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Sensors, Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2012), Pages 2351-3788

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Open AccessArticle A Vocal-Based Analytical Method for Goose Behaviour Recognition
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3773-3788; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303773
Received: 9 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 20 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Since human-wildlife conflicts are increasing, the development of cost-effective methods for reducing damage or conflict levels is important in wildlife management. A wide range of devices to detect and deter animals causing conflict are used for this purpose, although their effectiveness is often
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Since human-wildlife conflicts are increasing, the development of cost-effective methods for reducing damage or conflict levels is important in wildlife management. A wide range of devices to detect and deter animals causing conflict are used for this purpose, although their effectiveness is often highly variable, due to habituation to disruptive or disturbing stimuli. Automated recognition of behaviours could form a critical component of a system capable of altering the disruptive stimuli to avoid this. In this paper we present a novel method to automatically recognise goose behaviour based on vocalisations from flocks of free-living barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis). The geese were observed and recorded in a natural environment, using a shielded shotgun microphone. The classification used Support Vector Machines (SVMs), which had been trained with labeled data. Greenwood Function Cepstral Coefficients (GFCC) were used as features for the pattern recognition algorithm, as they can be adjusted to the hearing capabilities of different species. Three behaviours are classified based in this approach, and the method achieves a good recognition of foraging behaviour (86–97% sensitivity, 89–98% precision) and a reasonable recognition of flushing (79–86%, 66–80%) and landing behaviour(73–91%, 79–92%). The Support Vector Machine has proven to be a robust classifier for this kind of classification, as generality and non-linearcapabilities are important. We conclude that vocalisations can be used to automatically detect behaviour of conflict wildlife species, and as such, may be used as an integrated part of awildlife management system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Pro-Drug Approach for Selective Modulation of AI-2-Mediated Bacterial Cell-to-Cell Communication
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3762-3772; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303762
Received: 29 December 2011 / Revised: 26 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The universal quorum sensing autoinducer, AI-2, is utilized by several bacteria. Analogs of AI-2 have the potential to modulate bacterial behavior. Selectively quenching the communication of a few bacteria, in the presence of several others in an ecosystem, using analogs of AI-2 is
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The universal quorum sensing autoinducer, AI-2, is utilized by several bacteria. Analogs of AI-2 have the potential to modulate bacterial behavior. Selectively quenching the communication of a few bacteria, in the presence of several others in an ecosystem, using analogs of AI-2 is non-trivial due to the ubiquity of AI-2 processing receptors in many bacteria that co-exist. Herein, we demonstrate that when an AI-2 analog, isobutyl DPD (which has been previously shown to be a quorum sensing, QS, quencher in both Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) is modified with ester groups, which get hydrolyzed once inside the bacterial cells, only QS in E. coli, but not in S. typhimurium, is inhibited. The origin of this differential QS inhibition could be due to differences in analog permeation of the bacterial membranes or ester hydrolysis rates. Such differences could be utilized to selectively target QS in specific bacteria amongst a consortium of other species that also use AI-2 signaling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3747-3761; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303747
Received: 28 December 2011 / Revised: 19 February 2012 / Accepted: 16 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to
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Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle An Acousto-Optical Sensor with High Angular Resolution
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3739-3746; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303739
Received: 18 January 2012 / Revised: 1 March 2012 / Accepted: 8 March 2012 / Published: 20 March 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper introduces a new laser interferometry-based sensor for diagnosis of random media by means of high accuracy angle measurements and describes the results of its development and testing. Theoretical calculations of the dependence of the range of the laser interferometer on laser
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The paper introduces a new laser interferometry-based sensor for diagnosis of random media by means of high accuracy angle measurements and describes the results of its development and testing. Theoretical calculations of the dependence of the range of the laser interferometer on laser beam parameters, device geometry, and atmospheric turbulence characteristics are reported. It is demonstrated that at moderate turbulence intensities corresponding to those observed most frequently in turbulent atmosphere at moderate latitudes and with low interference contrast values, the performance range of the laser interferometer-based device exceeds 5 km. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Design and Testing of a Multi-Sensor Pedestrian Location and Navigation Platform
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3720-3738; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303720
Received: 18 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 15 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (959 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
avigation and location technologies are continually advancing, allowing ever higher accuracies and operation under ever more challenging conditions. The development of such technologies requires the rapid evaluation of a large number of sensors and related utilization strategies. The integration of Global Navigation Satellite
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avigation and location technologies are continually advancing, allowing ever higher accuracies and operation under ever more challenging conditions. The development of such technologies requires the rapid evaluation of a large number of sensors and related utilization strategies. The integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) with accelerometers, gyros, barometers, magnetometers and other sensors is allowing for novel applications, but is hindered by the difficulties to test and compare integrated solutions using multiple sensor sets. In order to achieve compatibility and flexibility in terms of multiple sensors, an advanced adaptable platform is required. This paper describes the design and testing of the NavCube, a multi-sensor navigation, location and timing platform. The system provides a research tool for pedestrian navigation, location and body motion analysis in an unobtrusive form factor that enables in situ data collections with minimal gait and posture impact. Testing and examples of applications of the NavCube are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Ocean Bottom Seismometer: Design and Test of a Measurement System for Marine Seismology
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3693-3719; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303693
Received: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) is a key instrument for the geophysical study of sea sub-bottom layers. At present, more reliable autonomous instruments capable of recording underwater for long periods of time and therefore handling large data storage are needed. This paper presents
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The Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) is a key instrument for the geophysical study of sea sub-bottom layers. At present, more reliable autonomous instruments capable of recording underwater for long periods of time and therefore handling large data storage are needed. This paper presents a new Ocean Bottom Seismometer designed to be used in long duration seismic surveys. Power consumption and noise level of the acquisition system are the key points to optimize the autonomy and the data quality. To achieve our goals, a new low power data logger with high resolution and Signal–to-Noise Ratio (SNR) based on Compact Flash memory card is designed to enable continuous data acquisition. The equipment represents the achievement of joint work from different scientific and technological disciplines as electronics, mechanics, acoustics, communications, information technology, marine geophysics, etc. This easy to handle and sophisticated equipment allows the recording of useful controlled source and passive seismic data, as well as other time varying data, with multiple applications in marine environment research. We have been working on a series of prototypes for ten years to improve many of the aspects that make the equipment easy to handle and useful to work in deep-water areas. Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) have received growing attention from the geoscience community during the last forty years. OBS sensors recording motion of the ocean floor hold key information in order to study offshore seismicity and to explore the Earth’s crust. In a seismic survey, a series of OBSs are placed on the seabed of the area under study, where they record either natural seismic activity or acoustic signals generated by compressed air-guns on the ocean surface. The resulting data sets are subsequently used to model both the earthquake locations and the crustal structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Vapochromic Behaviour of M[Au(CN)2]2-Based Coordination Polymers (M = Co, Ni)
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3669-3692; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303669
Received: 10 February 2012 / Revised: 9 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of M[Au(CN)2]2(analyte)x coordination polymers (M = Co, Ni; analyte = dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), pyridine; x = 2 or 4) was prepared and characterized. Addition of analyte vapours to solid M(μ-OH2)[Au(CN)2]2
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A series of M[Au(CN)2]2(analyte)x coordination polymers (M = Co, Ni; analyte = dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), pyridine; x = 2 or 4) was prepared and characterized. Addition of analyte vapours to solid M(μ-OH2)[Au(CN)2]2 yielded visible vapochromic responses for M = Co but not M = Ni; the IR νCN spectral region changed in every case. A single crystal structure of Zn[Au(CN)2]2(DMSO)2 revealed a corrugated 2-D layer structure with cis-DMSO units. Reacting a Ni(II) salt and K[Au(CN)2] in DMSO yielded the isostructural Ni[Au(CN)2]2(DMSO)2 product. Co[Au(CN)2]2(DMSO)2 and M[Au(CN)2]2(DMF)2 (M = Co, Ni) complexes have flat 2-D square-grid layer structures with trans-bound DMSO or DMF units; they are formed via vapour absorption by solid M(μ-OH2)[Au(CN)2]2 and from DMSO or DMF solution synthesis. Co[Au(CN)2]2(pyridine)4 is generated via vapour absorption by Co(μ-OH2)[Au(CN)2]2; the analogous Ni complex is synthesized by immersion of Ni(μ-OH2)[Au(CN)2]2 in 4% aqueous pyridine. Similar immersion of Co(μ-OH2)[Au(CN)2]2 yielded Co[Au(CN)2]2(pyridine)2, which has a flat 2-D square-grid structure with trans-pyridine units. Absorption of pyridine vapour by solid Ni(μ-OH2)[Au(CN)2]2 was incomplete, generating a mixture of pyridine-bound complexes. Analyte-free Co[Au(CN)2]2 was prepared by dehydration of Co(μ-OH2)[Au(CN)2]2 at 145 °C; it has a 3-D diamondoid-type structure and absorbs DMSO, DMF and pyridine to give the same materials as by vapour absorption from the hydrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Devices and Machines: Cooperativity and Multifunctionality)
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Open AccessArticle Durability Tests of a Fiber Optic Corrosion Sensor
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3656-3668; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303656
Received: 17 January 2012 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Steel corrosion is a major cause of degradation in reinforced concrete structures, and there is a need to develop cost-effective methods to detect the initiation of corrosion in such structures. This paper presents a low cost, easy to use fiber optic corrosion sensor
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Steel corrosion is a major cause of degradation in reinforced concrete structures, and there is a need to develop cost-effective methods to detect the initiation of corrosion in such structures. This paper presents a low cost, easy to use fiber optic corrosion sensor for practical application. Thin iron film is deposited on the end surface of a cleaved optical fiber by sputtering. When light is sent into the fiber, most of it is reflected by the coating. If the surrounding environment is corrosive, the film is corroded and the intensity of the reflected signal drops significantly. In previous work, the sensing principle was verified by various experiments in laboratory and a packaging method was introduced. In this paper, the method of multiplexing several sensors by optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) and optical splitter is introduced, together with the interpretation of OTDR results. The practical applicability of the proposed sensors is demonstrated in a three-year field trial with the sensors installed in an aggressive marine environment. The durability of the sensor against chemical degradation and physical degradation is also verified by accelerated life test and freeze-thaw cycling test, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fiber Sensors 2012)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Characteristics of Small Commercial NDIR CO2 Sensor Models and Development of a Portable CO2 Measurement Device
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3641-3655; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303641
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 6 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (1632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many sensors have to be used simultaneously for multipoint carbon dioxide (CO2) observation. All the sensors should be calibrated in advance, but this is a time-consuming process. To seek a simplified calibration method, we used four commercial CO2 sensor models
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Many sensors have to be used simultaneously for multipoint carbon dioxide (CO2) observation. All the sensors should be calibrated in advance, but this is a time-consuming process. To seek a simplified calibration method, we used four commercial CO2 sensor models and characterized their output tendencies against ambient temperature and length of use, in addition to offset characteristics. We used four samples of standard gas with different CO2 concentrations (0, 407, 1,110, and 1,810 ppm). The outputs of K30 and AN100 models showed linear relationships with temperature and length of use. Calibration coefficients for sensor models were determined using the data from three individual sensors of the same model to minimize the relative RMS error. When the correction was applied to the sensors, the accuracy of measurements improved significantly in the case of the K30 and AN100 units. In particular, in the case of K30 the relative RMS error decreased from 24% to 4%. Hence, we have chosen K30 for developing a portable CO2 measurement device (10 × 10 × 15 cm, 900 g). Data of CO2 concentration, measurement time and location, temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure can be recorded onto a Secure Digital (SD) memory card. The CO2 concentration in a high-school lecture room was monitored with this device. The CO2 data, when corrected for simultaneously measured temperature, water vapor partial pressure, and atmospheric pressure, showed a good agreement with the data measured by a highly accurate CO2 analyzer, LI-6262. This indicates that acceptable accuracy can be realized using the calibration method developed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Scattering Removal for Finger-Vein Image Restoration
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3627-3640; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303627
Received: 7 February 2012 / Revised: 6 March 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (2277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic
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Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hand-Based Biometrics Sensors and Systems)
Open AccessArticle On the Statistical Errors of RADAR Location Sensor Networks with Built-In Wi-Fi Gaussian Linear Fingerprints
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3605-3626; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303605
Received: 28 January 2012 / Revised: 1 March 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The expected errors of RADAR sensor networks with linear probabilistic location fingerprints inside buildings with varying Wi-Fi Gaussian strength are discussed. As far as we know, the statistical errors of equal and unequal-weighted RADAR networks have been suggested as a better way to
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The expected errors of RADAR sensor networks with linear probabilistic location fingerprints inside buildings with varying Wi-Fi Gaussian strength are discussed. As far as we know, the statistical errors of equal and unequal-weighted RADAR networks have been suggested as a better way to evaluate the behavior of different system parameters and the deployment of reference points (RPs). However, up to now, there is still not enough related work on the relations between the statistical errors, system parameters, number and interval of the RPs, let alone calculating the correlated analytical expressions of concern. Therefore, in response to this compelling problem, under a simple linear distribution model, much attention will be paid to the mathematical relations of the linear expected errors, number of neighbors, number and interval of RPs, parameters in logarithmic attenuation model and variations of radio signal strength (RSS) at the test point (TP) with the purpose of constructing more practical and reliable RADAR location sensor networks (RLSNs) and also guaranteeing the accuracy requirements for the location based services in future ubiquitous context-awareness environments. Moreover, the numerical results and some real experimental evaluations of the error theories addressed in this paper will also be presented for our future extended analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Voltage Mode Memristor Bridge Synaptic Circuit with Memristor Emulators
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3587-3604; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303587
Received: 21 January 2012 / Revised: 12 February 2012 / Accepted: 7 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A memristor bridge neural circuit which is able to perform signed synaptic weighting was proposed in our previous study, where the synaptic operation was verified via software simulation of the mathematical model of the HP memristor. This study is an extension of the
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A memristor bridge neural circuit which is able to perform signed synaptic weighting was proposed in our previous study, where the synaptic operation was verified via software simulation of the mathematical model of the HP memristor. This study is an extension of the previous work advancing toward the circuit implementation where the architecture of the memristor bridge synapse is built with memristor emulator circuits. In addition, a simple neural network which performs both synaptic weighting and summation is built by combining memristor emulators-based synapses and differential amplifier circuits. The feasibility of the memristor bridge neural circuit is verified via SPICE simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Electrical Characterization of Gold-DNA-Gold Structures in Presence of an External Magnetic Field by Means of I-V Curve Analysis
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3578-3586; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303578
Received: 21 January 2012 / Revised: 1 March 2012 / Accepted: 3 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents an experimental study of gold-DNA-gold structures in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields with strengths less than 1,200.00 mT. The DNA strands, extracted by standard method were used to fabricate a Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM) structure. Its electric behavior when
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This work presents an experimental study of gold-DNA-gold structures in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields with strengths less than 1,200.00 mT. The DNA strands, extracted by standard method were used to fabricate a Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM) structure. Its electric behavior when subjected to a magnetic field was studied through its current-voltage (I-V) curve. Acquisition of the I-V curve demonstrated that DNA as a semiconductor exhibits diode behavior in the MDM structure. The current versus magnetic field strength followed a decreasing trend because of a diminished mobility in the presence of a low magnetic field. This made clear that an externally imposed magnetic field would boost resistance of the MDM structure up to 1,000.00 mT and for higher magnetic field strengths we can observe an increase in potential barrier in MDM junction. The magnetic sensitivity indicates the promise of using MDM structures as potential magnetic sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Oxidation of Cysteine at a Film Gold Modified Carbon Fiber Microelectrode Its Application in a Flow—Through Voltammetric Sensor
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3562-3577; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303562
Received: 22 February 2012 / Revised: 6 March 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A flow-electrolytical cell containing a strand of micro Au modified carbon fiber electrodes (CFE) has been designedand characterized for use in a voltammatric detector for detecting cysteine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Cysteine is more efficiently electrochemical oxidized on a Au /CFE than a
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A flow-electrolytical cell containing a strand of micro Au modified carbon fiber electrodes (CFE) has been designedand characterized for use in a voltammatric detector for detecting cysteine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Cysteine is more efficiently electrochemical oxidized on a Au /CFE than a bare gold and carbon fiber electrode. The possible reaction mechanism of the oxidation process is described from the relations to scan rate, peak potentials and currents. For the pulse mode, and measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 0.5 to 5.0 mg·L−1 was found. The limit of quantification for cysteine was below 60 ng·mL−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Change Detection Methodology by Means of Binary Thresholding Algorithms and Informational Fusion Processes
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3528-3561; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120303528
Received: 7 December 2011 / Revised: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 7 March 2012 / Published: 13 March 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2091 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Landcover is subject to continuous changes on a wide variety of temporal and spatial scales. Those changes produce significant effects in human and natural activities. Maintaining an updated spatial database with the occurred changes allows a better monitoring of the Earth’s resources and
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Landcover is subject to continuous changes on a wide variety of temporal and spatial scales. Those changes produce significant effects in human and natural activities. Maintaining an updated spatial database with the occurred changes allows a better monitoring of the Earth’s resources and management of the environment. Change detection (CD) techniques using images from different sensors, such as satellite imagery, aerial photographs, etc., have proven to be suitable and secure data sources from which updated information can be extracted efficiently, so that changes can also be inventoried and monitored. In this paper, a multisource CD methodology for multiresolution datasets is applied. First, different change indices are processed, then different thresholding algorithms for change/no_change are applied to these indices in order to better estimate the statistical parameters of these categories, finally the indices are integrated into a change detection multisource fusion process, which allows generating a single CD result from several combination of indices. This methodology has been applied to datasets with different spectral and spatial resolution properties. Then, the obtained results are evaluated by means of a quality control analysis, as well as with complementary graphical representations. The suggested methodology has also been proved efficiently for identifying the change detection index with the higher contribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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