-inducing therapy to treat neurodisfunctions, such as stroke. This study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effects of lavender oil against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the intraluminal occlusion method with a nylon string. The neurodysfuntion was evaluated by neurological deficit and the infarct area was showed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) in brain tissue were measured to estimate the oxidative stress state. Neurological deficit, infarct size, histopathology changes and oxidative stress markers were evaluated after 22 h of reperfusion. In comparison with the model group, treatment with lavender oil significantly decreased neurological deficit scores, infarct size, the levels of MDA, carbonyl and ROS, and attenuated neuronal damage, upregulated SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and GSH/GSSG ratio. These results suggested that the neuroprotective effects of lavender oil against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury may be attributed to its antioxidant effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessCommunication Towards Recyclable NAD(P)H Regeneration Catalysts
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9835-9841; doi:10.3390/molecules17089835
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Rh(III)-TsDPEN, an immobilized analog of the well-known [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H2O)]2+ was evaluated as a heterogeneous, recyclable regeneration catalyst for reduced oxidoreductase cofactors [NAD(P)H]. Repeated use of this catalyst was established and the catalytic properties were initially investigated. Apparently, Rh(III)-TsDPEN is
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Rh(III)-TsDPEN, an immobilized analog of the well-known [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H2O)]2+ was evaluated as a heterogeneous, recyclable regeneration catalyst for reduced oxidoreductase cofactors [NAD(P)H]. Repeated use of this catalyst was established and the catalytic properties were initially investigated. Apparently, Rh(III)-TsDPEN is prone to severe diffusion limitations, necessitating further developments. Overall, a promising concept for chemoenzymatic redox catalysis is proposed, which may overcome some of the current limitations such as catalyst cost and incompatibility of Rh with some biocatalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions)
Open AccessArticle The Active Ingredients of Jiang-Zhi-Ning: Study of the Nelumbo nucifera Alkaloids and Their Main Bioactive Metabolites
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9855-9867; doi:10.3390/molecules17089855
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The object of this study was to identify the major active ingredients of the Chinese Traditional Medicine Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN) based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of plasma samples obtained from beagle dogs at different times after intragastric administration of JZN,
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The object of this study was to identify the major active ingredients of the Chinese Traditional Medicine Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN) based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of plasma samples obtained from beagle dogs at different times after intragastric administration of JZN, crude JZN extracts, different extracted fractions, different subfractions of the active fraction and different isolated ingredients. 2-Hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphin (2H1M), an alkaloid from Nelumbo nucifera, one of the herbs that make up JZN, was identified as the constituent showing the major pharmacodynamic effect. The major metabolites of 2H1M were analyzed and identified as N-demethyl-2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid and 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-sulphate. This study provided a comprehensive insight into the active components of JZN. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Bioactivity Evaluation of New 6-Aryl-5-cyano Thiouracils as Potential Antimicrobial and Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9868-9886; doi:10.3390/molecules17089868
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several novel 6-aryl-5-cyano thiouracil derivatives were synthesized and explored for their activities as antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer agents. The antimicrobial evaluation revealed that compounds 7b and 7c possessed superior antibacterial activity against the Gram positive bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis compared to
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Several novel 6-aryl-5-cyano thiouracil derivatives were synthesized and explored for their activities as antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer agents. The antimicrobial evaluation revealed that compounds 7b and 7c possessed superior antibacterial activity against the Gram positive bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis compared to the reference drug amoxicillin. Moreover, compound 4i was found to be a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent and it also exhibited the highest antifungal activity against C. albicans, even higher than the reference drug amphotericin B (MIC = 2.34, 3.00 μg/mL respectively). Selected compounds were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity at a single 10−5 M concentration in accordance to the NCI (USA) protocol. The preliminary screening results showed that most of the compounds had limited cytotoxic activity against renal cancer UO-31 and/or A498 cell lines. Nevertheless, compounds 6d and 6i displayed potent growth inhibitory effect toward non-small cell lung cancer HOP-92 and leukemia MOLT-4 cell lines, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Straightforward Synthesis of Novel 1-(2′-α-O-D-Glucopyranosyl ethyl) 2-Arylbenzimidazoles
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9887-9899; doi:10.3390/molecules17089887
Received: 27 June 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of novel 1-(2′-α-O-D-glucopyranosyl ethyl) 2-arylbenzimidazoles has been prepared via one-pot glycosylation of ethyl-1-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-2-arylbenzimidazole-5-carboxylate derivatives. Synthesis of the 2-arylbenzimidazole aglycones from 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid was accomplished in four high-yielding steps. The reduction and cyclocondensation steps for the aglycone synthesis proceeded efficiently
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A series of novel 1-(2′-α-O-D-glucopyranosyl ethyl) 2-arylbenzimidazoles has been prepared via one-pot glycosylation of ethyl-1-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-2-arylbenzimidazole-5-carboxylate derivatives. Synthesis of the 2-arylbenzimidazole aglycones from 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid was accomplished in four high-yielding steps. The reduction and cyclocondensation steps for the aglycone synthesis proceeded efficiently under microwave irradiation to afford the appropriate benzimidazoles in excellent yields within 2–3 min. Glycosylation of the hydroxyethyl aglycones with the perbenzylated 1-hydroxy- glucopyranose, pretreated with the Appel-Lee reagent, followed by catalytic hydrogenolysis delivered the desired 1-(2′-α-O-D-glucopyranosyl ethyl) 2-aryl-benzimidazoles in a simple and straightforward manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle Formation of Aldehyde and Ketone Compounds during Production and Storage of Milk Powder
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9900-9911; doi:10.3390/molecules17089900
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 5 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Certain aldehyde and ketone compounds can be used as indicators, at a molecular level, of the oxidized flavor of milk powder instead of sensory evaluation. This study investigated the formation of aldehyde and ketone compounds as affected by the heat-related processing and storage
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Certain aldehyde and ketone compounds can be used as indicators, at a molecular level, of the oxidized flavor of milk powder instead of sensory evaluation. This study investigated the formation of aldehyde and ketone compounds as affected by the heat-related processing and storage of milk powder. The compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction fiber and determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the results, higher contents of hexanal, 2-heptanone, octanal and 3-octen-2-one were detected in concentrated milk and fresh milk powders than in raw milk and heated milk. The levels of these compounds increased with increasing time of storage of milk powder. Meanwhile, the DPPH radical scavenging activity decreased and peroxide value increased during the production and storage of milk powder. In addition, the pore volume distribution of milk powder particle was determined by nitrogen isotherm adsorption. The porosity of milk powder was significantly correlated to the changes of aldehyde and ketone compounds during storages periods of 3 months (r > 0.689, p < 0.05) and 6 months (r > 0.806, p < 0.01). Therefore attention should be paid to the detectable aldehyde and ketone molecules to control the oxidized flavor, which was influenced by pre-heating as well as concentration and drying during milk powder production. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-metastatic Semi-synthetic Sulfated Maltotriose C-C Linked Dimers. Synthesis and Characterisation
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9912-9930; doi:10.3390/molecules17089912
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (416 KB) | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This manuscript describes the preparation and the spectroscopic characterisation of semi-synthetic sulfated maltotriose C-C linked dimers (SMTCs) where the natural C-O-C anomeric bond was substituted by one direct central C-C bond. This C-C bond induces conformation and flexibility changes with respect to the
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This manuscript describes the preparation and the spectroscopic characterisation of semi-synthetic sulfated maltotriose C-C linked dimers (SMTCs) where the natural C-O-C anomeric bond was substituted by one direct central C-C bond. This C-C bond induces conformation and flexibility changes with respect to the usual anomeric bond. SMTCs neutral precursors came from maltotriosyl bromide electroreduction through maltotriosyl radical intermediate dimerisation. The new C-C bond configuration, named for convenience a,a, a,b and b,b as the natural anomeric bond, dictated the statistic ratio formation of three diastereoisomers. They were separated by silica gel flash chromatography followed by semi preparative HPLC chromatography. Each diastereoisomer was exhaustively sulfated to afford the corresponding SMTCs. SMTCs were huge characterised by NMR spectroscopy which provided the sulfation degree, too. a,a and a,b were found quite homogeneous samples with a high degree of sulfation (85–95%). b,b appeared a non-homogeneous sample whose average sulfation degree was evaluated at around 78%. Mass spectroscopy experiments confirmed the sulfation degree range. Some considerations were proposed about SMTCs structure-biological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry 2012)
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Open AccessArticle The Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Growth Inhibitors of Adult T-Cell Leukemia (ATL), from the Jamaican Plant Hyptis verticillata, and NMR Characterization of Hyptoside
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9931-9938; doi:10.3390/molecules17089931
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract Through bioassay-guided isolation, five compounds with growth inhibitory activity on S1T, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell line, were isolated from the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Alkaloids Isolated from the Lateral Root of Aconitum carmichaelii
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9939-9946; doi:10.3390/molecules17089939
Received: 24 July 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new alkaloids, aconicarmine (1) and aconicaramide (5), were isolated from the EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii, together with five known compounds: fuziline (2), neoline (3), N-ethylhokbusine B (
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Two new alkaloids, aconicarmine (1) and aconicaramide (5), were isolated from the EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii, together with five known compounds: fuziline (2), neoline (3), N-ethylhokbusine B (4), 5-hydroxymethylpyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (6), and oleracein E (7). Their structures were elucidated by physical and NMR analysis. Pyrrole alkaloids were isolated from A. carmichaelii for the first time. In the in vitro assays, compounds 2 and 3 showed activity against pentobarbital sodium-induced cardiomyocytes damage by obviously recovering beating rhythm and increasing the cell viability, while compounds 5 and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Laminarin Induces Apoptosis of Human Colon Cancer LOVO Cells through a Mitochondrial Pathway
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9947-9960; doi:10.3390/molecules17089947
Received: 21 July 2012 / Revised: 11 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (497 KB)
Abstract
Many scientific studies have shown that laminarin has anti-tumor effects, but the anti-tumor mechanism was unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laminarin on the induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer LOVO cells and the molecular mechanism
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Many scientific studies have shown that laminarin has anti-tumor effects, but the anti-tumor mechanism was unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laminarin on the induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer LOVO cells and the molecular mechanism involved. LOVO cells were treated with different concentrations of laminarin at different times. Morphology observations were performed to determine the effects of laminarin on apoptosis of LOVO cells. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pH. Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) was used to analyze intracellular calcium ion concentration, mitochondrion permeability transition pore (MPTP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Western blotd were performed to analyze the expressions of Cyt-C, Caspase-9 and -3. The results showed the apoptosis morphology, which showed cell protuberance, concentrated cytoplasm and apoptotic bodies, was obvious after 72 h treatment. Laminarin treatment for 24 h increased the intracellular level of ROS and Ca2+; decreased pH value; activated intracellular MPTP and decreased MMP in dose-dependent manners. It also induced the release of Cyt-C and the activation of Caspase-9 and -3. In conclusion, laminarin induces LOVO cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that it could be a potent agent for cancer prevention and treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design and Synthesis of a Series of Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as CCR4 Antagonists
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9961-9970; doi:10.3390/molecules17089961
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed and synthesized based on known CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) antagonists. The activities of all the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated using a chemotaxis inhibition assay. Compound 6b was proven to be a potent CCR4 antagonist
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A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed and synthesized based on known CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) antagonists. The activities of all the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated using a chemotaxis inhibition assay. Compound 6b was proven to be a potent CCR4 antagonist that can block cell chemotaxis induced by macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC), and CKLF1, the natural ligands of CCR4. In addition, compound 6b is more effective than budesonide in the murine rhinitis model. The intravenous injection LD50 of compound 6b is 175 mg/kg and the oral LD50 is greater than 2,000 mg/kg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle BCL::EMAS — Enantioselective Molecular Asymmetry Descriptor for 3D-QSAR
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9971-9989; doi:10.3390/molecules17089971
Received: 29 June 2012 / Revised: 15 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Stereochemistry is an important determinant of a molecule’s biological activity. Stereoisomers can have different degrees of efficacy or even opposing effects when interacting with a target protein. Stereochemistry is a molecular property difficult to represent in 2D-QSAR as it is an inherently three-dimensional
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Stereochemistry is an important determinant of a molecule’s biological activity. Stereoisomers can have different degrees of efficacy or even opposing effects when interacting with a target protein. Stereochemistry is a molecular property difficult to represent in 2D-QSAR as it is an inherently three-dimensional phenomenon. A major drawback of most proposed descriptors for 3D-QSAR that encode stereochemistry is that they require a heuristic for defining all stereocenters and rank-ordering its substituents. Here we propose a novel 3D-QSAR descriptor termed Enantioselective Molecular ASymmetry (EMAS) that is capable of distinguishing between enantiomers in the absence of such heuristics. The descriptor aims to measure the deviation from an overall symmetric shape of the molecule. A radial-distribution function (RDF) determines a signed volume of tetrahedrons of all triplets of atoms and the molecule center. The descriptor can be enriched with atom-centric properties such as partial charge. This descriptor showed good predictability when tested with a dataset of thirty-one steroids commonly used to benchmark stereochemistry descriptors (r2 = 0.89, q2 = 0.78). Additionally, EMAS improved enrichment of 4.38 versus 3.94 without EMAS in a simulated virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) for inhibitors and substrates of cytochrome P450 (PUBCHEM AID891). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QSAR and Its Applications)
Open AccessArticle Release of Terpenes from Fir Wood during Its Long-Term Use and in Thermal Treatment
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9990-9999; doi:10.3390/molecules17089990
Received: 8 June 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Building structures made from fir wood are often attacked by wood-destroying insects for which the terpenes it contains serve as attractants. One of the possibilities for extending the lifetime of structures is to use older wood with a lower content of terpenes and/or
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Building structures made from fir wood are often attacked by wood-destroying insects for which the terpenes it contains serve as attractants. One of the possibilities for extending the lifetime of structures is to use older wood with a lower content of terpenes and/or thermally modified wood. The study evaluated the levels of terpenes in naturally aged fir wood (108, 146, 279, 287 and 390 years) and their decrease by thermal treatment (the temperature of 60 °C and 120 °C, treatment duration of 10 h). Terpenes were extracted from wood samples by hexane and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicate that recent fir wood contained approximately 60 times more terpenes than the oldest wood (186:3.1 mg/kg). The thermal wood treatment speeded up the release of terpenes. The temperature of 60 °C caused a loss in terpenes in the recent fir wood by 62%, the temperature of 120 °C even by >99%. After the treatment at the temperature of 60 °C the recent fir wood had approximately the same quantity of terpenes as non-thermally treated 108 year old wood, i.e., approximately 60–70 mg/kg. After the thermal treatment at the temperature of 120 °C the quantity of terpenes dropped in the recent as well as the old fir wood to minimum quantities (0.7–1.1 mg/kg). The thermal treatment can thus be used as a suitable method for the protection of fir wood from wood-destroying insects. Full article

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Open AccessReview Bioactivities of the Genus Combretum (Combretaceae): A Review
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9142-9206; doi:10.3390/molecules17089142
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Combretaceae is a large family of herbs, shrubs and trees, comprising about 20 genera and 600 species with tropical distribution around the globe and centers of diversity in Africa and Asia. Some Combretum species are extensively used in traditional medicine against inflammation,
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The Combretaceae is a large family of herbs, shrubs and trees, comprising about 20 genera and 600 species with tropical distribution around the globe and centers of diversity in Africa and Asia. Some Combretum species are extensively used in traditional medicine against inflammation, infections, diabetes, malaria, bleeding, diarrhea and digestive disorders and others as a diuretic. The present work is a literature survey of Combretum species that have been evaluated for their ability to exert biological activities. A total number of 36 Combretum species are discussed with regard to plant parts used, component tested and bioassay models. This review is of fundamental importance to promoting studies on Combretum species, thereby contributing to the development of new therapeutic alternatives that may improve the health of people suffering from various health problems. Full article
Open AccessReview Chemical Genetics: Budding Yeast as a Platform for Drug Discovery and Mapping of Genetic Pathways
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9258-9273; doi:10.3390/molecules17089258
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 23 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used model organism, and yeast genetic methods are powerful tools for discovery of novel functions of genes. Recent advancements in chemical-genetics and chemical-genomics have opened new avenues for development of clinically relevant drug treatments. Systematic
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The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used model organism, and yeast genetic methods are powerful tools for discovery of novel functions of genes. Recent advancements in chemical-genetics and chemical-genomics have opened new avenues for development of clinically relevant drug treatments. Systematic mapping of genetic networks by high-throughput chemical-genetic screens have given extensive insight in connections between genetic pathways. Here, I review some of the recent developments in chemical-genetic techniques in budding yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Genetics)
Open AccessReview Insights on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Inhibitors Obtained Through QSAR Studies
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9283-9305; doi:10.3390/molecules17089283
Received: 29 June 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of heme enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including most of the drugs currently on the market. Inhibitors of CYP enzymes have important roles in the treatment
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The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of heme enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including most of the drugs currently on the market. Inhibitors of CYP enzymes have important roles in the treatment of several disease conditions such as numerous cancers and fungal infections in addition to their critical role in drug-drug interactions. Structure activity relationships (SAR), and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationships (3D-QSAR) represent important tools in understanding the interactions of the inhibitors with the active sites of the CYP enzymes. A comprehensive account of the QSAR studies on the major human CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and a few other CYPs are detailed in this review which will provide us with an insight into the individual/common characteristics of the active sites of these enzymes and the enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QSAR and Its Applications)
Open AccessReview Corn Silk (Stigma Maydis) in Healthcare: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9697-9715; doi:10.3390/molecules17089697
Received: 23 May 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Corn silk (Stigma maydis) is an important herb used traditionally by the Chinese, and Native Americans to treat many diseases. It is also used as traditional medicine in many parts of the world such as Turkey, United States and France. Its
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Corn silk (Stigma maydis) is an important herb used traditionally by the Chinese, and Native Americans to treat many diseases. It is also used as traditional medicine in many parts of the world such as Turkey, United States and France. Its potential antioxidant and healthcare applications as diuretic agent, in hyperglycemia reduction, as anti-depressant and anti-fatigue use have been claimed in several reports. Other uses of corn silk include teas and supplements to treat urinary related problems. The potential use is very much related to its properties and mechanism of action of its plant’s bioactive constituents such as flavonoids and terpenoids. As such, this review will cover the research findings on the potential applications of corn silk in healthcare which include its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. In addition, the botanical description and its toxicological studies are also included. Full article
Open AccessReview Microfluidic Approaches to Bacterial Biofilm Formation
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9818-9834; doi:10.3390/molecules17089818
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (1823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial biofilms—aggregations of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substrates (EPS)—are an important subject of research in the fields of biology and medical science. Under aquatic conditions, bacterial cells form biofilms as a mechanism for improving survival and dispersion. In this review, we discuss
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Bacterial biofilms—aggregations of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substrates (EPS)—are an important subject of research in the fields of biology and medical science. Under aquatic conditions, bacterial cells form biofilms as a mechanism for improving survival and dispersion. In this review, we discuss bacterial biofilm development as a structurally and dynamically complex biological system and propose microfluidic approaches for the study of bacterial biofilms. Biofilms develop through a series of steps as bacteria interact with their environment. Gene expression and environmental conditions, including surface properties, hydrodynamic conditions, quorum sensing signals, and the characteristics of the medium, can have positive or negative influences on bacterial biofilm formation. The influences of each factor and the combined effects of multiple factors may be addressed using microfluidic approaches, which provide a promising means for controlling the hydrodynamic conditions, establishing stable chemical gradients, performing measurement in a high-throughput manner, providing real-time monitoring, and providing in vivo-like in vitro culture devices. An increased understanding of biofilms derived from microfluidic approaches may be relevant to improving our understanding of the contributions of determinants to bacterial biofilm development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Bioprospecting of Marine Invertebrates for New Natural Products — A Chemical and Zoogeographical Perspective
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9842-9854; doi:10.3390/molecules17089842
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs) has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or
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Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs) has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or molecules from specific chemical groups. The present review focuses on new NPs identified from marine invertebrates between 2000 and 2009, and performs a detailed analysis on: (1) the chemical groups of these NPs; (2) the association of particular chemical groups to specific marine invertebrate taxa; and (3) the yielding of molecules from the same chemical group from organisms occurring in a particular geographic region. Our survey revealed an increasing number of new terpenoids being discovered between 2000 and 2009, contrasting with the decreasing trend in the discovery of new alkaloids and aliphatic molecules. Overall, no particular association was identified between marine invertebrate taxa and chemical groups of new NPs. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that most NPs recorded from cnidarians and mollusks were terpenoids, while most NPs identified in echinoderms were aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates. The geographical trends observed in our study do not support the idea of particular chemical groups of new NPs being associated with marine invertebrates from any specific geographical region, as NPs from different chemical groups were commonly distributed worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)

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