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Nutrients, Volume 2, Issue 12 (December 2010), Pages 1188-1307

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Nutrition-Related Practices and Attitudes of Kansas Skipped-Generation(s) Caregivers and Their Grandchildren
Nutrients 2010, 2(12), 1188-1211; doi:10.3390/nu2121188
Received: 15 October 2010 / Revised: 17 November 2010 / Accepted: 22 November 2010 / Published: 30 November 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite growing numbers, the nutrition practices and attitudes of skipped‑generation(s) kinship caregivers regarding feeding the dependent children in their care have not been examined. In this qualitative study, transcriptions of semi-structured interviews with 19 female and four male skipped-generation(s) Kansas caregivers (ages 47
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Despite growing numbers, the nutrition practices and attitudes of skipped‑generation(s) kinship caregivers regarding feeding the dependent children in their care have not been examined. In this qualitative study, transcriptions of semi-structured interviews with 19 female and four male skipped-generation(s) Kansas caregivers (ages 47 to 80, 92% non-Hispanic whites, 83% female, 78% grandparents and 22% great-aunt or great‑grandparent caregivers; caring for a range of one to four children, ages three to 18, for an average of nine years) were content analyzed for how their nutrition-related practices and attitudes had changed since parenting the first time. Sub-themes regarding practices included: being more nutrition and food safety conscious now, and shifting their child feeding style. The children seemed to be adversely affected by an on-the-go lifestyle and the use of more electronics. Caregivers described their sources for child feeding advice as being based mostly on information from their mothers, physicians, and their past parenting experiences. Sub-themes for attitudes included opinions that nutrition and safe food handling are important and that nutritious food is expensive. They preferred printed or video nutrition education materials and wanted to receive information through organizations they trusted. This population could benefit from education on: infant, child, adolescent, and sports nutrition; feeding “picky eaters”; healthful recipes, “fast foods” and packaged foods; quick, inexpensive meals and snacks low in fat, sugar, and salt; limiting sedentary time; family meals; using food thermometers; and intergenerational gardening and cooking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Aging)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin Enhanced Waters and Polyphenol Rich Beverages Analyzed for Antioxidant Capacity and Antioxidants/Calorie
Nutrients 2010, 2(12), 1290-1296; doi:10.3390/nu2121290
Received: 9 November 2010 / Revised: 6 December 2010 / Accepted: 13 December 2010 / Published: 15 December 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze polyphenol rich beverages (vitamin enhanced waters (VEWs), fruit juices and berry juices) to determine free polyphenol concentrations and free polyphenols per Calorie based on a serving size. The Folin‑Ciocalteu reagent was used in a colorimetric
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The purpose of this study was to analyze polyphenol rich beverages (vitamin enhanced waters (VEWs), fruit juices and berry juices) to determine free polyphenol concentrations and free polyphenols per Calorie based on a serving size. The Folin‑Ciocalteu reagent was used in a colorimetric assay based on a catechin standard. Fruit and berry juices contained, on average, more than eight-times the concentration of free polyphenols when compared to VEWs. When Calories per serving were taken into consideration, fruit and berry juices contained more than twice the free polyphenols per Calorie Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Food Intake of Kansans Over 80 Years of Age Attending Congregate Meal Sites
Nutrients 2010, 2(12), 1297-1307; doi:10.3390/nu2121297
Received: 2 November 2010 / Revised: 9 December 2010 / Accepted: 17 December 2010 / Published: 20 December 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the population of the United States continues to age, it has become increasingly more important to recognize the food intake and eating habits of older adults. The objective of this study was to describe the food group intake, factors predicting food group
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As the population of the United States continues to age, it has become increasingly more important to recognize the food intake and eating habits of older adults. The objective of this study was to describe the food group intake, factors predicting food group intake, and the food choices of community-dwelling Kansans, 80 years of age and older who participate in congregate meal programs. Participants completed a short questionnaire querying demographic information, current health status, and dietary supplement use. Participants (n = 113) were then followed up via telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls. Data were analyzed to determine adequacy of food group intake and mean intake. Regression analyses were used to determine factors predicting intake and frequency analysis established food typically consumed. Female participants were significantly more likely to consume more fruit servings than males. Intake was low for all five of the food groups, especially dairy. Chronic health conditions and dietary supplement use were consistently predictive factors of the amount of each food group consumed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Aging)

Review

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Open AccessReview Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids May Be Beneficial for Reducing Obesity—A Review
Nutrients 2010, 2(12), 1212-1230; doi:10.3390/nu2121212
Received: 4 November 2010 / Revised: 1 December 2010 / Accepted: 8 December 2010 / Published: 9 December 2010
Cited by 72 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current recommendations for counteracting obesity advocate the consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular physical activity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Studies in rodents and humans have indicated that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA)
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Current recommendations for counteracting obesity advocate the consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular physical activity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Studies in rodents and humans have indicated that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) potentially elicit a number of effects which might be useful for reducing obesity, including suppression of appetite, improvements in circulation which might facilitate nutrient delivery to skeletal muscle and changes in gene expression which shift metabolism toward increased accretion of lean tissue, enhanced fat oxidation and energy expenditure and reduced fat deposition. While LC n-3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to reduce obesity in rodents, evidence in humans is limited. Epidemiological associations between LC n-3 PUFA intakes and obesity are inconclusive but small cross-sectional studies have demonstrated inverse relationships between markers of LC n-3 PUFA status and markers of obesity. Human intervention trials indicate potential benefits of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation, especially when combined with energy-restricted diets or exercise, but more well-controlled and long-term trials are needed to confirm these effects and identify mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Update)
Open AccessReview Chemistry and Biochemistry of Dietary Polyphenols
Nutrients 2010, 2(12), 1231-1246; doi:10.3390/nu2121231
Received: 30 October 2010 / Revised: 29 November 2010 / Accepted: 9 December 2010 / Published: 10 December 2010
Cited by 255 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenols are the biggest group of phytochemicals, and many of them have been found in plant-based foods. Polyphenol-rich diets have been linked to many health benefits. This paper is intended to review the chemistry and biochemistry of polyphenols as related to classification, extraction,
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Polyphenols are the biggest group of phytochemicals, and many of them have been found in plant-based foods. Polyphenol-rich diets have been linked to many health benefits. This paper is intended to review the chemistry and biochemistry of polyphenols as related to classification, extraction, separation and analytical methods, their occurrence and biosynthesis in plants, and the biological activities and implications in human health. The discussions are focused on important and most recent advances in the above aspects, and challenges are identified for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolics)
Open AccessReview Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging
Nutrients 2010, 2(12), 1247-1265; doi:10.3390/nu2121247
Received: 29 October 2010 / Revised: 30 November 2010 / Accepted: 10 December 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
Cited by 80 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food) and endogenously (in humans) with greater
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Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food) and endogenously (in humans) with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Aging)
Open AccessReview Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health
Nutrients 2010, 2(12), 1266-1289; doi:10.3390/nu2121266
Received: 8 November 2010 / Revised: 30 November 2010 / Accepted: 7 December 2010 / Published: 15 December 2010
Cited by 156 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate
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Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber)

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