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Materials, Volume 3, Issue 7 (July 2010), Pages 3794-4079

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Sintering of Fine Particles in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Coatings
Materials 2010, 3(7), 3845-3866; doi:10.3390/ma3073845
Received: 7 June 2010 / Accepted: 30 June 2010 / Published: 1 July 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Suspension plasma spraying is a process that enables the production of finely grained nanometric or submicrometric coatings. The suspensions are formulated with the use of fine powder particles in water or alcohol with some additives. Subsequently, the suspension is injected into plasma jet
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Suspension plasma spraying is a process that enables the production of finely grained nanometric or submicrometric coatings. The suspensions are formulated with the use of fine powder particles in water or alcohol with some additives. Subsequently, the suspension is injected into plasma jet and the liquid additives evaporate. The remaining fine solids are molten and subsequently agglomerate or remain solid, depending on their trajectory in the plasma jet. The coating’s microstructure results from these two groups of particles arriving on a substrate or previously deposited coating. Previous experimental studies carried out for plasma sprayed titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite coatings enabled us to observe either a finely grained microstructure or, when a different suspension injection mode was used, to distinguish two zones in the microstructure. These two zones correspond to the dense zone formed from well molten particles, and the agglomerated zone formed from fine solid particles that arrive on the substrate in a solid state. The present paper focuses on the experimental and theoretical analysis of the formation process of the agglomerated zone. The experimental section establishes the heat flux supplied to the coating during deposition. In order to achieve this, calorimetric measurements were made by applying experimental conditions simulating the real coatings’ growth. The heat flux was measured to be in the range from 0.08 to 0.5 MW/m2,depending on the experimental conditions. The theoretical section analyzes the sintering during the coating’s growth, which concerns the fine particles arriving on the substrate in the solid state. The models of volume, grain boundary and surface diffusion were analyzed and adapted to the size and chemistry of the grains, temperature and time scales corresponding to the suspension plasma spraying conditions. The model of surface diffusion was found to best describe the sintering during suspension plasma spraying. The formation of necks having the relative size equal to 10% of particle diameter was found to be possible during the thermal cycles occurring at the coatings’ deposition. Transmission electron microscopic observations of the agglomerated zone hydroxyapatite coating confirm the sintering of some of the fine grains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Surface Coatings)
Open AccessArticle Combustion Synthesis of Porous TiC/Ti Composite by a Self-Propagating Mode
Materials 2010, 3(7), 3939-3947; doi:10.3390/ma3073939
Received: 21 May 2010 / Revised: 10 June 2010 / Accepted: 22 June 2010 / Published: 6 July 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Porous titanium carbide (TiC) and TiC/Ti composites were synthesized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Titanium and carbon powders were blended by various Ti/C blending ratios. The heat of reaction between titanium and carbon was high enough to induce the self-sustaining reaction of TiC
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Porous titanium carbide (TiC) and TiC/Ti composites were synthesized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Titanium and carbon powders were blended by various Ti/C blending ratios. The heat of reaction between titanium and carbon was high enough to induce the self-sustaining reaction of TiC formation on condition that some processing parameters (Ti/C ratio and porosity of the precursor) were appropriately selected. When the Ti/C blending ratio was high, the excess amount of titanium absorbed the heat of reaction. Consequently, the heated zone was not heated up to the ignition temperature. On the other hand, when the Ti/C ratio was low, high thermal conductivity of the precursor prevented an ignition of the heated side of precursors. The pore morphology was controlled by changing the Ti/C ratio and the preheat temperature. Full article
Open AccessArticle Imaging Analysis of Carbohydrate-Modified Surfaces Using ToF-SIMS and SPRi
Materials 2010, 3(7), 3948-3964; doi:10.3390/ma3073948
Received: 4 June 2010 / Revised: 28 June 2010 / Accepted: 1 July 2010 / Published: 7 July 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Covalent modification of surfaces with carbohydrates (glycans) is a prerequisite for a variety of glycomics-based biomedical applications, including functional biomaterials, glycoarrays, and glycan-based biosensors. The chemistry of glycan immobilization plays an essential role in the bioavailability and function of the surface bound carbohydrate
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Covalent modification of surfaces with carbohydrates (glycans) is a prerequisite for a variety of glycomics-based biomedical applications, including functional biomaterials, glycoarrays, and glycan-based biosensors. The chemistry of glycan immobilization plays an essential role in the bioavailability and function of the surface bound carbohydrate moiety. However, the scarcity of analytical methods to characterize carbohydrate-modified surfaces complicates efforts to optimize glycan surface chemistries for specific applications. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface sensitive technique suited for probing molecular composition at the biomaterial interface. Expanding ToF-SIMS analysis to interrogate carbohydrate-modified materials would increase our understanding of glycan surface chemistries and advance novel tools in the nascent field of glycomics. In this study, a printed glycan microarray surface was fabricated and subsequently characterized by ToF-SIMS imaging analysis. A multivariate technique based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the ToF-SIMS dataset and reconstruct ToF-SIMS images of functionalized surfaces. These images reveal chemical species related to the immobilized glycan, underlying glycan-reactive chemistries, gold substrates, and outside contaminants. Printed glycoarray elements (spots) were also interrogated to resolve the spatial distribution and spot homogeneity of immobilized glycan. The bioavailability of the surface-bound glycan was validated using a specific carbohydrate-binding protein (lectin) as characterized by Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRi). Our results demonstrate that ToF-SIMS is capable of characterizing chemical features of carbohydrate-modified surfaces and, when complemented with SPRi, can play an enabling role in optimizing glycan microarray fabrication and performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Surface Coatings)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Chitosan- MnFe2O4 Nanoparticles for Magnetic Hyperthermia and Drug Delivery
Materials 2010, 3(7), 4051-4065; doi:10.3390/ma3074051
Received: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 1 July 2010 / Published: 13 July 2010
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multifunctional nanoparticles composed of MnFe2O4 were encapsulated in chitosan for investigation of system to combine magnetically-triggered drug delivery and localized hyperthermia for cancer treatment with the previously published capacity of MnFe2O4 to be used as an efficient
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Multifunctional nanoparticles composed of MnFe2O4 were encapsulated in chitosan for investigation of system to combine magnetically-triggered drug delivery and localized hyperthermia for cancer treatment with the previously published capacity of MnFe2O4 to be used as an efficient MRI contrast agent for cancer diagnosis. This paper focuses on the synthesis and characterization of magnetic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, their dispersion in water and their incorporation in chitosan, which serves as a drug carrier. The surface of the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was modified with meso-2,3-di-mercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) to develop stable aqueous dispersions. The nanoparticles were coated with chitosan, and the magnetic properties, heat generation and hydrodynamic size of chitosan-coated MnFe2O4 were evaluated for various linker concentrations and in a range of pH conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Hydrothermal Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Supercritical Water
Materials 2010, 3(7), 3794-3817; doi:10.3390/ma3073794
Received: 2 June 2010 / Revised: 17 June 2010 / Accepted: 21 June 2010 / Published: 25 June 2010
Cited by 102 | PDF Full-text (1637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper summarizes specific features of supercritical hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide particles. Supercritical water allows control of the crystal phase, morphology, and particle size since the solvent's properties, such as density of water, can be varied with temperature and pressure, both of
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This paper summarizes specific features of supercritical hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide particles. Supercritical water allows control of the crystal phase, morphology, and particle size since the solvent's properties, such as density of water, can be varied with temperature and pressure, both of which can affect the supersaturation and nucleation. In this review, we describe the advantages of fine particle formation using supercritical water and describe which future tasks need to be solved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Fluids)
Open AccessReview A Comprehensive Review on Separation Methods and Techniques for Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Materials 2010, 3(7), 3818-3844; doi:10.3390/ma3073818
Received: 11 May 2010 / Revised: 22 June 2010 / Accepted: 25 June 2010 / Published: 30 June 2010
Cited by 52 | PDF Full-text (925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Structural control of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is attracting enormous interest in view of their applications to nanoelectronics and nanooptics. Actually, more than 200 papers regarding separation of SWNTs have been published since 1998. In this review, they are classified into the following
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Structural control of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is attracting enormous interest in view of their applications to nanoelectronics and nanooptics. Actually, more than 200 papers regarding separation of SWNTs have been published since 1998. In this review, they are classified into the following five sections according to the separation methods; electrophoresis, centrifugation, chromatography, selective solubilization and selective reaction. In each method, all literature is summarized in tables showing the separated objects (metallic/semiconducting (M/S), length, diameter, (n, m) structure and/or handedness), the production process of the used SWNTs (CoMoCAT, HiPco, arc discharge and/or laser vaporization) and the employed chemicals, such as detergents and polymers. Changes in annual number of publications related to this subject are also discussed. Full article
Open AccessReview Bioactive Glass and Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering
Materials 2010, 3(7), 3867-3910; doi:10.3390/ma3073867
Received: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 6 July 2010
Cited by 202 | PDF Full-text (1791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditionally, bioactive glasses have been used to fill and restore bone defects. More recently, this category of biomaterials has become an emerging research field for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds on
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Traditionally, bioactive glasses have been used to fill and restore bone defects. More recently, this category of biomaterials has become an emerging research field for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds on the basis of melt-derived bioactive silicate glass compositions and relevant composite structures. Starting with an excerpt on the history of bioactive glasses, as well as on fundamental requirements for bone tissue engineering scaffolds, a detailed overview on recent developments of bioactive glass and glass-ceramic scaffolds will be given, including a summary of common fabrication methods and a discussion on the microstructural-mechanical properties of scaffolds in relation to human bone (structure-property and structure-function relationship). In addition, ion release effects of bioactive glasses concerning osteogenic and angiogenic responses are addressed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
Open AccessReview Characterization of Biomaterials by Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopy
Materials 2010, 3(7), 3911-3938; doi:10.3390/ma3073911
Received: 5 June 2010 / Accepted: 5 July 2010 / Published: 6 July 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectromicroscopy techniques are emerging as useful tools to characterize potentially biocompatible materials and to probe protein interactions with model biomaterial surfaces. Simultaneous quantitative chemical analysis of the near surface region of the candidate biomaterial, and adsorbed proteins, peptides or other
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Synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectromicroscopy techniques are emerging as useful tools to characterize potentially biocompatible materials and to probe protein interactions with model biomaterial surfaces. Simultaneous quantitative chemical analysis of the near surface region of the candidate biomaterial, and adsorbed proteins, peptides or other biological species can be obtained at high spatial resolution via scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). Both techniques use near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectral contrast for chemical identification and quantitation. The capabilities of STXM and X-PEEM for the analysis of biomaterials are reviewed and illustrated by three recent studies: (1) characterization of hydrophobic surfaces, including adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) or human serum albumin (HSA) to hydrophobic polymeric thin films, (2) studies of HSA adsorption to biodegradable or potentially biocompatible polymers, and (3) studies of biomaterials under fully hydrated conditions. Other recent applications of STXM and X-PEEM to biomaterials are also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials)
Open AccessReview Nanoscale “Quantum” Islands on Metal Substrates: Microscopy Studies and Electronic Structure Analyses
Materials 2010, 3(7), 3965-3993; doi:10.3390/ma3073965
Received: 1 June 2010 / Revised: 22 June 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 9 July 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Confinement of electrons can occur in metal islands or in continuous films grown heteroepitaxially upon a substrate of a different metal or on a metallic alloy. Associated quantum size effects (QSE) can produce a significant height-dependence of the surface free energy for nanoscale
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Confinement of electrons can occur in metal islands or in continuous films grown heteroepitaxially upon a substrate of a different metal or on a metallic alloy. Associated quantum size effects (QSE) can produce a significant height-dependence of the surface free energy for nanoscale thicknesses of up to 10–20 layers. This may suffice to induce height selection during film growth. Scanning STM analysis has revealed remarkable flat-topped or mesa-like island and film morphologies in various systems. We discuss in detail observations of QSE and associated film growth behavior for Pb/Cu(111), Ag/Fe(100), and Cu/fcc-Fe/Cu(100) [A/B or A/B/A], and for Ag/NiAl(110) with brief comments offered for Fe/Cu3Au(001) [A/BC binary alloys]. We also describe these issues for Ag/5-fold i-Al-Pd-Mn and Bi/5-fold i-Al-Cu-Fe [A/BCD ternary icosohedral quasicrystals]. Electronic structure theory analysis, either at the level of simple free electron gas models or more sophisticated Density Functional Theory calculations, can provide insight into the QSE-mediated thermodynamic driving force underlying height selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPM in Materials Science)
Open AccessReview Functional Coatings or Films for Hard-Tissue Applications
Materials 2010, 3(7), 3994-4050; doi:10.3390/ma3073994
Received: 4 June 2010 / Revised: 23 June 2010 / Accepted: 7 July 2010 / Published: 9 July 2010
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (1206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metallic biomaterials like stainless steel, Co-based alloy, Ti and its alloys are widely used as artificial hip joints, bone plates and dental implants due to their excellent mechanical properties and endurance. However, there are some surface-originated problems associated with the metallic implants: corrosion
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Metallic biomaterials like stainless steel, Co-based alloy, Ti and its alloys are widely used as artificial hip joints, bone plates and dental implants due to their excellent mechanical properties and endurance. However, there are some surface-originated problems associated with the metallic implants: corrosion and wear in biological environments resulting in ions release and formation of wear debris; poor implant fixation resulting from lack of osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity; implant-associated infections due to the bacterial adhesion and colonization at the implantation site. For overcoming these surface-originated problems, a variety of surface modification techniques have been used on metallic implants, including chemical treatments, physical methods and biological methods. This review surveys coatings that serve to provide properties of anti-corrosion and anti-wear, biocompatibility and bioactivity, and antibacterial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessReview Synthesis of Polymer—Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposites
Materials 2010, 3(7), 4066-4079; doi:10.3390/ma3074066
Received: 13 June 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 13 July 2010
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymer nanocomposites show unique properties combining the advantages of the inorganic nanofillers and the organic polymers. The mesoporous silica nanofillers have received much attention due to their ordered structure, high surface area and ease for functionalization of the nanopores. To accommodate macromolecules, the
[...] Read more.
Polymer nanocomposites show unique properties combining the advantages of the inorganic nanofillers and the organic polymers. The mesoporous silica nanofillers have received much attention due to their ordered structure, high surface area and ease for functionalization of the nanopores. To accommodate macromolecules, the nanopores lead to unusually intimate interactions between the polymer and the inorganic phase, and some unusual properties can be observed, when compared with nonporous fillers. Whereas many review articles have been devoted to polymer/nonporous nanofiller nanocomposites, few review articles focus on polymer/mesoporous silica nanocomposites. This review summarizes the recent development in the methods for synthesizing polymer/mesoporous silica nanocomposites based on the papers published from 1998 to 2009, and some unique properties of these composites are also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
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