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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Polyphenols from Root, Tubercles and Grains Cropped in Brazil: Chemical and Nutritional Characterization and Their Effects on Human Health and Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091044
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that
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Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that exert beneficial and protective actions on human health, playing roles such as enzymatic reaction inhibitors and cofactors, toxic chemicals scavengers and biochemical reaction substrates, increasing the absorption of essential nutrients and selectively inhibiting deleterious intestinal bacteria. Polyphenols present in some commodity grains, such as soy and cocoa beans, as well as in other vegetables considered security foods for developing countries, including cassava, taro and beetroot, all of them cropped in Brazil, have been identified and quantified in order to point out their bioavailability and the adequate dietary intake to promote health. The effects of the flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds present in these vegetables, their metabolism and their effects on preventing chronic and degenerative disorders like cancers, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and neurological diseases are herein discussed based on recent epidemiological studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dietary Inflammatory Index and Colorectal Cancer Risk—A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091043
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diet and chronic inflammation of the colon have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The possible link between inflammatory potential of diet, measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and CRC has been investigated
[...] Read more.
Diet and chronic inflammation of the colon have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The possible link between inflammatory potential of diet, measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and CRC has been investigated in several populations across the world. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on studies exploring this association. Data from nine studies were eligible, of which five were case-control and four were cohort studies. Results from meta-analysis showed a positive association between increasing DII scores, indicating a pro-inflammatory diet, and CRC. Individuals in the highest versus the lowest (reference) DII category showed an overall 40% increased risk of CRC with moderate evidence of heterogeneity [relative risk (RR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 1.55; I2 = 69%, p < 0.001]. When analyzed as a continuous variable, results showed an increased risk of CRC of 7% for a 1-point increase in the DII score. Results remained unchanged when analyses were restricted to the four prospective studies. Results of our meta-analysis support the importance of adopting a healthier anti-inflammatory diet in preventing CRC. These results further substantiate the utility of DII as tool to characterize the inflammatory potential of diet and to predict CRC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Bioavailability of Omega-3 (DHA) through Alpha-Tocopheryl Phosphate Mixture (TPM) after Oral Administration in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091042
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Benefits of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements are hindered by their poor solubility and bioavailability. This study investigated the bioavailability of various formulations of Omega-3 and tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM), following oral administration in rats, and assessed whether TPM could improve the oral
[...] Read more.
Benefits of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements are hindered by their poor solubility and bioavailability. This study investigated the bioavailability of various formulations of Omega-3 and tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM), following oral administration in rats, and assessed whether TPM could improve the oral absorption of DHA. The rats were administered with a high (265.7 mg/kg) or low dose (88.6 mg/kg) of DHA. TPM was examined at 1:0.1 w/w (low TPM dose) and 1:0.5 w/w (high TPM dose). Over 24 h, the DHA plasma concentration followed a TPM dose-dependent relationship, reflected in the higher mean Cmax values (78.39 and 91.95 μg/mL) and AUC values (1396.60 and 1560.60) for the low and high TPM, respectively. The biggest difference between the low dose DHA control (LDCont) and TPM formulations was at 4 h after supplementation, where the low and high TPM showed a mean 20% (ns) and 50% (p < 0.05) increase in DHA plasma concentrations versus the control formulation. After correcting for baseline endogenous DHA, the mean plasma DHA at 4 h produced by the LD-HTPM was nearly double (90%) the LDC control (p = 0.057). This study demonstrated that co-administering omega-3 with TPM significantly increases the bioavailability of DHA in the plasma, suggesting potential use for commercially available TPM + DHA fortified products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Developmental Programming of Obesity and Liver Metabolism by Maternal Perinatal Nutrition Involves the Melanocortin System
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091041
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity.
[...] Read more.
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt), control knockout (C_KO), obese wild type (Ob_wt), and obese knockout (Ob_KO). At 21 days, offspring were genotyped, weaned onto a control diet, and sacrificed at 6 months old. Offspring phenotypic characteristics, plasma biochemical profile, liver histology, and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Mc4r_ko offspring showed higher body, liver and adipose tissue weights respect to the wild type animals. Histological examination showed mild hepatic steatosis in offspring group C_KO. The expression of hepatic genes involved in regulating inflammation, fibrosis, and immune cell infiltration were upregulated by the absence of the Mc4r gene. These results demonstrate that maternal obesogenic feeding during the perinatal period programs offspring obesity development with involvement of the Mc4r system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oligonol, a Low-Molecular Weight Polyphenol Derived from Lychee, Alleviates Muscle Loss in Diabetes by Suppressing Atrogin-1 and MuRF1
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091040
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway—especially E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1—is associated with muscle loss in diabetes. Elevated lipid metabolites impair myogenesis. Oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee, exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties, suggesting it could be a proper supplement
[...] Read more.
Stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway—especially E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1—is associated with muscle loss in diabetes. Elevated lipid metabolites impair myogenesis. Oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee, exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties, suggesting it could be a proper supplement for attenuating muscle loss. Dietary (10 weeks) oligonol supplementation (20 or 200 mg/kg diet) on the skeletal muscle loss was investigated in diabetic db/db mice. Transcription factors NF-κB and FoxO3a involved in regulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 were also investigated. Attenuation of muscle loss by oligonol (both doses) was associated with down-regulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression. Oligonol supplementation decreased NF-κB expression in the nuclear fraction compared with db/db mice without oligonol supplement. Upregulation of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) expression prevented FoxO3a nuclear localization in db/db mice supplemented with oligonol. Marked increases in AMPKα activity and Ppara mRNA expression leading to lower lipid accumulation by oligonol provided additional benefits for attenuating muscle loss. Oligonol limited palmitate-induced senescent phenotype and cell cycle arrest and suppressed Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA expression in palmitate-treated C2C12 muscle cells, thus contributing to improving the impaired myotube formation. In conclusion, oligonol-mediated downregulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression alleviates muscle loss and improves the impaired myotube formation, indicating that oligonol supplementation may be useful for the attenuation of myotube loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Different Effects of Maternal Low-Isoflavone Soy Protein and Genistein Consumption on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism of 21-Day-Old Male Rat Offspring
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091039
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Amino acid composition and isoflavone are alleged contributors to the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the contributing component(s) of SPI in a maternal diet to the regulation of lipid metabolism in offspring. We also determined
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Amino acid composition and isoflavone are alleged contributors to the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the contributing component(s) of SPI in a maternal diet to the regulation of lipid metabolism in offspring. We also determined serum parameters in dams to investigate specific maternal cues that might be responsible for this regulation. Female rats were fed either a casein (CAS), a low-isoflavone SPI, or a casein plus genistein (GEN, 250 mg/kg) diet for two weeks before mating, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (CAS, SPI and GEN groups) were studied 21 days after birth. The SPI group had lower serum triglyceride levels than the other groups. Serum cholesterol was reduced in both the SPI and GEN groups compared with the CAS group. Expressions of target genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α were altered in the SPI group. Serum aromatic amino acid levels in dams were associated with serum triglyceride in offspring. In conclusion, the maternal consumption of a low-isoflavone SPI diet or a casein diet containing genistein has different effects on the lipid metabolism of their offspring; however, more profound effects were observed in the SPI group. Therefore, the altered lipid metabolism of offspring may be attributed to amino acid composition in maternal dietary protein sources. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Nicodemus-Johnson, J.; et al. Fruit and Juice Epigenetic Signatures Are Associated with Independent Immunoregulatory Pathways. Nutrients 2017, 9, 752
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091038
Received: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
We would like to submit the following correction to our recently published paper [1] due to the error in illustration of the abbreviation eFORGE. The details are as follows:[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Capsaicin Supplementation Improved Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Disease in Individuals with Low HDL-C Levels
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091037
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of capsaicin intervention on the serum lipid profile in adults with low HDL-C. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial,
[...] Read more.
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of capsaicin intervention on the serum lipid profile in adults with low HDL-C. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial, 42 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the capsaicin (n = 21, 4 mg of capsaicin daily) or to the control group (n = 21, 0.05 mg of capsaicin daily) and consumed two capsaicin or control capsules, which contained the powder of the skin of different peppers, twice daily for three months. Thirty-five subjects completed the trial (18 in the capsaicin group and 17 in the control group). The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Compared with the control group, fasting serum HDL-C levels significantly increased to 1.00 ± 0.13 mmol/L from 0.92 ± 0.13 mmol/L in the capsaicin group (p = 0.030), while levels of triglycerides and C-reactive protein and phospholipid transfer protein activity moderately decreased (all p < 0.05). Other lipids, apolipoproteins, glucose, and other parameters did not significantly change. In conclusion, capsaicin improved risk factors of CHD in individuals with low HDL-C and may contribute to the prevention and treatment of CHD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Red Blood Cell Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inversely Relates to MRI-Assessed Carotid Plaque Lipid Core Burden in Elders at High Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091036
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals
[...] Read more.
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2.0 mm (n = 79). The latter were asked to undergo contrast-enhanced 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were subsequently grouped into absence (n = 31) or presence (n = 27) of MRI-detectable plaque lipid, a main feature of unstable atheroma plaques. We determined the red blood cell (RBC) proportion of EPA (a valid marker of long-term EPA intake) at enrolment by gas chromatography. In multivariate models, EPA related inversely to MRI-assessed plaque lipid volume, but not to maximum intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery, plaque burden, or MRI-assessed normalized wall index. The inverse association between EPA and plaque lipid content in patients with advanced atherosclerosis supports the notion that this fatty acid might improve cardiovascular health through stabilization of advanced atheroma plaques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessReview Lean Body Mass Harbors Sensing Mechanisms that Allow Safeguarding of Methionine Homeostasis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091035
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of
[...] Read more.
Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM) activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM) submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity. As a result of cellular injury, LBM releases high concentrations of Hcy into the extracellular space, contrasting with the disruption of normal remethylation pathways. Hyperhomocysteinemia acts as a biomarker, reflecting the severity of insult and operating as an alarm signal. Elevated Hcy levels constitute a precursor pool recognized by a CBS coding region that reacts to meet increased methionine requirements in LBM tissues, using its enhanced production in hepatocytes. Preservation of methionine homeostasis benefits from its high metabolic priority and survival value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Human Milk in Response to Cold-Like Symptoms in the Lactating Mother and Infant
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091034
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infants rely on their innate immune systems to protect them from infection. Human milk (HM) contains fatty acids (FAs) and monoacylglycerols that are known to exhibit antiviral and antibacterial properties in vitro. The specific fat content of HM may potentially affect the efficacy
[...] Read more.
Infants rely on their innate immune systems to protect them from infection. Human milk (HM) contains fatty acids (FAs) and monoacylglycerols that are known to exhibit antiviral and antibacterial properties in vitro. The specific fat content of HM may potentially affect the efficacy of this antimicrobial activity. This preliminary study investigates whether the proportions of FA in HM change in response to infections, leading to cold-like symptoms in the mother or infant. Milk samples were obtained from mothers (n = 26) when they and their infants were healthy, and when mother, infant, or both suffered cold-like symptoms. The milk was hydrolysed and FA proportions were measured using gas chromatography. Fifteen FAs were recorded, of which eight were detected in sufficient quantities for statistical analysis. The proportions of capric (C10:0) and lauric acids (C12:0) in HM were significantly lower, and palmitic acid (C16:0) was higher when mothers and infants were ill compared to healthy samples. Palmitoleic (C16:1, n-7) and stearic acid (C18:0) proportions were higher in HM when the infant was unwell, but were not related to maternal health. Whilst the differences detected were small (less than 0.5%), the effects may be additive and potentially have a protective function. The value of further studies is certainly indicated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091033
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (707 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012), but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p < 0.001) without modifying mean or peak heart rate. Caffeine also increased the performance index rating (7.2 ± 8.6 vs. 10.6 ± 7.1; p = 0.037) during the game. Nevertheless, players showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (19.0 vs. 54.4%; p = 0.041) after the game. Three mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an effective ergogenic substance to increase physical performance and overall success in experienced basketball players. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Metabolic Response to Stress and Infection in Critically Ill Children: The Opportunity of an Individualized Approach
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091032
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an
[...] Read more.
The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an individual level, the effects of nutritional interventions are highly variable and a possible source of complications. This narrative review aims to discuss the metabolic changes in critically-ill children and the potential of developing personalized nutritional interventions. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the importance of blood glucose levels, the nutritional aspects of the different phases of acute stress response, and the reliability of the available tools to assess the energy expenditure. The dynamics of metabolism during stressful events reveals the difficult balance between risk of hypo- or hyperglycemia and under- or overfeeding. Within this context, individualized and accurate measurement of energy expenditure may help in defining the metabolic needs of patients. Given the variability of the metabolic response in critical conditions, randomized clinical studies in ill children are needed to evaluate the effect of individualized nutritional intervention on health outcomes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Implementing a Health and Wellbeing Programme for Children in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091031
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In New Zealand, there is a high prevalence of childhood poverty and food insecurity, which can impact a family’s ability to provide high quality, nutrient dense foods for their children. In an attempt to increase the quality of the food consumed by children
[...] Read more.
In New Zealand, there is a high prevalence of childhood poverty and food insecurity, which can impact a family’s ability to provide high quality, nutrient dense foods for their children. In an attempt to increase the quality of the food consumed by children attending a decile two (low socio-economic) kindergarten and to address food insecurity issues, an educational health and wellness initiative, in conjunction with a free lunch programme, was introduced. The impact of the lunches and the effectiveness of the programme were evaluated. Baseline and end-intervention 24-h modified dietary recall questionnaire data and a vegetable- and fruit-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were collected. A follow-up FFQ was administered six months after the end of the intervention. The nutrient composition of the foods recorded in the 24-h recall questionnaires were analysed using FoodWorks8™. Whilst no significant differences were observed with the intakes of individual nutrients, there was a significant decrease in the consumption of ultra-processed snack foods (p = 0.015). The results of the follow-up FFQ, including the comments collected from the parents, suggested that the intervention had a longer-term positive impact on not only the children involved in the study but also on their whānau (wider family members) Full article
Open AccessArticle Fiber Patterns in Young Adults Living in Different Environments (USA, Spain, and Tunisia). Anthropometric and Lifestyle Characteristics
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091030
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
PDF Full-text (1317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Benefits of dietary fiber go beyond its effect on chronic diseases associated with development. Consequently, the pattern of fiber intake has been considered an indicator for diet quality. Young adults are especially vulnerable to a food environment that drives an increase in chronic
[...] Read more.
Benefits of dietary fiber go beyond its effect on chronic diseases associated with development. Consequently, the pattern of fiber intake has been considered an indicator for diet quality. Young adults are especially vulnerable to a food environment that drives an increase in chronic diseases linked to economic development. The aim of this work was to characterize patterns of fiber intake among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 730 students enrolled at the University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain), the University of Carthage (Tunisia), and Florida International University (USA). Mean age was 21.2. Food consumption was self-reported in two 24-h recalls. Mean dietary fiber intake was 17.8 g, not reaching the adequate intake. Contrary to expectations, American participants were the highest consumers (p < 0.001), and also exhibited the highest BMI. Cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruit were the main food sources of fiber. Fiber from appetizers, prepared and precooked meals, sauces, spices and condiments accounted for 16.7% in American participants, 7.4% in Spanish participants and 2.6% in Tunisian participants. Total fiber intake increased with energy intake but did not depend on smoking habits and physical activity in any country. It is essential to improve consumers’ interpretation of guidelines on fiber intake. Full article
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Open AccessReview Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091029
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of
[...] Read more.
This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subjects with MeatDiet and in 12% with FishDiet. Negative effects on bone were observed in 2.7% of FishDiet and in 47.9% of MeatDiet. Major negative effects of MeatDiet were found in subjects located in the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Italy, Norway, UK and Spain who do not sustain a Mediterranean diet (92.7%); in Korea (27.1%); in Brazil and Mexico (96.4%); and in Australia (62.5%). This study suggests that protein intake from fish or meat is not harmful to bone. Negative effects on bone linked to FishDiet are almost null. Negative effects on bone were associated to MeatDiet in the setting of a Western Diet but not in Mediterranean or Asian Diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Higher Dietary Cost Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study among Selected Malaysian Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091028
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Food price is a determining factor of food choices; however its relationship with diet quality is unclear in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine socio-economic characteristics and daily dietary cost (DDC) in relation to diet quality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dietary
[...] Read more.
Food price is a determining factor of food choices; however its relationship with diet quality is unclear in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine socio-economic characteristics and daily dietary cost (DDC) in relation to diet quality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and diet quality was estimated using a Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (M-HEI). DDC in Malaysian Ringgit (RM) was calculated from dietary intake and national food prices. Linear regression models were fitted to determine associations between DDC and M-HEI scores and predictors of diet quality. The mean M-HEI score of respondents was 61.31 ± 10.88 and energy adjusted DDC was RM10.71/2000 kcal (USD 2.49). The highest quintile of adjusted DDC had higher M-HEI scores for all respondents (Q1: 57.14 ± 10.07 versus Q5: 63.26 ± 11.54, p = 0.001). There were also positive associations between DDC and M-HEI scores for fruits (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.017) for all respondents. Predictors of diet quality included carbohydrate (β = 0290; p < 0.001) and fat intakes (β = −0.242; p < 0.001) and energy adjusted DDC (β = 0.196; p < 0.001). Higher dietary cost is associated with healthy eating among Malaysian adults. Full article
Open AccessReview Broad and Inconsistent Muscle Food Classification Is Problematic for Dietary Guidance in the U.S.
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091027
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Dietary recommendations regarding consumption of muscle foods, such as red meat, processed meat, poultry or fish, largely rely on current dietary intake assessment methods. This narrative review summarizes how U.S. intake values for various types of muscle foods are grouped and estimated via
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Dietary recommendations regarding consumption of muscle foods, such as red meat, processed meat, poultry or fish, largely rely on current dietary intake assessment methods. This narrative review summarizes how U.S. intake values for various types of muscle foods are grouped and estimated via methods that include: (1) food frequency questionnaires; (2) food disappearance data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service; and (3) dietary recall information from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. These reported methods inconsistently classify muscle foods into groups, such as those previously listed, which creates discrepancies in estimated intakes. Researchers who classify muscle foods into these groups do not consistently considered nutrient content, in turn leading to implications of scientific conclusions and dietary recommendations. Consequentially, these factors demonstrate a need for a more universal muscle food classification system. Further specification to this system would improve accuracy and precision in which researchers can classify muscle foods in nutrition research. Future multidisciplinary collaboration is needed to develop a new classification system via systematic review protocol of current literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Insights into the Hexose Liver Metabolism—Glucose versus Fructose
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091026
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
High-fructose intake in healthy men is associated with characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Extensive knowledge exists about the differences between hepatic fructose and glucose metabolism and fructose-specific mechanisms favoring the development of metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the causal relationship between fructose consumption and metabolic alterations
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High-fructose intake in healthy men is associated with characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Extensive knowledge exists about the differences between hepatic fructose and glucose metabolism and fructose-specific mechanisms favoring the development of metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the causal relationship between fructose consumption and metabolic alterations is still debated. Multiple effects of fructose on hepatic metabolism are attributed to the fact that the liver represents the major sink of fructose. Fructose, as a lipogenic substrate and potent inducer of lipogenic enzyme expression, enhances fatty acid synthesis. Consequently, increased hepatic diacylglycerols (DAG) are thought to directly interfere with insulin signaling. However, independently of this effect, fructose may also counteract insulin-mediated effects on liver metabolism by a range of mechanisms. It may drive gluconeogenesis not only as a gluconeogenic substrate, but also as a potent inducer of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), which induces the expression of lipogenic enzymes as well as gluconeogenic enzymes. It remains a challenge to determine the relative contributions of the impact of fructose on hepatic transcriptome, proteome and allosterome changes and consequently on the regulation of plasma glucose metabolism/homeostasis. Mathematical models exist modeling hepatic glucose metabolism. Future models should not only consider the hepatic adjustments of enzyme abundances and activities in response to changing plasma glucose and insulin/glucagon concentrations, but also to varying fructose concentrations for defining the role of fructose in the hepatic control of plasma glucose homeostasis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Carotenoid Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adults Aged 30–75 Years Using Data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2011)
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091025
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Age-related bone loss is a major public health problem. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the dietary intake of carotenoids and bone mineral density (BMD). Data from 8022 subjects (3763 males and 4259 females) aged 30–75 years included in the Korean National
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Age-related bone loss is a major public health problem. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the dietary intake of carotenoids and bone mineral density (BMD). Data from 8022 subjects (3763 males and 4259 females) aged 30–75 years included in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011) were analyzed. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Intake of carotenoids was estimated using 24-h dietary recall. In multiple linear analysis, after adjusting for covariates, lutein + zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin intake was positively associated with total hip BMD in males and premenopausal women respectively, while β-carotene intake was positively correlated with femoral neck, total hip, and whole-body BMD in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women in the highest quintile of daily β-carotene intake, showed a lower risk of osteopenia at the lumbar spine (odds ratio (OR): 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16–0.79, P for trend = 0.009) than those in the lowest quintile, after adjusting for covariates. Daily β-cryptoxanthin intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of osteopenia at the total hip (OR per 1 mg/day increase: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59–0.97), and lumbar spine (OR per 1 mg/day increase: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70–0.89) in postmenopausal women. These results suggest that the dietary intake of β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin may have a positive effect on bone health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Nutritional Status and its Related Factors for Chinese Children and Adolescents in 2010–2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091024
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D plays a critical role in calcium and phosphate metabolism and helps maintain skeletal integrity in childhood, yet vitamin D status in Chinese children and adolescents is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status
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Vitamin D plays a critical role in calcium and phosphate metabolism and helps maintain skeletal integrity in childhood, yet vitamin D status in Chinese children and adolescents is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status and analyze the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured with a radioimmunoassay kit in 15,000 children and adolescent participants in the Chinese national nutrition and health survey (CNNHS) 2010–2012. Age, gender, region type, ethnicity, outdoor time, and vitamin D supplementation were recorded in unified design questionnaires. The season was recorded by the date of blood taken; location was divided into north and south by China′s Qinling Mountains and Huaihe River; and ambient ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation level was classified according to the corresponding dose of each participant living area from National Aeronautics and Space Administration data. 14,473 participants from the cross-sectional study of CNNHS 2010–2012 were included in this study. The median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.2 (35.4–63.4) nmol/L, and the concentration for males was 50.0 (36.5–65.7) nmol/L, which was statistically higher than that of females (46.7 (34.4–60.9) nmol/L) (P < 0.001). The general prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 53.2%; 50.0% for males and 56.5% for females at the cut-off 50 nmol/L. According to the results of the log-binomial regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents was specifically related to female gender (P < 0.0001), to ages 12–14 years (P < 0.0001) and 15–17 years (P < 0.0001), living in large cities (P < 0.0001) or ordinary rural areas (P < 0.0001), low ambient UVB levels (P < 0.0001) and medium ambient UVB levels (P < 0.0001), spring (P < 0.0001), autumn (P < 0.0001) and winter seasons (P < 0.0001). The data showed that vitamin D deficiency was very common among children and adolescents aged 6–17 years in China. Effective sun exposure should be encouraged in both genders aged 6–17 years, dietary vitamin D and vitamin D supplements are also recommended, especially in the seasons of spring and winter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Sociodemographic and Nutritional Characteristics between Self-Reported Vegetarians, Vegans, and Meat-Eaters from the NutriNet-Santé Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091023
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: There is a growing trend for vegetarian and vegan diets in many Western countries. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that such diets may help in maintaining good health is rising. However, dietary and sociodemographic characteristics of vegetarians and vegans are not well known. The
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Background: There is a growing trend for vegetarian and vegan diets in many Western countries. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that such diets may help in maintaining good health is rising. However, dietary and sociodemographic characteristics of vegetarians and vegans are not well known. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics of self-reported, adult vegetarians and vegans, compared to meat-eaters, from the French NutriNet-Santé study. Methods: Participants were asked if they were following a specific diet. They were then classified into three self-reported diet groups: 90,664 meat-eaters, 2370 vegetarians, and 789 vegans. Dietary data were collected using three repeated 24-h dietary records. Multivariable polytomic logistic regression models were perfomed to assess the association between the sociodemographic characteristics and type of diet. The prevalence of nutrient intake inadequacy was estimated, by sex and age for micronutrients, as well as by type of self-reported diet. Results: Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to have a higher educational level, whereas vegans had a lower education level. Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to be women, younger individuals, and to be self-employed or never employed rather than managerial staff. Vegetarians and vegans substituted animal protein-dense products with a higher consumption of plant protein-dense products (e.g., soy-based products or legumes). Vegetarians had the most balanced diets in terms of macronutrients, but also had a better adherence to French dietary guidelines. Vegetarians exhibited a lower estimated prevalence of inadequacies for micronutrients such as antioxidant vitamins (e.g., for vitamin E, 28.9% for vegetarian women <55 years of age vs. 41.6% in meat-eaters) while vegans exhibited a higher estimated prevalence of inadequacies for some nutrients, in particular vitamin B12 (69.9% in men and 83.4% in women <55 years of age), compared to meat-eaters. Conclusions: Our study highlighted that, overall, self-reported vegetarians and vegans may meet nutritional recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Science of Vegetarian Nutrition and Health)
Open AccessArticle Flavonolignans Inhibit IL1-β-Induced Cross-Talk between Blood Platelets and Leukocytes
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091022
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)—the most potent pro-inflammatory is responsible for a broad spectrum of immune and inflammatory responses, it induces T-cell and B-cell activation and consequently the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IFN-γ and TNF). IL-1β induces the formation of blood platelet-leukocyte
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Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)—the most potent pro-inflammatory is responsible for a broad spectrum of immune and inflammatory responses, it induces T-cell and B-cell activation and consequently the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IFN-γ and TNF). IL-1β induces the formation of blood platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLAs), which suggests that IL-1β significantly affects the cross-talk between blood platelets and the immune response system, leading to coronary thrombosis. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of flavonolignans (silybin, silychristin and silydianin) on the IL-1β-induced interaction between platelets and leukocytes, as well as on the expression and the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors. Whole blood samples were pre-incubated with commercially available flavonolignans (silybin, silychristin and silydianin) in a concentration range of 10–100 µM (30 min, 37 °C). Next, samples were activated by IL-1β for 1 h. Blood platelet-leukocyte aggregates were detected by using the double-labeled flow cytometry (CD61/CD45). The level of produced cytokines was estimated via the ELISA immunoenzymatic method. IFN-γ and TNF gene expression was evaluated using Real Time PCR with TaqMan arrays. We observed that in a dose-dependent manner, silybin and silychristin inhibit the IL-1β-induced formation of blood platelet-leukocyte aggregates in whole blood samples, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines—IL-2, TNF, INF-α, and INF-γ. Additionally, these two flavonolignans abolished the IL-1β-induced expression of mRNA for IFN-γ and TNF. Our current results demonstrate that flavonolignans can be novel compounds used in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases with dual-use action as antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091021
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for
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The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Baseline and Estimated Trends of Sodium Availability and Food Sources in the Costa Rican Population during 2004–2005 and 2012–2013
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091020
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
In 2012, Costa Rica launched a program to reduce salt and sodium consumption to prevent cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors, but little was known about the level of sodium consumption or its sources. Our aim was to estimate the magnitude and time
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In 2012, Costa Rica launched a program to reduce salt and sodium consumption to prevent cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors, but little was known about the level of sodium consumption or its sources. Our aim was to estimate the magnitude and time trends of sodium consumption (based on food and beverage acquisitions) in Costa Rica. Data from the National Household Income and Expenditure Surveys carried out in 2004–2005 (n = 4231) and 2012–2013 (n = 5705) were used. Records of food purchases for household consumption were converted into sodium and energy using food composition tables. Mean sodium availability (per person/per day and adjusted for a 2000-kcal energy intake) and the contribution of food groups to this availability were estimated for each year. Sodium availability increased in the period from 3.9 to 4.6 g/person/day (p < 0.001). The income level was inversely related to sodium availability. The main sources of sodium in the diet were domestic salt (60%) in addition to processed foods and condiments (with added sodium) (27.4%). Dietary sources of sodium varied within surveys (p < 0.05). Sodium available for consumption in Costa Rican households largely exceeds the World Health Organization-recommended intake levels (<2 g sodium/person/day). These results are essential for the design and implementation of effective policies and interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The 1-Week and 8-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet or Ketone Salt Supplementation on Multi-Organ Markers of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091019
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow
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We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD (n = 8), SC (n = 7) or SC + KS (n = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses. Additionally, mitochondria from the brain, muscle and liver tissue of long-term-fed rats were analyzed for mitochondrial quantity (maximal citrate synthase activity), quality (state 3 and 4 respiration) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Liver antioxidant capacity trended higher in short-term KD- and SC + KS-fed versus SC-fed rats, and short-term KD-fed rats exhibited significantly greater serum ketones compared to SC + KS-fed rats indicating that the diet (not KS supplementation) induced ketonemia. In long term-fed rats: (a) serum ketones were significantly greater in KD- versus SC- and SC + KS-fed rats; (b) liver antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase protein was significantly greater in KD- versus SC-fed rats, respectively, while liver protein carbonyls were lowest in KD-fed rats; and (c) gastrocnemius mitochondrial ROS production was significantly greater in KD-fed rats versus other groups, and this paralleled lower mitochondrial glutathione levels. Additionally, the gastrocnemius pyruvate-malate mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was significantly impaired in long-term KD-fed rats, and gastrocnemius mitochondrial quantity was lowest in these animals. Rotarod performance was greatest in KD-fed rats versus all other groups at 2, 4 and 8 months, although there was a significant age-related decline in performance existed in KD-fed rats which was not evident in the other two groups. In conclusion, short- and long-term KD improves select markers of liver oxidative stress compared to SC feeding, although long-term KD feeding may negatively affect skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Combination of Hypertension Along with a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet Induces Severe Hepatic Inflammation in Rats via a Signaling Network Comprising NF-κB, MAPK, and Nrf2 Pathways
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091018
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Populations with essential hypertension have a high risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this study, we investigated the mechanism that underlies the progression of hypertension-associated NASH by comparing differences in the development of high fat and cholesterol (HFC) diet-induced NASH among three strains
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Populations with essential hypertension have a high risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this study, we investigated the mechanism that underlies the progression of hypertension-associated NASH by comparing differences in the development of high fat and cholesterol (HFC) diet-induced NASH among three strains of rats, i.e., two hypertensive strains comprising spontaneously hypertensive rats and the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr, and the original Wistar Kyoto rats as the normotensive control. We investigated histopathological changes and molecular signals related to inflammation in the liver after feeding with the HFC diet for 8 weeks. The diet induced severe lobular inflammation and fibrosis in the livers of the hypertensive rats, whereas it only caused mild steatohepatitis in the normotensive rats. An increased activation of proinflammatory signaling (transforming growth factor-β1/mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway) was observed in the hypertensive strains fed with the HFC diet. In addition, the HFC diet suppressed the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway in the hypertensive rats and led to lower increases in the hepatic expression of heme oxygenase-1, which has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In conclusion, these signaling pathways might play crucial roles in the development of hypertension-associated NASH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview A Critical Assessment of the Therapeutic Potential of Resveratrol Supplements for Treating Mitochondrial Disorders
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091017
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
In human cells, mitochondria provide the largest part of cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate generated by the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Impaired OXPHOS activity leads to a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases for which therapeutic options today remain very
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In human cells, mitochondria provide the largest part of cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate generated by the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Impaired OXPHOS activity leads to a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases for which therapeutic options today remain very limited. Potential innovative strategies aim to ameliorate mitochondrial function by increasing the total mitochondrial load of tissues and/or to scavenge the excess of reactive oxygen species generated by OXPHOS malfunctioning. In this respect, resveratrol, a compound that conveniently combines mitogenetic with antioxidant activities and, as a bonus, possesses anti-apoptotic properties, has come forward as a promising nutraceutical. We review the scientific evidence gathered so far through experiments in both in vitro and in vivo systems, evaluating the therapeutic effect that resveratrol is expected to generate in mitochondrial patients. The obtained results are encouraging, but clearly show that achieving normalization of OXPHOS function with this strategy alone could prove to be an unattainable goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of β-Glucans Ingestion on Alveolar Bone Loss, Intestinal Morphology, Systemic Inflammatory Profile, and Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Rats with Periodontitis and Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091016
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of β-glucan ingestion (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the plasmatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), alveolar bone loss, and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-BF) in diabetic rats with periodontal disease (PD). Besides, intestinal
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of β-glucan ingestion (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the plasmatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), alveolar bone loss, and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-BF) in diabetic rats with periodontal disease (PD). Besides, intestinal morphology was determined by the villus/crypt ratio. A total of 48 Wistar rats weighing 203 ± 18 g were used. Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) and periodontal inflammation, by ligature. The design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme 2 × 2 × 2 (diabetic or not, with or without periodontitis, and ingesting β-glucan or not). The animals received β-glucan by gavage for 28 days. Alveolar bone loss was determined by scanning electron microscopy (distance between the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest) and histometric analysis (bone area between tooth roots). β-glucan reduced plasmatic levels of TNF-α in diabetic animals with PD and of IL-10 in animals with PD (p < 0.05). β-glucan reduced bone loss in animals with PD (p < 0.05). In diabetic animals, β-glucan improved β-cell function (p < 0.05). Diabetic animals had a higher villus/crypt ratio (p < 0.05). In conclusion, β-glucan ingestion reduced the systemic inflammatory profile, prevented alveolar bone loss, and improved β-cell function in diabetic animals with PD. Full article
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D Supplementation and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Present and Future
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091015
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic hepatic disease throughout the Western world and is recognized as the main cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis; however, the identification of an effective therapy for NAFLD is still a major challenge. Vitamin D deficiency
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic hepatic disease throughout the Western world and is recognized as the main cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis; however, the identification of an effective therapy for NAFLD is still a major challenge. Vitamin D deficiency is a wide-spread condition which reaches epidemic proportions in industrialized countries, mainly in relation to current lifestyle and limited dietary sources. Epidemiological studies point towards an association between hypovitaminosis D and the presence of NAFLD and steatohepatitis (NASH), independently of confounders such as obesity and insulin resistance. Furthermore, several pieces of experimental data have shown the anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties exerted by vitamin D on hepatic cells. However, results from trials evaluating the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation on liver damage in NAFLD and NASH are controversial. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the evidence currently available from clinical trials and to discuss possible shortcomings and new strategies to be considered in future investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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