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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Polyphenols from Root, Tubercles and Grains Cropped in Brazil: Chemical and Nutritional Characterization and Their Effects on Human Health and Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091044
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that
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Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that exert beneficial and protective actions on human health, playing roles such as enzymatic reaction inhibitors and cofactors, toxic chemicals scavengers and biochemical reaction substrates, increasing the absorption of essential nutrients and selectively inhibiting deleterious intestinal bacteria. Polyphenols present in some commodity grains, such as soy and cocoa beans, as well as in other vegetables considered security foods for developing countries, including cassava, taro and beetroot, all of them cropped in Brazil, have been identified and quantified in order to point out their bioavailability and the adequate dietary intake to promote health. The effects of the flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds present in these vegetables, their metabolism and their effects on preventing chronic and degenerative disorders like cancers, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and neurological diseases are herein discussed based on recent epidemiological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Inflammatory Index and Colorectal Cancer Risk—A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091043
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Diet and chronic inflammation of the colon have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The possible link between inflammatory potential of diet, measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and CRC has been investigated
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Diet and chronic inflammation of the colon have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The possible link between inflammatory potential of diet, measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and CRC has been investigated in several populations across the world. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on studies exploring this association. Data from nine studies were eligible, of which five were case-control and four were cohort studies. Results from meta-analysis showed a positive association between increasing DII scores, indicating a pro-inflammatory diet, and CRC. Individuals in the highest versus the lowest (reference) DII category showed an overall 40% increased risk of CRC with moderate evidence of heterogeneity [relative risk (RR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 1.55; I2 = 69%, p < 0.001]. When analyzed as a continuous variable, results showed an increased risk of CRC of 7% for a 1-point increase in the DII score. Results remained unchanged when analyses were restricted to the four prospective studies. Results of our meta-analysis support the importance of adopting a healthier anti-inflammatory diet in preventing CRC. These results further substantiate the utility of DII as tool to characterize the inflammatory potential of diet and to predict CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Bioavailability of Omega-3 (DHA) through Alpha-Tocopheryl Phosphate Mixture (TPM) after Oral Administration in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091042
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Benefits of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements are hindered by their poor solubility and bioavailability. This study investigated the bioavailability of various formulations of Omega-3 and tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM), following oral administration in rats, and assessed whether TPM could improve the oral
[...] Read more.
Benefits of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements are hindered by their poor solubility and bioavailability. This study investigated the bioavailability of various formulations of Omega-3 and tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM), following oral administration in rats, and assessed whether TPM could improve the oral absorption of DHA. The rats were administered with a high (265.7 mg/kg) or low dose (88.6 mg/kg) of DHA. TPM was examined at 1:0.1 w/w (low TPM dose) and 1:0.5 w/w (high TPM dose). Over 24 h, the DHA plasma concentration followed a TPM dose-dependent relationship, reflected in the higher mean Cmax values (78.39 and 91.95 μg/mL) and AUC values (1396.60 and 1560.60) for the low and high TPM, respectively. The biggest difference between the low dose DHA control (LDCont) and TPM formulations was at 4 h after supplementation, where the low and high TPM showed a mean 20% (ns) and 50% (p < 0.05) increase in DHA plasma concentrations versus the control formulation. After correcting for baseline endogenous DHA, the mean plasma DHA at 4 h produced by the LD-HTPM was nearly double (90%) the LDC control (p = 0.057). This study demonstrated that co-administering omega-3 with TPM significantly increases the bioavailability of DHA in the plasma, suggesting potential use for commercially available TPM + DHA fortified products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Developmental Programming of Obesity and Liver Metabolism by Maternal Perinatal Nutrition Involves the Melanocortin System
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091041
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity.
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Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt), control knockout (C_KO), obese wild type (Ob_wt), and obese knockout (Ob_KO). At 21 days, offspring were genotyped, weaned onto a control diet, and sacrificed at 6 months old. Offspring phenotypic characteristics, plasma biochemical profile, liver histology, and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Mc4r_ko offspring showed higher body, liver and adipose tissue weights respect to the wild type animals. Histological examination showed mild hepatic steatosis in offspring group C_KO. The expression of hepatic genes involved in regulating inflammation, fibrosis, and immune cell infiltration were upregulated by the absence of the Mc4r gene. These results demonstrate that maternal obesogenic feeding during the perinatal period programs offspring obesity development with involvement of the Mc4r system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oligonol, a Low-Molecular Weight Polyphenol Derived from Lychee, Alleviates Muscle Loss in Diabetes by Suppressing Atrogin-1 and MuRF1
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091040
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway—especially E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1—is associated with muscle loss in diabetes. Elevated lipid metabolites impair myogenesis. Oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee, exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties, suggesting it could be a proper supplement
[...] Read more.
Stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway—especially E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1—is associated with muscle loss in diabetes. Elevated lipid metabolites impair myogenesis. Oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee, exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties, suggesting it could be a proper supplement for attenuating muscle loss. Dietary (10 weeks) oligonol supplementation (20 or 200 mg/kg diet) on the skeletal muscle loss was investigated in diabetic db/db mice. Transcription factors NF-κB and FoxO3a involved in regulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 were also investigated. Attenuation of muscle loss by oligonol (both doses) was associated with down-regulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression. Oligonol supplementation decreased NF-κB expression in the nuclear fraction compared with db/db mice without oligonol supplement. Upregulation of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) expression prevented FoxO3a nuclear localization in db/db mice supplemented with oligonol. Marked increases in AMPKα activity and Ppara mRNA expression leading to lower lipid accumulation by oligonol provided additional benefits for attenuating muscle loss. Oligonol limited palmitate-induced senescent phenotype and cell cycle arrest and suppressed Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA expression in palmitate-treated C2C12 muscle cells, thus contributing to improving the impaired myotube formation. In conclusion, oligonol-mediated downregulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression alleviates muscle loss and improves the impaired myotube formation, indicating that oligonol supplementation may be useful for the attenuation of myotube loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Different Effects of Maternal Low-Isoflavone Soy Protein and Genistein Consumption on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism of 21-Day-Old Male Rat Offspring
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091039
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Amino acid composition and isoflavone are alleged contributors to the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the contributing component(s) of SPI in a maternal diet to the regulation of lipid metabolism in offspring. We also determined
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Amino acid composition and isoflavone are alleged contributors to the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the contributing component(s) of SPI in a maternal diet to the regulation of lipid metabolism in offspring. We also determined serum parameters in dams to investigate specific maternal cues that might be responsible for this regulation. Female rats were fed either a casein (CAS), a low-isoflavone SPI, or a casein plus genistein (GEN, 250 mg/kg) diet for two weeks before mating, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (CAS, SPI and GEN groups) were studied 21 days after birth. The SPI group had lower serum triglyceride levels than the other groups. Serum cholesterol was reduced in both the SPI and GEN groups compared with the CAS group. Expressions of target genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α were altered in the SPI group. Serum aromatic amino acid levels in dams were associated with serum triglyceride in offspring. In conclusion, the maternal consumption of a low-isoflavone SPI diet or a casein diet containing genistein has different effects on the lipid metabolism of their offspring; however, more profound effects were observed in the SPI group. Therefore, the altered lipid metabolism of offspring may be attributed to amino acid composition in maternal dietary protein sources. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Nicodemus-Johnson, J.; et al. Fruit and Juice Epigenetic Signatures Are Associated with Independent Immunoregulatory Pathways. Nutrients 2017, 9, 752
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091038
Received: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
We would like to submit the following correction to our recently published paper [1] due to the error in illustration of the abbreviation eFORGE. The details are as follows:[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Capsaicin Supplementation Improved Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Disease in Individuals with Low HDL-C Levels
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091037
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of capsaicin intervention on the serum lipid profile in adults with low HDL-C. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial,
[...] Read more.
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of capsaicin intervention on the serum lipid profile in adults with low HDL-C. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial, 42 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the capsaicin (n = 21, 4 mg of capsaicin daily) or to the control group (n = 21, 0.05 mg of capsaicin daily) and consumed two capsaicin or control capsules, which contained the powder of the skin of different peppers, twice daily for three months. Thirty-five subjects completed the trial (18 in the capsaicin group and 17 in the control group). The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Compared with the control group, fasting serum HDL-C levels significantly increased to 1.00 ± 0.13 mmol/L from 0.92 ± 0.13 mmol/L in the capsaicin group (p = 0.030), while levels of triglycerides and C-reactive protein and phospholipid transfer protein activity moderately decreased (all p < 0.05). Other lipids, apolipoproteins, glucose, and other parameters did not significantly change. In conclusion, capsaicin improved risk factors of CHD in individuals with low HDL-C and may contribute to the prevention and treatment of CHD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Red Blood Cell Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inversely Relates to MRI-Assessed Carotid Plaque Lipid Core Burden in Elders at High Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091036
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals
[...] Read more.
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2.0 mm (n = 79). The latter were asked to undergo contrast-enhanced 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were subsequently grouped into absence (n = 31) or presence (n = 27) of MRI-detectable plaque lipid, a main feature of unstable atheroma plaques. We determined the red blood cell (RBC) proportion of EPA (a valid marker of long-term EPA intake) at enrolment by gas chromatography. In multivariate models, EPA related inversely to MRI-assessed plaque lipid volume, but not to maximum intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery, plaque burden, or MRI-assessed normalized wall index. The inverse association between EPA and plaque lipid content in patients with advanced atherosclerosis supports the notion that this fatty acid might improve cardiovascular health through stabilization of advanced atheroma plaques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessReview Lean Body Mass Harbors Sensing Mechanisms that Allow Safeguarding of Methionine Homeostasis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091035
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of
[...] Read more.
Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM) activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM) submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity. As a result of cellular injury, LBM releases high concentrations of Hcy into the extracellular space, contrasting with the disruption of normal remethylation pathways. Hyperhomocysteinemia acts as a biomarker, reflecting the severity of insult and operating as an alarm signal. Elevated Hcy levels constitute a precursor pool recognized by a CBS coding region that reacts to meet increased methionine requirements in LBM tissues, using its enhanced production in hepatocytes. Preservation of methionine homeostasis benefits from its high metabolic priority and survival value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Human Milk in Response to Cold-Like Symptoms in the Lactating Mother and Infant
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091034
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Infants rely on their innate immune systems to protect them from infection. Human milk (HM) contains fatty acids (FAs) and monoacylglycerols that are known to exhibit antiviral and antibacterial properties in vitro. The specific fat content of HM may potentially affect the efficacy
[...] Read more.
Infants rely on their innate immune systems to protect them from infection. Human milk (HM) contains fatty acids (FAs) and monoacylglycerols that are known to exhibit antiviral and antibacterial properties in vitro. The specific fat content of HM may potentially affect the efficacy of this antimicrobial activity. This preliminary study investigates whether the proportions of FA in HM change in response to infections, leading to cold-like symptoms in the mother or infant. Milk samples were obtained from mothers (n = 26) when they and their infants were healthy, and when mother, infant, or both suffered cold-like symptoms. The milk was hydrolysed and FA proportions were measured using gas chromatography. Fifteen FAs were recorded, of which eight were detected in sufficient quantities for statistical analysis. The proportions of capric (C10:0) and lauric acids (C12:0) in HM were significantly lower, and palmitic acid (C16:0) was higher when mothers and infants were ill compared to healthy samples. Palmitoleic (C16:1, n-7) and stearic acid (C18:0) proportions were higher in HM when the infant was unwell, but were not related to maternal health. Whilst the differences detected were small (less than 0.5%), the effects may be additive and potentially have a protective function. The value of further studies is certainly indicated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091033
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012), but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p < 0.001) without modifying mean or peak heart rate. Caffeine also increased the performance index rating (7.2 ± 8.6 vs. 10.6 ± 7.1; p = 0.037) during the game. Nevertheless, players showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (19.0 vs. 54.4%; p = 0.041) after the game. Three mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an effective ergogenic substance to increase physical performance and overall success in experienced basketball players. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Metabolic Response to Stress and Infection in Critically Ill Children: The Opportunity of an Individualized Approach
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091032
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an
[...] Read more.
The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an individual level, the effects of nutritional interventions are highly variable and a possible source of complications. This narrative review aims to discuss the metabolic changes in critically-ill children and the potential of developing personalized nutritional interventions. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the importance of blood glucose levels, the nutritional aspects of the different phases of acute stress response, and the reliability of the available tools to assess the energy expenditure. The dynamics of metabolism during stressful events reveals the difficult balance between risk of hypo- or hyperglycemia and under- or overfeeding. Within this context, individualized and accurate measurement of energy expenditure may help in defining the metabolic needs of patients. Given the variability of the metabolic response in critical conditions, randomized clinical studies in ill children are needed to evaluate the effect of individualized nutritional intervention on health outcomes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Implementing a Health and Wellbeing Programme for Children in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091031
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
In New Zealand, there is a high prevalence of childhood poverty and food insecurity, which can impact a family’s ability to provide high quality, nutrient dense foods for their children. In an attempt to increase the quality of the food consumed by children
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In New Zealand, there is a high prevalence of childhood poverty and food insecurity, which can impact a family’s ability to provide high quality, nutrient dense foods for their children. In an attempt to increase the quality of the food consumed by children attending a decile two (low socio-economic) kindergarten and to address food insecurity issues, an educational health and wellness initiative, in conjunction with a free lunch programme, was introduced. The impact of the lunches and the effectiveness of the programme were evaluated. Baseline and end-intervention 24-h modified dietary recall questionnaire data and a vegetable- and fruit-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were collected. A follow-up FFQ was administered six months after the end of the intervention. The nutrient composition of the foods recorded in the 24-h recall questionnaires were analysed using FoodWorks8™. Whilst no significant differences were observed with the intakes of individual nutrients, there was a significant decrease in the consumption of ultra-processed snack foods (p = 0.015). The results of the follow-up FFQ, including the comments collected from the parents, suggested that the intervention had a longer-term positive impact on not only the children involved in the study but also on their whānau (wider family members) Full article
Open AccessArticle Fiber Patterns in Young Adults Living in Different Environments (USA, Spain, and Tunisia). Anthropometric and Lifestyle Characteristics
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091030
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
PDF Full-text (1317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Benefits of dietary fiber go beyond its effect on chronic diseases associated with development. Consequently, the pattern of fiber intake has been considered an indicator for diet quality. Young adults are especially vulnerable to a food environment that drives an increase in chronic
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Benefits of dietary fiber go beyond its effect on chronic diseases associated with development. Consequently, the pattern of fiber intake has been considered an indicator for diet quality. Young adults are especially vulnerable to a food environment that drives an increase in chronic diseases linked to economic development. The aim of this work was to characterize patterns of fiber intake among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 730 students enrolled at the University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain), the University of Carthage (Tunisia), and Florida International University (USA). Mean age was 21.2. Food consumption was self-reported in two 24-h recalls. Mean dietary fiber intake was 17.8 g, not reaching the adequate intake. Contrary to expectations, American participants were the highest consumers (p < 0.001), and also exhibited the highest BMI. Cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruit were the main food sources of fiber. Fiber from appetizers, prepared and precooked meals, sauces, spices and condiments accounted for 16.7% in American participants, 7.4% in Spanish participants and 2.6% in Tunisian participants. Total fiber intake increased with energy intake but did not depend on smoking habits and physical activity in any country. It is essential to improve consumers’ interpretation of guidelines on fiber intake. Full article
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