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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2017)

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Cover Story Microbial communities of gut are well known to play vital roles in mammalian physiology. During [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Gluten-Free Diet Indications, Safety, Quality, Labels, and Challenges
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 846; doi:10.3390/nu9080846
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the safest treatment modality in patient with coeliac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders. Contamination and diet compliance are important factors behind persistent symptoms in patients with gluten related-disorders, in particular CD. How much gluten can be tolerated,
[...] Read more.
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the safest treatment modality in patient with coeliac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders. Contamination and diet compliance are important factors behind persistent symptoms in patients with gluten related-disorders, in particular CD. How much gluten can be tolerated, how safe are the current gluten-free (GF) products, what are the benefits and side effects of GFD? Recent studies published in Nutrients on gluten-free products’ quality, availability, safety, as well as challenges related to a GFD are discussed. Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 723; doi:10.3390/nu9080723
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Gut Microbiota Composition in Premenopausal Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 792; doi:10.3390/nu9080792
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota composition in premenopausal women. The participants consisted of 71 premenopausal Finnish women (aged 19–49 years). Gut microbiota were analyzed using flow cytometry, 16S rRNA gene hybridization and
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The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota composition in premenopausal women. The participants consisted of 71 premenopausal Finnish women (aged 19–49 years). Gut microbiota were analyzed using flow cytometry, 16S rRNA gene hybridization and DNA-staining. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was assessed by respiratory gas analyzer and body composition by Bioimpdance. We found that participants with low VO2max had lower Bacteroides, but higher Eubacterium rectale-Clostridium coccoides than the high VO2max group (p < 0.05 for all). VO2max was inversely associated with EreC (r = −0.309, p = 0.01) but not with other bacteria. VO2max also negatively correlated with fat% (r = −0.755, p < 0.001), triglycerides (r = −0.274, p = 0.021) and leptin (r = −0.574, p < 0.001). By contrast, EreC was positively associated with fat% (r = 0.382, p = 0.002), dietary fat intake (r = 0.258, p = 0.034), triglycerides (r = 0.390, p = 0.002) and leptin (r = 0.424, p = 0.001), but negatively with carbohydrate intake (r = −0.252, p = 0.034) and HDL (r = −0.26, p = 0.028). After adjusting for age and dietary intake, all the significant associations remained. However, after adjusting for fat%, the associations between VO2max and EreC disappeared. Our results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with gut microbiota composition, independent of age and carbohydrate or fat intake. The association between VO2max and EreC, however, appears to be mediated by body fatness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Role of Mitochondria and Endoplasmic Reticulum in Taurine-Deficiency-Mediated Apoptosis
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 795; doi:10.3390/nu9080795
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
Taurine is a ubiquitous sulfur-containing amino acid found in high concentration in most tissues. Because of its involvement in fundamental physiological functions, such as regulating respiratory chain activity, modulating cation transport, controlling inflammation, altering protein phosphorylation and prolonging lifespan, taurine is an important
[...] Read more.
Taurine is a ubiquitous sulfur-containing amino acid found in high concentration in most tissues. Because of its involvement in fundamental physiological functions, such as regulating respiratory chain activity, modulating cation transport, controlling inflammation, altering protein phosphorylation and prolonging lifespan, taurine is an important nutrient whose deficiency leads to severe pathology and cell death. However, the mechanism by which taurine deficiency causes cell death is inadequately understood. Therefore, the present study examined the hypothesis that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by complex I of the respiratory chain triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in hearts of taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO) mice. In support of the hypothesis, a 60% decrease in mitochondrial taurine content of 3-month-old TauTKO hearts was observed, which was associated with diminished complex I activity and the onset of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Oxidative damage to stressed mitochondria led to activation of a caspase cascade, with stimulation of caspases 9 and 3 prevented by treatment of 3-month-old TauTKO mice with the mitochondria specific antioxidant, MitoTempo. In 12 month-old, but not 3-month-old, TauTKO hearts, caspase 12 activation contributes to cell death, revealing a pathological role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in taurine deficient, aging mice. Thus, taurine is a cytoprotective nutrient that ensures normal mitochondrial and ER function, which is important for the reduction of risk for apoptosis and premature death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Urinary Polyphenol Metabolite Patterns Associated with Polyphenol-Rich Food Intake in Adults from Four European Countries
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 796; doi:10.3390/nu9080796
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
We identified urinary polyphenol metabolite patterns by a novel algorithm that combines dimension reduction and variable selection methods to explain polyphenol-rich food intake, and compared their respective performance with that of single biomarkers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
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We identified urinary polyphenol metabolite patterns by a novel algorithm that combines dimension reduction and variable selection methods to explain polyphenol-rich food intake, and compared their respective performance with that of single biomarkers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The study included 475 adults from four European countries (Germany, France, Italy, and Greece). Dietary intakes were assessed with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and dietary questionnaires (DQ). Thirty-four polyphenols were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS-MS) in 24-h urine. Reduced rank regression-based variable importance in projection (RRR-VIP) and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) methods were used to select polyphenol metabolites. Reduced rank regression (RRR) was then used to identify patterns in these metabolites, maximizing the explained variability in intake of pre-selected polyphenol-rich foods. The performance of RRR models was evaluated using internal cross-validation to control for over-optimistic findings from over-fitting. High performance was observed for explaining recent intake (24-HDR) of red wine (r = 0.65; AUC = 89.1%), coffee (r = 0.51; AUC = 89.1%), and olives (r = 0.35; AUC = 82.2%). These metabolite patterns performed better or equally well compared to single polyphenol biomarkers. Neither metabolite patterns nor single biomarkers performed well in explaining habitual intake (as reported in the DQ) of polyphenol-rich foods. This proposed strategy of biomarker pattern identification has the potential of expanding the currently still limited list of available dietary intake biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Iodine Intake through Processed Food: Case Studies from Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 2010–2015
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 797; doi:10.3390/nu9080797
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
The current performance indicator for universal salt iodisation (USI) is the percentage of households using adequately iodised salt. However, the proportion of dietary salt from household salt is decreasing with the increase in consumption of processed foods and condiments globally. This paper reports
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The current performance indicator for universal salt iodisation (USI) is the percentage of households using adequately iodised salt. However, the proportion of dietary salt from household salt is decreasing with the increase in consumption of processed foods and condiments globally. This paper reports on case studies supported by the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN)-UNICEF USI Partnership Project to investigate processed food industry use of adequately iodised salt in contrasting national contexts. Studies were conducted in Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. In all cases, the potential iodine intake from iodised salt in selected food products was modelled according to the formula: quantity of salt per unit of food product × minimum regulated iodine level of salt at production × average daily per capita consumption of the product. The percent of adult recommended nutrient intake for iodine potentially provided by the average daily intake of bread and frequently consumed foods and condiments was from 10% to 80% at the individual product level. The potential contribution to iodine intake from the use of iodised salt in the processed food industry is of growing significance. National USI strategies should encourage co-operative industry engagement and include regulatory monitoring of iodised salt use in the food industry in order to achieve optimal population iodine status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 798; doi:10.3390/nu9080798
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer
[...] Read more.
The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography (CC), identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions). Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL−1), but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL−1). Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL−1. Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Supplementation Improves Quality of Life and Physical Performance in Osteoarthritis Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 799; doi:10.3390/nu9080799
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 22 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Lower levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) are common in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. However, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength and physical performance remains unclear. This study will investigate the effects of vitamin D2 supplementation on
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Lower levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) are common in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. However, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength and physical performance remains unclear. This study will investigate the effects of vitamin D2 supplementation on muscle strength and physical performance in knee OA patients; (2) Methods: One hundred and seventy-five primary knee OA patients with low levels of serum 25(OH)D (<30 ng/mL) received 40,000 IU vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) per week for six months. Body composition, muscle strength, physical performance, serum 25(OH)D level, leptin, interlukin-6 (IL-6), parathyroid hormone (PTH), protein carbonyl, and metabolic profile were analyzed; (3) Results: Baseline mean serum 25(OH)D levels in knee OA patients was 20.73 ng/mL. Regarding baseline vitamin D status, 58.90% of patients had vitamin D insufficiency, and 41.10% had vitamin D deficiency. After vitamin D2 supplementation for six months, mean serum 25(OH)D level was 32.14 ng/mL. For post-supplementation vitamin D status, 57.10% of patients had vitamin D sufficiency and 42.90% had vitamin D insufficiency. From baseline to six months, there was a significant increase in mean serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.001), while mean LDL cholesterol (p = 0.001), protein carbonyl (p = 0.04), and PTH (p = 0.005) all significantly decreased. Patient quality of life (SF-12) and pain (visual analog scale, VAS) both improved significantly from baseline to the six-month time point (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002, respectively). Knee OA patients demonstrated significant improvement grip strength and physical performance measurements after vitamin D2 supplementation (p < 0.05); (4) Conclusions: Vitamin D2 supplementation for six months reduced oxidative protein damage, decreased pain (VAS), improved quality of life, and improved grip strength and physical performance in osteoarthritis patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Diabetic Effects of Phenolic Extract from Rambutan Peels (Nephelium lappaceum) in High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 801; doi:10.3390/nu9080801
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
Recent studies have shown that rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract demonstrate high antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo. This study further evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of RPP in a mouse model of Type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin combined with
[...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract demonstrate high antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo. This study further evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of RPP in a mouse model of Type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat diet. Results showed that RPP increased the body weight and reduced the fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic mice. RPP significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, and glycated serum protein in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Glycogen content in mice liver was recovered by RPP, which further increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced lipid peroxidation in diabetic mice. Histological analysis showed that RPP effectively protected the tissue structure of the liver, kidney, and pancreas. In addition, RPP decreased the mesangial index and inhibited the expression of TGF-β in the kidney of diabetic mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Energy and Protein in Critically Ill Patients with AKI: A Prospective, Multicenter Observational Study Using Indirect Calorimetry and Protein Catabolic Rate
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 802; doi:10.3390/nu9080802
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
The optimal nutritional support in Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) still remains an open issue. The present study was aimed at evaluating the validity of conventional predictive formulas for the calculation of both energy expenditure and protein needs in critically ill patients with AKI.
[...] Read more.
The optimal nutritional support in Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) still remains an open issue. The present study was aimed at evaluating the validity of conventional predictive formulas for the calculation of both energy expenditure and protein needs in critically ill patients with AKI. A prospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted on adult patients hospitalized with AKI in three different intensive care units (ICU). Nutrient needs were estimated by different methods: the Guidelines of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) for both calories and proteins, the Harris-Benedict equation, the Penn-State and Faisy-Fagon equations for energy. Actual energy and protein needs were repeatedly measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) and protein catabolic rate (PCR) until oral nutrition start, hospital discharge or renal function recovery. Forty-two patients with AKI were enrolled, with 130 IC and 123 PCR measurements obtained over 654 days of artificial nutrition. No predictive formula was precise enough, and Bland-Altman plots wide limits of agreement for all equations highlight the potential to under- or overfeed individual patients. Conventional predictive formulas may frequently lead to incorrect energy and protein need estimation. In critically ill patients with AKI an increased risk for under- or overfeeding is likely when nutrient needs are estimated instead of measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approach to Critically Ill Patients)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Six-Week Ginkgo biloba Supplementation on Aerobic Performance, Blood Pro/Antioxidant Balance, and Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Physically Active Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 803; doi:10.3390/nu9080803
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves, a natural source of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds, are commonly used as therapeutic agents for the improvement of both cognitive and physiological performance. The present study was aimed to test the effects of a six-week supplementation with 160
[...] Read more.
Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves, a natural source of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds, are commonly used as therapeutic agents for the improvement of both cognitive and physiological performance. The present study was aimed to test the effects of a six-week supplementation with 160 mg/day of a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba or a matching placebo on aerobic performance, blood antioxidant capacity, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in healthy, physically active young men, randomly allocated to two groups (n = 9 each). At baseline, as well as on the day following the treatment, the participants performed an incremental cycling test for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake. Venous blood samples taken at rest, then immediately post-test and following 1 h of recovery, were analyzed for activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants, total phenolics, uric acid, lipid peroxidation products, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our results show that six weeks’ supplementation with Ginkgo biloba extract in physically active young men may provide some marginal improvements in their endurance performance expressed as VO2max and blood antioxidant capacity, as evidenced by specific biomarkers, and elicit somewhat better neuroprotection through increased exercise-induced production of BDNF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Hemin Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Hepatocytes and Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 805; doi:10.3390/nu9080805
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear,
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Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions. Furthermore, hemin diminishes the accumulation of triglyceride and increases in free fatty acid content in primary hepatocytes induced by palmitate. Oral administration of hemin decreases body weight, energy intake, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and improves insulin and glucose tolerance as well as hepatic insulin signaling and hepatic steatosis in male mice fed a high-fat diet. In addition, hemin treatment decreases the mRNA and protein levels of some hepatic genes involved in lipogenic regulation, fatty acid synthesis and storage, and increases the mRNA level and enzyme activity of CPT1 involved in fatty acid oxidation. These data demonstrate that hemin can improve lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in both cultured hepatocytes and mice fed a high-fat diet, and show the potential beneficial effects of hemin from food on lipid and glucose metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Vitamin D Insufficiency and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 806; doi:10.3390/nu9080806
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract
Previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the association between vitamin D insufficiency and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We attempted to demonstrate this relationship using population-based data. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as a 25(OH)D level ≤20 ng/mL. Hepatic steatosis index was
[...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the association between vitamin D insufficiency and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We attempted to demonstrate this relationship using population-based data. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as a 25(OH)D level ≤20 ng/mL. Hepatic steatosis index was calculated to define NAFLD. Significant fibrosis was assessed using Body mass index, AST/ALT Ratio, Diabetes (BARD) score. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and NAFLD. Among 1812 participants, 409 (22.6%) had NAFLD. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were more likely to be male (56.7%), had higher body mass index (28.1 kg/m2), and had more metabolic syndrome (57.2%). The proportion of vitamin D insufficiency did not differ between NAFLD and non-NAFLD (77.5% vs. 77.4%). Logistic regression analyses showed that BMI, diabetes, and triglyceride level were significantly associated with NAFLD, whereas vitamin D insufficiency was not related. Subgroup analyses involving non-obese participants, male participants, and participants without metabolic syndrome showed similar results. The BARD score and the proportion of significant fibrosis by BARD score did not differ according to vitamin D status. Vitamin D insufficiency was not associated with the presence of NAFLD as assessed by validated noninvasive prediction models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Consuming Almonds vs. Isoenergetic Baked Food Does Not Differentially Influence Postprandial Appetite or Neural Reward Responses to Visual Food Stimuli
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 807; doi:10.3390/nu9080807
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract
Nuts have high energy and fat contents, but nut intake does not promote weight gain or obesity, which may be partially explained by their proposed high satiety value. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of consuming almonds versus
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Nuts have high energy and fat contents, but nut intake does not promote weight gain or obesity, which may be partially explained by their proposed high satiety value. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of consuming almonds versus a baked food on postprandial appetite and neural responses to visual food stimuli. Twenty-two adults (19 women and 3 men) with a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m2 completed the current study during a 12-week behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants consumed either 28 g of whole, lightly salted roasted almonds or a serving of a baked food with equivalent energy and macronutrient contents in random order on two testing days prior to and at the end of the intervention. Pre- and postprandial appetite ratings and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were completed on all four testing days. Postprandial hunger, desire to eat, fullness, and neural responses to visual food stimuli were not different following consumption of almonds and the baked food, nor were they influenced by weight loss. These results support energy and macronutrient contents as principal determinants of postprandial appetite and do not support a unique satiety effect of almonds independent of these variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Stages of Behavioral Change for Reducing Sodium Intake in Korean Consumers: Comparison of Characteristics Based on Social Cognitive Theory
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 808; doi:10.3390/nu9080808
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract
High sodium intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the importance of behavioral changes to reducing sodium intake, this study aims to investigate the stages of change and the differences in cognitive and behavioral characteristics by stage in Korean consumers. Adult participants
[...] Read more.
High sodium intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the importance of behavioral changes to reducing sodium intake, this study aims to investigate the stages of change and the differences in cognitive and behavioral characteristics by stage in Korean consumers. Adult participants (N = 3892) completed a questionnaire on the stages of behavioral change, recognition of social efforts, outcome expectancy, barriers to practice, nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviors, and self-efficiency related to reduced sodium intake. The numbers of participants in each stage of behavioral change for reducing sodium intake was 29.5% in the maintenance stage, 19.5% in the action stage, and 51.0% in the preaction stage that included the precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages. Multiple logistic regression showed that the factors differentiating the three stages were recognizing a supportive social environment, perceived barriers to the practice of reducing sodium intake, and self-efficacy to be conscious of sodium content and to request less salt when eating out. Purchasing experience of sodium-reduced products for salty foods, knowledge of the recommended intake of salt and the difference between sodium and salt, and improving dietary habits of eating salted fish, processed food, and salty snacks were factors for being in the action stage versus the preaction stage. These findings suggest that tailored intervention according to the characteristics of each stage is helpful in reducing sodium intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Disparities in Snacking Trends in US Adults over a 35 Year Period from 1977 to 2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 809; doi:10.3390/nu9080809
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: Previous studies have indicated that snacking is contributing to increased calories in the American diet, and that the contribution of snacks to energy intake has increased in recent decades. Objective: The objective was to examine trends in the energy intake deriving from
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Background: Previous studies have indicated that snacking is contributing to increased calories in the American diet, and that the contribution of snacks to energy intake has increased in recent decades. Objective: The objective was to examine trends in the energy intake deriving from snacks and food sources of snacks for US adults over 35 years from 1977 to 2012, and whether these trends differ across sociodemographic groups. Methods: Participants included 74,291 US adults aged ≥19 years who participated in the 1977–1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS); the 1989–1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), the 1994–1996 CSFII, the 1997–1998 CSFII, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004, NHANES 2005–2006, NHANES 2009–2010 and NHANES 2011–2012; all surveys are a stratified random sample of the total civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Overall patterns of snacking, trends in energy intake from snacking, trends in snacking food and beverage sources and energy intake from snacks across racial/ethnic, age, education and income groups were examined. Results: For all US adults there was a significant increase in per capita energy intake from snacks from 1977 to 2012 (p < 0.01). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest snacking energy intake from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in each year (p < 0.01 for all), with a peak intake in 2003–2006 of 76 kcal per capita per day. Intake of salty snacks increased in all groups between 1977 and 2012, with non-Hispanic blacks having the highest intake in 2009–2012 (p < 0.01). No significant differences were found between income or education groups. Conclusions: Results show that snacking remains a significant component of the US diet and the foods consumed at these snacks (SSBs, desserts and sweets and salty snacks) are not the types of foods recommended by the US dietary guidelines. Our finding that non-Hispanic blacks are consuming a higher proportion of SSBs and salty snacks than other groups, and showing the largest increase in energy intake deriving from snacks overall over the past 35 years, is indeed concerning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Food Sources of Sodium Intake in an Adult Mexican Population: A Sub-Analysis of the SALMEX Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 810; doi:10.3390/nu9080810
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract
Excessive dietary sodium intake increases blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. In Western diets, the majority of dietary sodium comes from packaged and prepared foods (≈75%); however, in Mexico there is no available data on the main food sources of dietary sodium. The main
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Excessive dietary sodium intake increases blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. In Western diets, the majority of dietary sodium comes from packaged and prepared foods (≈75%); however, in Mexico there is no available data on the main food sources of dietary sodium. The main objective of this study was to identify and characterize the major food sources of dietary sodium in a sample of the Mexican Salt and Mexico (SALMEX) cohort. Adult male and female participants of the SALMEX study who provided a complete and valid three-day food record during the baseline visit were included. Overall, 950 participants (mean age 38.6 ± 10.7 years) were analyzed to determine the total sodium contributed by the main food sources of sodium identified. Mean daily sodium intake estimated by three-day food records and 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 2647.2 ± 976.9 mg/day and 3497.2 ± 1393.0, in the overall population, respectively. Processed meat was the main contributor to daily sodium intake, representing 8% of total sodium intake per capita as measured by three-day food records. When savory bread (8%) and sweet bakery goods (8%) were considered together as bread products, these were the major contributor to daily sodium intake, accounting for the 16% of total sodium intake, followed by processed meat (8%), natural cheeses (5%), and tacos (5%). These results highlight the need for public health policies focused on reducing the sodium content of processed food in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Toenail Magnesium and Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 811; doi:10.3390/nu9080811
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract
Previous studies have showed an inverse association between magnesium level and type 2 diabetes, but the results are inconsistent, and the evidence relates only to dietary and serum magnesium. Moreover, it is not certain how these findings are applicable to Asian people. This
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Previous studies have showed an inverse association between magnesium level and type 2 diabetes, but the results are inconsistent, and the evidence relates only to dietary and serum magnesium. Moreover, it is not certain how these findings are applicable to Asian people. This study was designed to examine the association between toenail magnesium and type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults. The sample was 5683 adults aged 18 years or older from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey. We used hemoglobin A1c equal to or greater than 6.5% as the diagnostic criterion for type 2 diabetes. Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry determined toenail magnesium. Mean toenail magnesium in participants with and without type 2 diabetes was 263.0 ± 170.9 and 282.3 ± 191.9 micrograms per gram, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for type 2 diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail magnesium was 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.52–0.99). We found a statistically significant interaction between toenail magnesium and geographic region on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (p for interaction = 0.009). Our findings suggest that toenail magnesium is inversely associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Promoting the intake of magnesium-rich foods may bring considerable benefits for the prevention of type 2 diabetes, especially in those at high risk. Full article
Open AccessArticle Minimum Dietary Diversity Scores for Women Indicate Micronutrient Adequacy and Food Insecurity Status in South African Towns
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 812; doi:10.3390/nu9080812
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Abstract
The lack of dietary diversity is a severe problem experienced by most poor households globally. In particular; women of reproductive age (WRA) are at high risk of inadequate intake of micronutrients resulting from diets dominated by starchy staples. The present study considered the
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The lack of dietary diversity is a severe problem experienced by most poor households globally. In particular; women of reproductive age (WRA) are at high risk of inadequate intake of micronutrients resulting from diets dominated by starchy staples. The present study considered the diets, dietary diversity, and food security of women aged 15–49 years along the rural-urban continuum in three South African towns situated along an agro-ecological gradient. A 48 h dietary recall was conducted across two seasons with 554 women from rural, peri-urban, and urban locations of Richards Bay, Dundee, and Harrismith. Minimum Dietary Diversity for WRA (MDD-W) were calculated and a dichotomous indicator based on a set of ten food groups was used to determine if women had consumed at least five food groups the previous 48 h to achieve minimum dietary intake for women. The mean (±sd) MDD-W for Richards Bay (3.78 ± 0.07) was significantly higher than at Dundee (3.21 ± 0.08) and Harrismith (3.36 ± 0.07). Food security and MDD-W were significantly higher in urban locations than in peri-urban or rural ones. There was lower dependence on food purchasing in Richards Bay compared to Dundee and Harrismith. The majority of women in Richards Bay practiced subsistence agriculture, produced a surplus for sale, and collected wild foods which improved dietary intake and food security. The peri-urban populations had limited dietary intake and were more food insecure because of high levels of poverty, unemployment, and lack of land. Peri-urban dwellers are therefore more sensitive to changes in incomes and food prices because they lack safety nets to absorb income or price shocks as they purchase more, rather than growing their own food. This compromises dietary diversity as they have limited access to diverse foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cyanidin Stimulates Insulin Secretion and Pancreatic β-Cell Gene Expression through Activation of l-type Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Channels
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 814; doi:10.3390/nu9080814
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Abstract
Cyanidin is a natural anthocyanidin present in fruits and vegetables with anti-diabetic properties including stimulation of insulin secretion. However, its mechanism of action remains unknown. In this study, we elucidated the mechanisms of cyanidin for stimulatory insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Rat pancreatic
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Cyanidin is a natural anthocyanidin present in fruits and vegetables with anti-diabetic properties including stimulation of insulin secretion. However, its mechanism of action remains unknown. In this study, we elucidated the mechanisms of cyanidin for stimulatory insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Rat pancreatic β-cells INS-1 were used to investigate the effects of cyanidin on insulin secretion, intracellular Ca2+ signaling, and gene expression. We detected the presence of cyanidin in the intracellular space of β-cells. Cyanidin stimulated insulin secretion and increased intracellular Ca2+ signals in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca2+ signals were abolished by nimodipine, an l-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC) blocker or under extracellular Ca2+ free conditions. Stimulation of cells with cyanidin activated currents typical for VDCCs and up-regulated the expression of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), Kir6.2, and Cav1.2 genes. Our findings indicate that cyanidin diffuses across the plasma membrane, leading to activation of l-type VDCCs. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ stimulated insulin secretion and the expression of genes involved in this process. These findings suggest that cyanidin could be used as a promising agent to stimulate insulin secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Bioactives and Insulin Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle A Single Day of Excessive Dietary Fat Intake Reduces Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity: The Metabolic Consequence of Binge Eating
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 818; doi:10.3390/nu9080818
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
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Abstract
Consuming excessive amounts of energy as dietary fat for several days or weeks can impair glycemic control and reduce insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. However, individuals who demonstrate binge eating behavior overconsume for much shorter periods of time; the metabolic consequences of such
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Consuming excessive amounts of energy as dietary fat for several days or weeks can impair glycemic control and reduce insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. However, individuals who demonstrate binge eating behavior overconsume for much shorter periods of time; the metabolic consequences of such behavior remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single day of high-fat overfeeding on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Fifteen young, healthy adults underwent an oral glucose tolerance test before and after consuming a high-fat (68% of total energy), high-energy (78% greater than daily requirements) diet for one day. Fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, and triglyceride were measured and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index was calculated. One day of high-fat overfeeding increased postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC) by 17.1% (p < 0.0001) and insulin AUC by 16.4% (p = 0.007). Whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased by 28% (p = 0.001). In conclusion, a single day of high-fat, overfeeding impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity in young, healthy adults. This highlights the rapidity with which excessive consumption of calories through high-fat food can impair glucose metabolism, and suggests that acute binge eating may have immediate metabolic health consequences for the individual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Pomegranate Juice Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers Following Weightlifting Exercise
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 819; doi:10.3390/nu9080819
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pomegranate juice supplementation would blunt acute and delayed oxidative stress responses after a weightlifting training session. Nine elite weightlifters (21.0 ± 1 years) performed two Olympic-Weightlifting sessions after ingesting either the placebo
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The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pomegranate juice supplementation would blunt acute and delayed oxidative stress responses after a weightlifting training session. Nine elite weightlifters (21.0 ± 1 years) performed two Olympic-Weightlifting sessions after ingesting either the placebo or pomegranate juice supplements. Venous blood samples were collected at rest and 3 min and 48 h after each session. Compared to the placebo condition, pomegranate juice supplementation attenuated the increase in malondialdehyde (−12.5%; p < 0.01) and enhanced the enzymatic (+8.6% for catalase and +6.8% for glutathione peroxidase; p < 0.05) and non-enzymatic (+12.6% for uric acid and +5.7% for total bilirubin; p < 0.01) antioxidant responses shortly (3 min) after completion of the training session. Additionally, during the 48 h recovery period, pomegranate juice supplementation accelerated (p < 0.05) the recovery kinetics of the malondialdehyde (5.6%) and the enzymatic antioxidant defenses compared to the placebo condition (9 to 10%). In conclusion, supplementation with pomegranate juice has the potential to attenuate oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant responses assessed acutely and up to 48 h following an intensive weightlifting training session. Therefore, elite weightlifters might benefit from blunted oxidative stress responses following intensive weightlifting sessions, which could have implications for recovery between training sessions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Iron Supplementation during Three Consecutive Days of Endurance Training Augmented Hepcidin Levels
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 820; doi:10.3390/nu9080820
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 30 July 2017
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Abstract
Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily) on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin) level. The effect
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Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily) on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin) level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7) or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7). They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1–3). The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day), and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise (p < 0.05). In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 822; doi:10.3390/nu9080822
Received: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets
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The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1) Atkins; (2) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); (3) Glycemic-Index; (4) Mediterranean; (5) Ornish; (6) Paleolithic; and (7) Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one-year) weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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Open AccessArticle Short-Term Effects of a Ready-to-Drink Pre-Workout Beverage on Exercise Performance and Recovery
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 823; doi:10.3390/nu9080823
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
In a double-blind, randomized and crossover manner, 25 resistance-trained participants ingested a placebo (PLA) beverage containing 12 g of dextrose and a beverage (RTD) containing caffeine (200 mg), β-alanine (2.1 g), arginine nitrate (1.3 g), niacin (65 mg), folic acid (325 mcg), and
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In a double-blind, randomized and crossover manner, 25 resistance-trained participants ingested a placebo (PLA) beverage containing 12 g of dextrose and a beverage (RTD) containing caffeine (200 mg), β-alanine (2.1 g), arginine nitrate (1.3 g), niacin (65 mg), folic acid (325 mcg), and Vitamin B12 (45 mcg) for 7-days, separated by a 7–10-day. On day 1 and 6, participants donated a fasting blood sample and completed a side-effects questionnaire (SEQ), hemodynamic challenge test, 1-RM and muscular endurance tests (3 × 10 repetitions at 70% of 1-RM with the last set to failure on the bench press (BP) and leg press (LP)) followed by ingesting the assigned beverage. After 15 min, participants repeated the hemodynamic test, 1-RM tests, and performed a repetition to fatigue (RtF) test at 70% of 1-RM, followed by completing the SEQ. On day 2 and 7, participants donated a fasting blood sample, completed the SEQ, ingested the assigned beverage, rested 30 min, and performed a 4 km cycling time-trial (TT). Data were analyzed by univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear models (GLM), adjusted for gender and relative caffeine intake. Data are presented as mean change (95% CI). An overall multivariate time × treatment interaction was observed on strength performance variables (p = 0.01). Acute RTD ingestion better maintained LP 1-RM (PLA: −0.285 (−0.49, −0.08); RTD: 0.23 (−0.50, 0.18) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.30); increased LP RtF (PLA: −2.60 (−6.8, 1.6); RTD: 4.00 (−0.2, 8.2) repetitions, p = 0.031); increased BP lifting volume (PLA: 0.001 (−0.13, 0.16); RTD: 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.007); and, increased total lifting volume (PLA: −13.12 (−36.9, 10.5); RTD: 21.06 (−2.7, 44.8) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.046). Short-term RTD ingestion maintained baseline LP 1-RM (PLA: −0.412 (−0.08, −0.07); RTD: 0.16 (−0.50, 0.18) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.30); LP RtF (PLA: 0.12 (−3.0, 3.2); RTD: 3.6 (0.5, 6.7) repetitions, p = 0.116); and, LP lifting volume (PLA: 3.64 (−8.8, 16.1); RTD: 16.25 (3.8, 28.7) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.157) to a greater degree than PLA. No significant differences were observed between treatments in cycling TT performance, hemodynamic assessment, fasting blood panels, or self-reported side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Differentially Modulates the SDF-1/CXCR-4 Cell Homing Axis in Hypertensive and Normotensive Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 826; doi:10.3390/nu9080826
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: We assessed the effect of acute and chronic dietary supplementation of ω-3 on lipid metabolism and cardiac regeneration, through its influence on the Stromal Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor (CXCR4) axis in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY)
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Background: We assessed the effect of acute and chronic dietary supplementation of ω-3 on lipid metabolism and cardiac regeneration, through its influence on the Stromal Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor (CXCR4) axis in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were allocated in eight groups (of eight animals each), which received daily orogastric administration of ω-3 (1 g) for 24 h, 72 h or 2 weeks. Blood samples were collected for the analysis of the lipid profile and SDF-1 systemic levels (ELISA). At the end of the treatment period, cardiac tissue was collected for CXCR4 expression analysis (Western blot). Results: The use of ω-3 caused a reduction in total cholesterol levels (p = 0.044), and acutely activated the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in normotensive animals (p = 0.037). In the presence of the ω-3, after 72 h, SDF-1 levels decreased in WKY and increased in SHR (p = 0.017), and tissue expression of the receptor CXCR4 was higher in WKY than in SHR (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The ω-3 fatty acid supplementation differentially modulates cell homing mediators in normotensive and hypertensive animals. While WKY rats respond acutely to omega-3 supplementation, showing increased release of SDF-1 and CXCR4, SHR exhibit a weaker, delayed response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Flavonoid Intake Is Inversely Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk as Assessed by Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference among Adults in the United States
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 827; doi:10.3390/nu9080827
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Although flavonoids may confer anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant benefits, no research has examined if flavonoid intake is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk defined by anthropometric measures in the USA population. This study sought to determine whether flavonoid intake is associated with combined body
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Although flavonoids may confer anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant benefits, no research has examined if flavonoid intake is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk defined by anthropometric measures in the USA population. This study sought to determine whether flavonoid intake is associated with combined body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measures indicative of high, very high, or extremely high (“high+”) risk for CVD, using one day of 24-h recall data from adult (≥20 years) participants in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Individuals were divided into categories of intake of total flavonoids and each flavonoid class, and adjusted estimates of the percentages at high+ CVD risk (based on BMI and WC, as per National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines) were calculated. Inverse linear trends were found in percentages of adults at high+ CVD risk by intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and flavanones (p < 0.01). For individuals in the highest (versus the lowest) intake category of anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and flavanones, relative risk and confidence intervals (RR and CI, respectively) were 0.86 (99% CI: 0.79, 0.93), 0.88 (99% CI: 0.79, 0.98), and 0.89 (99% CI: 0.80, 0.98), respectively. Research is needed to determine whether the inverse relationships found in this study are applicable to CVD endpoints at the population level. Full article
Open AccessArticle Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Renal Fibrosis and Apoptosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 828; doi:10.3390/nu9080828
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 30 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
The Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS) is a widely used herbal medicine, but its possible effect against diabetic nephropathy has not been studied. To investigate the anti-nephropathic effect of PCS extracts, we performed experiments using a diabetic mouse model and high glucose-treated mesangial
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The Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS) is a widely used herbal medicine, but its possible effect against diabetic nephropathy has not been studied. To investigate the anti-nephropathic effect of PCS extracts, we performed experiments using a diabetic mouse model and high glucose-treated mesangial cells. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were orally administered PCS extract for 8 weeks (500 mg/kg/day). Increased creatinine clearance, urine volume, urine microalbumin, and mesangial expansion were observed in STZ-induced diabetic mice; these were significantly reduced by PCS extract administration. PCS extract significantly reduced fibrosis in the kidney tissue of diabetic mice as evidenced by decreased mRNA expression of collagen type IV-α2, fibronectin, PAI-1, and TGF-β1. In addition, cleaved PARP, an apoptotic gene, was upregulated in the diabetic nephropathy mice, and this was ameliorated after PCS extract treatment. Treatment of high glucose-treated MES-13 cells with isopsoralen and psoralen, major components of PCS extract, also decreased the expression of fibrosis and apoptosis marker genes and increased cell viability. PCS extract exerts protective effects against STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy via anti-fibrotic and anti-apoptotic effects. PCS extract might be a potential pharmacological agent to protect against high glucose-induced renal damage under diabetic conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 830; doi:10.3390/nu9080830
Received: 10 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium
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This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin C Status Correlates with Markers of Metabolic and Cognitive Health in 50-Year-Olds: Findings of the CHALICE Cohort Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 831; doi:10.3390/nu9080831
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
A cohort of 50-year-olds from Canterbury, New Zealand (N = 404), representative of midlife adults, undertook comprehensive health and dietary assessments. Fasting plasma vitamin C concentrations (N = 369) and dietary vitamin C intake (N = 250) were determined. The
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A cohort of 50-year-olds from Canterbury, New Zealand (N = 404), representative of midlife adults, undertook comprehensive health and dietary assessments. Fasting plasma vitamin C concentrations (N = 369) and dietary vitamin C intake (N = 250) were determined. The mean plasma vitamin C concentration was 44.2 µmol/L (95% CI 42.4, 46.0); 62% of the cohort had inadequate plasma vitamin C concentrations (i.e., <50 µmol/L), 13% of the cohort had hypovitaminosis C (i.e., <23 µmol/L), and 2.4% had plasma vitamin C concentrations indicating deficiency (i.e., <11 µmol/L). Men had a lower mean plasma vitamin C concentration than women, and a higher percentage of vitamin C inadequacy and deficiency. A higher prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and deficiency was observed in those of lower socio-economic status and in current smokers. Adults with higher vitamin C levels exhibited lower weight, BMI and waist circumference, and better measures of metabolic health, including HbA1c, insulin and triglycerides, all risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Lower levels of mild cognitive impairment were observed in those with the highest plasma vitamin C concentrations. Plasma vitamin C showed a stronger correlation with markers of metabolic health and cognitive impairment than dietary vitamin C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Serum Iron:Ferritin Ratio Predicts Healthy Body Composition and Reduced Risk of Severe Fatty Liver in Young Adult Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 833; doi:10.3390/nu9080833
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Dysregulated iron metabolism is associated with altered body composition and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, mechanisms underlying this association remain undefined. We investigated this association in 117 women. Middle-aged women (≥45 years old (y)) were heavier and had lower serum iron, higher
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Dysregulated iron metabolism is associated with altered body composition and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, mechanisms underlying this association remain undefined. We investigated this association in 117 women. Middle-aged women (≥45 years old (y)) were heavier and had lower serum iron, higher serum hepcidin, ferritin, and severe NAFLD incidence than young adult women (<45 y). Age-adjusted linear regression analysis revealed that young adult women with the highest serum iron:ferritin ratio (Tertile 3) had a 5.08-unit increased percentage of muscle mass [β = 5.08 (1.48–8.68), p < 0.001] and a 1.21-unit decreased percentage visceral fat mass [β = −1.21 (−2.03 to −0.39), p < 0.001] compared with those with the lowest serum iron:ferritin ratio (Tertile 1; reference). The iron:ferritin dietary pattern, characterized by high consumption of beef, lamb, dairy products, fruits, and whole grains, and low consumption of refined carbohydrates (rice, noodles, and bread and pastries), and deep- and stir-fried foods, predicted a 90% [odds ratio: 0.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.02–0.47, p < 0.001] reduced risk of mild vs. moderate and severe NAFLD in young adult women. Our findings suggest that the serum iron:ferritin ratio more accurately predicts body composition and reduced risk of severe fatty liver progression in young adult women compared to middle-aged women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Soymilk Improves Muscle Weakness in Young Ovariectomized Female Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 834; doi:10.3390/nu9080834
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Estrogens play a key role in an extensive range of physiological functions in various types of tissues throughout the body in females. We previously showed that estrogen insufficiency caused muscle weakness that could be rescued by estrogen administration in a young female ovariectomized
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Estrogens play a key role in an extensive range of physiological functions in various types of tissues throughout the body in females. We previously showed that estrogen insufficiency caused muscle weakness that could be rescued by estrogen administration in a young female ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. However, long-term estrogen replacement therapy increases risks of breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Soymilk contains plant-based protein and isoflavones that exert estrogen-like activity. Here we examined the effects of prolonged soymilk intake on muscle and its resident stem cells, called satellite cells, in the estrogen-insufficient model. Six-week-old C57BL/6 OVX female mice were fed with a dried soymilk-containing diet. We found that prolonged soymilk intake upregulated grip strength in OVX mice. Correspondingly, cross-sectional area of tibialis anterior muscle was significantly increased in OVX mice fed with soymilk. Furthermore, soymilk diet mitigated dysfunction of satellite cells isolated from OVX mice. Thus, these results indicated that prolonged soymilk intake is beneficial for improving muscle weakness in an estrogen-insufficient state in females. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Consumer Attitudes toward Broad-Based and Environment-Specific Sodium Policies—SummerStyles 2012 and 2015
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 836; doi:10.3390/nu9080836
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
We examined temporal changes in consumer attitudes toward broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, and school and workplace cafeterias from the 2012 and 2015 SummerStyle surveys. We used two online, national research panel surveys to conduct a
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We examined temporal changes in consumer attitudes toward broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, and school and workplace cafeterias from the 2012 and 2015 SummerStyle surveys. We used two online, national research panel surveys to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 7845 U.S. adults. Measures included self-reported agreement with broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, school cafeterias, workplace cafeterias, and quick-serve restaurants. Wald Chi-square tests were used to examine the difference between the two survey years and multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios. Agreement with broad-based actions to limit sodium in restaurants (45.9% agreed in 2015) and manufactured foods (56.5% agreed in 2015) did not change between 2012 and 2015. From 2012 to 2015, there was a significant increase in respondents that supported environment-specific policies to lower sodium in school cafeterias (80.0% to 84.9%; p < 0.0001), workplace cafeterias (71.2% to 76.6%; p < 0.0001), and quick-serve restaurants (70.8% to 76.7%; p < 0.0001). Results suggest substantial agreement and support for actions to limit sodium in commercially-processed and prepared foods since 2012, with most consumers ready for actions to lower sodium in foods served in schools, workplaces, and quick-serve restaurants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 839; doi:10.3390/nu9080839
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
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Abstract
Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data
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Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005–2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U.S. Only 8.03 ± 0.56% of adults and 8.51 ± 2.89% pregnant women meet the AI for choline. Children 2–3 years were the most likely to meet their gender and life-stage specific AI, followed by children 4–8 years. Adults 19+ years who consume eggs were more likely to meet their gender and life-stage AI as compared to non-consumers (57.3 ± 1.45% and 2.43 ± 0.28%). Consumers of eggs had almost double the usual intake of choline as compared to non-consumers (525 ± 5.17 mg/d and 294 ± 1.98; p < 0.0001). Protein food (meat, poultry and seafood) consumption also increased usual choline intakes compared to non-consumers (345 ± 2.21 mg/day and 235 ± 8.81; p < 0.0001) to a lesser degree, but did not result in substantial increases in the percent of individuals meeting the AI. No subpopulation exceeded the UL for choline. This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
Open AccessArticle Diet Quality throughout Early Life in Relation to Allergic Sensitization and Atopic Diseases in Childhood
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 841; doi:10.3390/nu9080841
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
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Abstract
Early-life nutrition is an important modifiable determinant in the development of a child’s immune system, and may thereby influence the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases. However, associations between overall dietary patterns and atopic diseases in childhood remain unclear. We examined associations
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Early-life nutrition is an important modifiable determinant in the development of a child’s immune system, and may thereby influence the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases. However, associations between overall dietary patterns and atopic diseases in childhood remain unclear. We examined associations of diet quality in early life with allergic sensitization, self-reported physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma among 5225 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Diet was assessed during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood using validated food-frequency questionnaires. We calculated food-based diet quality scores (0–10 or 0–15), reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. At age 10 years, allergic sensitization was assessed with skin prick tests. Information on physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma was obtained with questionnaires. We observed no associations between diet quality during pregnancy and allergic sensitization (odds ratio (OR) = 1.05 per point in the diet score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.13), allergies (0.96, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04), eczema (0.99, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.06), or asthma (0.93, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.03) in childhood. Also, diet quality in infancy or childhood were not associated with atopic outcomes in childhood. Our findings do not support our hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in early life is associated with a lower risk of allergic sensitization or atopic diseases in childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 842; doi:10.3390/nu9080842
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
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Abstract
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating
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Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18–30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age (n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations (p < 0.05). Baseline omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p < 0.01) at the second test as did the omega-3 index (+0.21, p < 0.02). In this employed population, only 1% redeemed a coupon for an omega-3 supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle Professionals’ Recommended Strategies to Improve Australian Adolescents’ Knowledge of Nutrition and Food Systems
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 844; doi:10.3390/nu9080844
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: Education and policy measures within schools are valuable strategies to promote health. This study explored views of experienced food-related educators, researchers and policy-makers regarding their recommended strategies to improve Australian adolescents’ knowledge of nutrition and food systems (N&FS). Methods: Semi-structured interviews were
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Background: Education and policy measures within schools are valuable strategies to promote health. This study explored views of experienced food-related educators, researchers and policy-makers regarding their recommended strategies to improve Australian adolescents’ knowledge of nutrition and food systems (N&FS). Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-one experienced food-related experts from across Australia. Interviews were conducted either by telephone or face-to-face. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Results: Five central themes and five sub-themes were identified from food professionals’ suggestions for best strategies to improve adolescents’ knowledge of N&FS. The central themes included: (1) specific improvements in schools’ core curricula; (2) pre-service and in-service training of school teachers about N&FS; (3) training students to develop a critical mind about N&FS issues; (4) multidisciplinary collaborations to improve school-based N&FS education; and (5) a supportive N&FS education environment for students. Conclusion and implication: These findings provide a guide for curriculum developers, educational policy developers, and food educators to incorporate the suggested N&FS strategies into Australian education programs in order to improve Australian adolescents’ knowledge and skills of N&FS issues. The results of this investigation also may assist the development of international N&FS curricula guides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 for the Alleviative Effect on Lead Toxicity
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 845; doi:10.3390/nu9080845
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
Lead (Pb) is a toxic contaminating heavy metal that can cause a variety of hazardous effects to both humans and animals. In the present study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 (L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207), which has a remarkable Pb binding capacity and Pb
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Lead (Pb) is a toxic contaminating heavy metal that can cause a variety of hazardous effects to both humans and animals. In the present study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 (L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207), which has a remarkable Pb binding capacity and Pb tolerance, was selected for further study. It was observed that the thermodynamic and kinetic model of L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 Pb binding respectively fit with the Langmuir–Freundlich model and the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis disclosed that the cell surfaces were covered with Pb and that carbon and oxygen elements were chiefly involved in Pb binding. Combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, it was revealed that the carboxyl, phosphoryl, hydroxyl, amino and amide groups were the main functional groups involved in the Pb adsorption. The protective effects of L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 against acute Pb toxicity in mice was evaluated by prevention and therapy groups, the results in vivo showed that L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 treatment could reduce mortality rates, effectively increase Pb levels in the feces, alleviate tissue Pb enrichment, improve the antioxidant index in the liver and kidney, and relieve renal pathological damage. Our findings show that L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 can be used as a potential probiotic against acute Pb toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Frequency of Multi-Vitamin/Multi-Mineral Supplement Intake on Nutritional Adequacy and Nutrient Deficiencies in U.S. Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 849; doi:10.3390/nu9080849
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
Although >50% of U.S. adults use dietary supplements, little information is available on the impact of supplement use frequency on nutrient intakes and deficiencies. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2009 to
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Although >50% of U.S. adults use dietary supplements, little information is available on the impact of supplement use frequency on nutrient intakes and deficiencies. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2009 to 2012, assessments were made of intakes from food alone versus food plus multi-vitamin/multi-mineral supplements (MVMS) of 17 nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), and of the status of five nutrients with recognized biomarkers of deficiency. Compared to food alone, MVMS use at any frequency was associated with a lower prevalence of inadequacy (p < 0.01) for 15/17 nutrients examined and an increased prevalence of intakes >UL for 7 nutrients, but the latter was ≤4% for any nutrient. Except for calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, most frequent MVMS use (≥21 days/30 days) virtually eliminated inadequacies of the nutrients examined, and was associated with significantly lower odds ratios of deficiency for the examined nutrient biomarkers except for iron. In conclusion, among U.S. adults, MVMS use is associated with decreased micronutrient inadequacies, intakes slightly exceeding the UL for a few nutrients, and a lower risk of nutrient deficiencies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association and Interaction Effect of AGTR1 and AGTR2 Gene Polymorphisms with Dietary Pattern on Metabolic Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease in Malaysian Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 853; doi:10.3390/nu9080853
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
Gene-diet interaction using a multifactorial approach is preferred to study the multiple risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examined the association and gene-diet interaction effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) gene (rs5186), and type 2 receptor
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Gene-diet interaction using a multifactorial approach is preferred to study the multiple risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examined the association and gene-diet interaction effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) gene (rs5186), and type 2 receptor (AGTR2) gene (rs1403543) polymorphisms on metabolic risk factors of CVD in Malaysian adults. CVD parameters (BMI, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and TC/HDL-C ratio), and constructed dietary patterns “vegetables, fruits, and soy diet” (VFSD), and “rice, egg, and fish diet” (REFD) were obtained from previous studies. Genotyping analysis was performed by real-time PCR using Taqman probes. The subjects were 507 adults (151 Malays; 179 Chinese; and 177 Indians). Significant genetic associations were obtained on blood lipids for rs5186 in Malays and Chinese, and rs1403543 in Chinese females. The significant gene-diet interaction effects after adjusting for potential confounders were: rs5186 × VFSD on blood pressure in Malays (p = 0.016), and in Chinese on blood lipids for rs5186 × REFD (p = 0.009–0.023), and rs1403543 × VFSD in female subjects (p = 0.001–0.011). Malays and Chinese showed higher risk for blood pressure and/or lipids involving rs5186 and rs1403543 SNPs together with gene-diet interactions, but not Indians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
Open AccessArticle Suppression of Wnt Signaling and Osteogenic Changes in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 858; doi:10.3390/nu9080858
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
Vascular medial calcification is often observed in patients with arteriosclerosis. It is also associated with systolic hypertension, wide pulse pressure, and fluctuation of blood pressure, which results in cardiovascular events. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been shown to suppress vascular calcification in previous animal
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Vascular medial calcification is often observed in patients with arteriosclerosis. It is also associated with systolic hypertension, wide pulse pressure, and fluctuation of blood pressure, which results in cardiovascular events. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been shown to suppress vascular calcification in previous animal experiments. We investigated the inhibitory effects of EPA on Wnt signaling, which is one of the important signaling pathways involved in vascular calcification. Intake of food containing 5% EPA resulted in upregulation of the mRNA expression of Klotho, an intrinsic inhibitor of Wnt signaling, in the kidneys of wild-type mice. Expression levels of β-catenin, an intracellular signal transducer in the Wnt signaling pathway, were increased in the aortas of Klotho mutant (kl/kl) mice compared to the levels in the aortas of wild-type mice. Wnt3a or BIO, a GSK-3 inhibitor that activates β-catenin signaling, upregulated mRNA levels of AXIN2 and LEF1, Wnt signaling marker genes, and RUNX2 and BMP4, early osteogenic genes, in human aorta smooth muscle cells. EPA suppressed the upregulation of AXIN2 and BMP4. The effect of EPA was cancelled by T0070907, a PPARγ inhibitor. The results suggested that EPA could suppress vascular calcification via the inhibition of Wnt signaling in osteogenic vascular smooth muscle cells via PPARγ activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 860; doi:10.3390/nu9080860
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200)
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A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3–6 (6–7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34–37%). Except for women aged 60–64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1–4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Buffering High Acid Load Meal with Sodium Bicarbonate on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Humans—A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 861; doi:10.3390/nu9080861
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: High dietary acid load relates to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in epidemiological studies. We aimed to investigate whether buffering a high acid load meal with an alkalizing treatment changes glucose metabolism post meal. Methods: Non-diabetic participants (n = 32)
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Background: High dietary acid load relates to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in epidemiological studies. We aimed to investigate whether buffering a high acid load meal with an alkalizing treatment changes glucose metabolism post meal. Methods: Non-diabetic participants (n = 32) were randomized to receive either 1680 mg NaHCO3 or placebo, followed by a high acid load meal in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover (1–4 weeks apart) study. Thirty (20 men) participants completed the study. Venous blood pH, serum bicarbonate, blood glucose, serum insulin, C-peptide, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured at baseline (fasting) and at 15–30 min intervals for 3 h post meal. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. Venous blood pH declined in the first 15 min post meal with the placebo (p = 0.001), but not with NaHCO3 (p = 0.86) and remained decreased with the placebo for 3 h (pinteraction = 0.04). On average over the 3 h blood pH iAUC was greater with NaHCO3 compared with placebo (p = 0.02). However, postprandial glucose, insulin, C-peptide, NEFA and GLP-1 were not different between treatments (pinteraction ≥ 0.07). Conclusions: An alkalizing medication administered pre-meal has no acute effect on glycaemia and insulin response in healthy individuals. Long-term interventions in at-risk populations are necessary to investigate the effect of sustained alkalization on glucose metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inverse Associations between a Locally Validated Mediterranean Diet Index, Overweight/Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Chilean Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 862; doi:10.3390/nu9080862
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are key risk factors for chronic disease. Dietary patterns are critical in the incidence and persistence of obesity and MetS, yet there is few data linking diet to obesity and MetS in Chile. Our objective was to use
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Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are key risk factors for chronic disease. Dietary patterns are critical in the incidence and persistence of obesity and MetS, yet there is few data linking diet to obesity and MetS in Chile. Our objective was to use a locally validated diet index to evaluate adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its correlations with overweight/obesity (OW/O) and MetS prevalence in Chilean adults. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional online survey of Chilean adults with complete self-reported diet and body mass index data (n = 24,882). A subsample of 4348 users (17.5%) had valid MetS data. An inverse association was observed between adherence to Mediterranean diet and OW/O and MetS prevalence. As diet quality decreased from healthy, to moderately-healthy, to unhealthy, prevalence increased from 44.8, 51.1, to 60.9% for OW/O and from 13.4, 18.5, to 28.9% for MetS (p-values < 0.001). Adjusted odds ratios for OW/O and MetS were significantly higher in moderately-healthy (OR = 1.58 and 1.54) and unhealthy (OR = 2.20 and 2.49, respectively) diet groups in comparison to the healthy diet group. This study represents the first report on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic disease risk in Chile. It suggests that the Mediterranean diet may be applied to manage chronic disease risk beyond the Mediterranean basin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Iron Fortification of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) to Address Iron Deficiency
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 863; doi:10.3390/nu9080863
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Iron (Fe) deficiency is a major human health concern in areas of the world in which diets are often Fe deficient. In the current study, we aimed to identify appropriate methods and optimal dosage for Fe fortification of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)
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Iron (Fe) deficiency is a major human health concern in areas of the world in which diets are often Fe deficient. In the current study, we aimed to identify appropriate methods and optimal dosage for Fe fortification of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) dal with FeSO4·7H2O (ferrous sulphate hepta-hydrate), NaFeEDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron (III) sodium salt) and FeSO4·H2O (ferrous sulphate mono-hydrate). We used a colorimetric method to determine the appearance of the dal fortified with fortificants at different Fe concentrations and under different storage conditions. Relative Fe bioavailability was assessed using an in vitro cell culture bioassay. We found that NaFeEDTA was the most suitable fortificant for red lentil dal, and at 1600 ppm, NaFeEDTA provides 13–14 mg of additional Fe per 100 g of dal. Lentil dal sprayed with fortificant solutions, followed by shaking and drying at 75 °C, performed best with respect to drying time and color change. Total Fe and phytic acid concentrations differed significantly between cooked unfortified and fortified lentil, ranging from 68.7 to 238.5 ppm and 7.2 to 8.0 mg g−1, respectively. The relative Fe bioavailability of cooked fortified lentil was increased by 32.2–36.6% compared to unfortified cooked lentil. We conclude that fortification of lentil dal is effective and could provide significant health benefits to dal-consuming populations vulnerable to Fe deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
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Open AccessArticle Induced Aberrant Organisms with Novel Ability to Protect Intestinal Integrity from Inflammation in an Animal Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 864; doi:10.3390/nu9080864
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Robust and balanced gut microbiota are required to support health and growth. Overgrowth of gut microbial or pathogens can change ecosystem balance, and compromise gut integrity to initiate gastrointestinal (GI) complications. There is no safe and effective modality against coccidiosis. Antibiotic additives routinely
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Robust and balanced gut microbiota are required to support health and growth. Overgrowth of gut microbial or pathogens can change ecosystem balance, and compromise gut integrity to initiate gastrointestinal (GI) complications. There is no safe and effective modality against coccidiosis. Antibiotic additives routinely fed to food animals to protect against infection, are entered into the food chain, contaminate food products and pass to the consumers. Hypothesis: induced aberrant organisms possess distinct ultrastructure and are tolerated by immunodeficient-animals yet are non-pathogenic, but immunogenic in various strains of chicks to act as a preventive (vaccine) and eliminating the needs for antibiotic additives. Methods: cyclophosphamide-immunodeficient and immune-intact-chicks were inoculated with induced aberrant or normal Coccidal-organisms. Immune-intact-chicks were immunized with escalating-doses of organisms. Results: Aberrant organisms showed distinct ultrastructure with 8-free-sporozoites which lacked sporocysts walls and veils. Immunodeficient-chicks inoculated with normal-organisms developed severe GI complications but tolerated aberrant-organisms (p < 0.001) while they had no detectable antibodies. Naïve-animals challenged with a pathogenic-dose showed GI complications, bloody diarrhea, severe lesions and weight loss. Immune-intact-animals immunized with aberrant forms were protected against high dose normal-pathogenic-challenge infection and gained more weight compared to those immunized with normal-organisms (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Aberrant organisms possess a distinct ultrastructure and are tolerated in immunodeficient-chicks, yet provide novel immune-protection against pathogenic challenges including diarrhea, malnutrition and weight loss in immune-intact-animals to warrant further investigations toward vaccine production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of a Standardized Ginger Extract on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea-Related Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Moderately or Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 867; doi:10.3390/nu9080867
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
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Abstract
Ginger supplementation could be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). The aim of this clinical trial was to address significant methodological limitations in previous trials. Patients (N = 51) were randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of standardised ginger extract
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Ginger supplementation could be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). The aim of this clinical trial was to address significant methodological limitations in previous trials. Patients (N = 51) were randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of standardised ginger extract or placebo per day, in addition to standard anti-emetic therapy, during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. The primary outcome was CIN-related quality of life (QoL) measured with the Functional Living Index- Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included acute and delayed nausea, vomiting, and retching as well as cancer-related fatigue, nutritional status, and CIN and vomiting-specific prognostic factors. Over three consecutive chemotherapy cycles, nausea was more prevalent than vomiting (47% vs. 12%). In chemotherapy Cycle 1, intervention participants reported significantly better QoL related to CIN (p = 0.029), chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)-related QoL (p = 0.043), global QoL (p = 0.015) and less fatigue (p = 0.006) than placebo participants. There were no significant results in Cycle 2. In Cycle 3, global QoL (p = 0.040) and fatigue (p = 0.013) were significantly better in the intervention group compared to placebo. This trial suggests adjuvant ginger supplementation is associated with better chemotherapy-induced nausea-related quality of life and less cancer-related fatigue, with no difference in adverse effects compared to placebo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 868; doi:10.3390/nu9080868
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
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Abstract
School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this
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School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children’s nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p < 0.05), calcium (p < 0.05), and vitamin C (p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased (p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin (p < 0.05) and hematocrit (p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group (p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group (p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Appetite and Gut Hormones Response to a Putative α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, Salacia Chinensis, in Overweight/Obese Adults: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 869; doi:10.3390/nu9080869
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
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Abstract
Animal studies indicate Salacia reduces body weight, possibly due to its α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) properties, but this has not been examined previously. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design was used to evaluate whether Salacia Chinensis (SC) reduces appetite in healthy
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Animal studies indicate Salacia reduces body weight, possibly due to its α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) properties, but this has not been examined previously. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design was used to evaluate whether Salacia Chinensis (SC) reduces appetite in healthy overweight/obese individuals (body mass index 28.8 ±3.6 kg/m2; 32 ± 12 years). Forty-eight participants were fasted overnight and consumed a dose of SC (300 or 500 mg) or placebo with a fixed breakfast meal at each visit. Appetite sensations, glycemic indices and gastrointestinal peptides were measured. Results indicated that SC had no effect on postprandial appetite. However, in women, hunger was reduced by SC compared to placebo at multiple time points (300 mg; p < 0.05), but not in men. Area under the curve (AUC) for serum glucose, insulin and amylin was attenuated with SC compared to placebo (p < 0.05). Glucagon like peptide-1 had two peaks after the meal, but the AUC did not differ between groups. The AUC of peak areas for peptide YY and ghrelin were greater for SC than placebo (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that Salacia decreases glycemic indices supporting its role as an α-GI, and affects certain gastrointestinal peptides suggesting it may be an appetite modulator. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Effect of Mediterranean Diet and Antioxidant Formulation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 870; doi:10.3390/nu9080870
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, characterized by liver fatty acid accumulation and fibrosis, not due to excessive alcohol consumption. Notably, nutritional habits have been reported to be implicated in the onset and severity of the hepatic
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, characterized by liver fatty acid accumulation and fibrosis, not due to excessive alcohol consumption. Notably, nutritional habits have been reported to be implicated in the onset and severity of the hepatic damage, while the Mediterranean diet has shown beneficial effects on NAFLD. Free radicals and oxidative stress were suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD, and several data highlighted the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in its treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the Mediterranean diet, with or without an antioxidant complex supplement, in overweight patients suffering from NAFLD. In this prospective study, fifty Caucasian overweight patients were randomized into three groups (Groups A–C). A personalized moderately hypocaloric Mediterranean diet was prescribed to all patients included in the A and B groups. In addition to the diet, Group B was administered antioxidant supplementation daily and for the period of six months. Group C did not have any type of treatment. The study proved that the Mediterranean diet alone or in association with the antioxidant complex improved anthropometric parameters, lipid profile and reduced hepatic fat accumulation and liver stiffness. However, Group B patients, in which the diet was associated with antioxidant intake, showed not only a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity, but also a more consistent reduction of anthropometric parameters when compared with Group A patients. Taken together, these results support the benefit of antioxidant supplementation in overweight patients with NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes of Bone-Related Minerals during Denosumab Administration in Post-Menopausal Osteoporotic Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 871; doi:10.3390/nu9080871
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 13 August 2017
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Abstract
Objectives: This retrospective study included 21 patients with primary osteoporosis who were treated with the anti-resorption drug, denosumab. To date, there has been no detailed report on the changes of bone-related minerals after anti-resorption drug therapy. Methods: Twenty-one post-menopausal females were retrospectively enrolled.
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Objectives: This retrospective study included 21 patients with primary osteoporosis who were treated with the anti-resorption drug, denosumab. To date, there has been no detailed report on the changes of bone-related minerals after anti-resorption drug therapy. Methods: Twenty-one post-menopausal females were retrospectively enrolled. Serum zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), grip strength, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were examined at one week and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Lumbar spine (L1-4) bone mineral density (L-BMD) and bilateral total hip BMD (H-BMD) were examined before and at 4, 8, and 12 months after treatment commencement. Results: Serum Zn tended to decrease at one week and one month, and tended to increase during 10 to 12 months. Serum Cu maintained during zero to eight months, then decreased at 10 and 12 months. Serum Fe gradually increased after four months. Serum Mg sharply increased at one week, then decreased further. Grip strength increased for two months, then slightly decreased and maintained 4 to 12 months. eGFR almost maintained for zero to eight months, then slightly decreased thereafter. L-BMD values significantly increased at eight (5.8%) (p < 0.01) and 12 months (9.8%) (p < 0.01). H-BMD increased during the period (at 12 months: 3.7%). Conclusions: These results suggest that at later phases of denosumab therapy, Zn and Fe tended to increase while Mg tended to decrease, all of which are important for bone metabolism. Thus, denosumab might improve Zn and Fe metabolism, and thereby likely increase BMD. Since denosumab may not improve Mg, it is better to obtain Mg supplementation during the therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Longitudinal Associations of High-Fructose Diet with Cardiovascular Events and Potential Risk Factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 872; doi:10.3390/nu9080872
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The relationship between fructose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess possible association of dietary intakes of fructose with the risk of CVD events in a prospective population-based study. Participants without CVD (n = 2369) were
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The relationship between fructose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess possible association of dietary intakes of fructose with the risk of CVD events in a prospective population-based study. Participants without CVD (n = 2369) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and followed a mean of 6.7 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary total fructose (TF) intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of dietary fructose. Linear regression models were used to indicate association of fructose intakes with changes of CVD risk factors over the study period. The mean age of participants (43.5% men) was 38.1 ± 13.3 years at baseline. During an average of 6.7 ± 1.4 years of follow-up, 79 participants experienced CVD outcomes. The mean daily intake of TF was 6.4 ± 3.7% of total energy (3.6 ± 2.0 from AF and 2.7 ± 1.8 from NF). Higher consumption of TF (≥7.4% vs. <4.5% of total energy) was accompanied with an increased risk of CVD (HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.04–3.15); higher energy intake from AF was also related to incidence of CVD (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.04–3.12), whereas NF was not associated with the risk of CVD outcomes. Both AF and TF were also related to changes of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference, serum insulin and creatinine levels, as well as HDL-C. Our data provides further evidence regarding undesirable effects of fructose intake in relation to risk of CVD events. Full article
Open AccessArticle Grain Foods Are Contributors of Nutrient Density for American Adults and Help Close Nutrient Recommendation Gaps: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 873; doi:10.3390/nu9080873
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 23 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020 DGA) maintains recommendations for increased consumption of whole grains while limiting intake of enriched/refined grains. A variety of enriched grains are sources of several shortfall nutrients identified by 2015-2020 DGA, including dietary fiber, folate, iron, and
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The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020 DGA) maintains recommendations for increased consumption of whole grains while limiting intake of enriched/refined grains. A variety of enriched grains are sources of several shortfall nutrients identified by 2015-2020 DGA, including dietary fiber, folate, iron, and magnesium. The purpose of this study was to determine food sources of energy and nutrients for free-living U.S. adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected in adults ≥19 years of age (n = 10,697). Sources of nutrients contained in all grain foods were determined using United States Department of Agriculture nutrient composition databases and the food grouping scheme for grains (excluding mixed dishes). Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from various grain food groups were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. All grains provided 285 ± 5 kcal/day or 14 ± 0.2% kcal/day in the total diet in adult ≥19 years of age. In the total daily diet, the grain category provided 7.2 ± 0.2% (4.9 ± 0.1 g/day) total fat, 5.4 ± 0.2% (1.1 ± 0.03 g/day) saturated fat, 14.6 ± 0.3% (486 ± 9 mg/day) sodium, 7.9 ± 0.2% (7.6 ± 0.2 g/day) total sugar, 22.8 ± 0.4% (3.9 ± 0.1 g/day) dietary fiber, 13.2 ± 0.3% (122 ± 3 mg/day) calcium, 33.6 ± 0.5% (219 ± 4 mcg dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day) folate, 29.7 ± 0.4% (5.3 ± 0.1 mg/day) iron, and 13.9 ± 0.3% (43.7 ± 1.1 mg/day) magnesium. Individual grain category analyses showed that breads, rolls and tortillas and ready-to-eat cereals provided minimal kcal/day in the total diet in men and women ≥19 years of age. Similarly, breads, rolls and tortillas, and ready-to-eat cereals supplied meaningful contributions of shortfall nutrients, including dietary fiber, folate and iron, while concurrently providing minimal amounts of nutrients to limit. Cumulatively, a variety of grain food groups consumed by American adults contribute to nutrient density in the total diet and have the potential to increase consumption of shortfall nutrients as identified by 2015–2020 DGA, particularly dietary fiber, folate, and iron. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Is Nutritious Snack Food? A Comparison of Expert and Layperson Assessments
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 874; doi:10.3390/nu9080874
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
The term “nutritious” is being increasingly used by product manufacturers but the term is not currently regulated as a nutrition claim. It is unclear how lay consumers and experts define and interpret the term or how they evaluate the “nutritiousness” of various foods.
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The term “nutritious” is being increasingly used by product manufacturers but the term is not currently regulated as a nutrition claim. It is unclear how lay consumers and experts define and interpret the term or how they evaluate the “nutritiousness” of various foods. To address this evidence gap, a mixed methods design was applied and both nutrition experts (n = 206) and lay participants (n = 269) provided definitions of the term “nutritious” and evaluated the “nutritiousness” of 20 different snack foods in a cross-sectional survey. Definitions were analysed using Leximancer and snack evaluations were compared both between groups and with nutrient profile scores (UK Ofcom and Australian Health Star Rating). Expert and lay definitions differed considerably, with experts using terms such as nutrient-density, macro- and micronutrients, kilojoules/Calories, while lay consumers used descriptions such as fuel, fresh, natural, body needs, and functioning. Snack evaluations were highly correlated between groups (Rs > 0.89, p < 0.001) and between nutrient profile scores (Rs > 0.75, p < 0.001). However, mean perceptions significantly differed for 18 out of 20 foods with the largest difference for yoghurts (p < 0.05). There are discrepancies between expert and lay perceptions of snack foods and the definition of the term “nutritious”. The results highlight the need for an agreed definition and the potential regulation of the term “nutritious” in food marketing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Propolis Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis and Modulates the Gut Microbiota in Rats Fed a Western Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 875; doi:10.3390/nu9080875
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
Propolis is an important hive product and considered beneficial to health. However, evidence of its potential for improving gut health is still lacking. Here we use rats to examine whether dietary supplementation with propolis could be used as a therapy for ulcerative colitis.
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Propolis is an important hive product and considered beneficial to health. However, evidence of its potential for improving gut health is still lacking. Here we use rats to examine whether dietary supplementation with propolis could be used as a therapy for ulcerative colitis. Rats were fed with a Western style diet alone (controls) or supplemented with different amounts of Chinese propolis (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) to examine effects on acute colitis induced by 3% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. Propolis at 0.3%, but not lower levels, significantly improved colitis symptoms compared with the control group, with a less pronounced disease activity index (DAI) (p < 0.001), a significant increase in colon length/weight ratio (p < 0.05) and an improved distal colon tissue structure as assessed by histology. Although short chain fatty acid levels in digesta were not altered by propolis supplementation, 16S rRNA phylogenetic sequencing revealed a significant increase in gut microbial diversity after 21 days of 0.3% propolis supplementation compared with controls including a significant increase in bacteria belonging to the Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria phyla. This is the first study to demonstrate that propolis can attenuate DSS-induced colitis and provides new insight into diet-microbiota interactions during inflammatory bowel disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Effects of Goat Dairy and Cow Dairy Based Breakfasts on Satiety, Appetite Hormones, and Metabolic Profile
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 877; doi:10.3390/nu9080877
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with
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The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p < 0.01) and hunger rating tended to be lower (breakfast & time interaction p = 0.06) after the G-breakfast. None of the blood parameters studied were different between breakfasts; however, AUCGLP-1 was inversely associated with the AUChunger and AUCdesire-to-eat after the G-Breakfast, whereas triglyceride levels were directly associated with AUCCSI after the C-Breakfast. Our results suggest a slightly higher satiating effect of goat dairy when compared to cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Type 1 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: When Should We Be Concerned? A Nationwide Study in Brazil
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 878; doi:10.3390/nu9080878
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
Obesity is increasing worldwide, affecting even patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A higher prevalence of associated comorbidities is expected, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This paper reports a cross-sectional multicenter study on a population with T1D (n = 1662),
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Obesity is increasing worldwide, affecting even patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A higher prevalence of associated comorbidities is expected, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This paper reports a cross-sectional multicenter study on a population with T1D (n = 1662), which aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), a known risk factor for NAFLD, and to investigate predisposing factors associated with MS, as well as factors associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as it correlates to liver fat content. Patients were from 14 public clinics of 10 cities from all geographical regions of Brazil. A high prevalence of MS was found, especially among adults (32.3%), and this was related to age, female gender, acid uric levels, and the presence of acanthosis nigricans. ALT above the normal range was associated with triglyceride levels (especially above 129.5 mg/dL), serum uric acid, age, male gender, HbA1c, and non-Caucasian ethnicity. Patients with T1D, metabolic syndrome, and the aforementioned factors may be at a higher risk of NAFLD and should be referred to ultrasound for NAFLD evaluation. Further studies are necessary to establish the prevalence of NAFLD in individuals with T1D and to determine the disease’s progression in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Fat Sensation: Fatty Acid Taste and Olfaction Sensitivity and the Link with Disinhibited Eating Behaviour
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 879; doi:10.3390/nu9080879
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
Perception of fat taste, aroma, and texture are proposed to influence food preferences, thus shaping dietary intake and eating behaviour and consequently long-term health. In this study, we investigated associations between fatty acid taste, olfaction, mouthfeel of fat, dietary intake, eating behaviour, and
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Perception of fat taste, aroma, and texture are proposed to influence food preferences, thus shaping dietary intake and eating behaviour and consequently long-term health. In this study, we investigated associations between fatty acid taste, olfaction, mouthfeel of fat, dietary intake, eating behaviour, and body mass index (BMI). Fifty women attended three sessions to assess oleic acid taste and olfaction thresholds, the olfactory threshold for n-butanol and subjective mouthfeel ratings of custard samples. Dietary intake and eating behaviour were evaluated using a Food Frequency and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. Binomial regression analysis was used to model fat taste and olfaction data. Taste and olfactory detection for oleic acid were positively correlated (r = 0.325; p < 0.02). Oleic acid taste hypersensitive women had significantly increased n-butanol olfactory sensitivity (p < 0.03). The eating behaviour disinhibition and BMI were higher in women who were hyposensitive to oleic acid taste (p < 0.05). Dietary intake of nuts, nut spreads, and seeds were significantly correlated with high olfactory sensitivity to oleic acid (p < 0.01). These findings demonstrate a clear link between fatty acid taste sensitivity and olfaction and suggest that fat taste perception is associated with specific characteristics of eating behaviour and body composition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Healthy Eating Agenda in Australia. Is Salt a Priority for Manufacturers?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 881; doi:10.3390/nu9080881
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
Many nation states have endorsed and acted on the World Health Organization’s target of a 30% reduction in global salt consumption by 2025. In Australia, new government-led voluntary measures were initiated in 2009, consisting of public–private partnerships, front-of-pack labelling, and food reformulation targets
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Many nation states have endorsed and acted on the World Health Organization’s target of a 30% reduction in global salt consumption by 2025. In Australia, new government-led voluntary measures were initiated in 2009, consisting of public–private partnerships, front-of-pack labelling, and food reformulation targets (which include reduced salt). How Australia’s private sector has responded to this healthy eating agenda has been investigated in a limited way, particularly with regards to manufacturers which produce processed foods considered significant sources of sodium. In this study we asked: have Australia’s largest food manufacturers made “…positive (nutrition) changes to their product portfolios” as disclosed in their public policies, priorities, and communications? And, is salt reduction a priority for processed food manufacturers? A systematic search and critical content-analysis of grey literature published by food manufacturers was conducted. The results suggest half of the sample publically describe some salt reduction activities but the scale and efficacy of these changes is unclear from the available literature. The Australian Government’s Healthy Food Partnership could capitalise on current documented activities in salt reduction, and implement a more comprehensive healthy eating agenda moving forward. In light of the increasing rates of hypertension, population salt consumption and diet-related disease, more could be done. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 882; doi:10.3390/nu9080882
Received: 11 June 2017 / Revised: 6 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of
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Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for 120 min before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals’ crossover point intensity (COP). FAO, determined using indirect calorimetry, was significantly higher during the 30-min exercise in YM vs. PLC (0.21 ± 0.07 vs. 0.17 ± 0.06 g/min, p < 0.05). VAS scores for hunger, prospective eating, and desire to eat were all reduced (p < 0.05). Whereas, POMS measures of focus, energy, and concentration were all increased (p < 0.05). There was no significant time-effect for any of the measured variables, nor was there any interaction effects between YM treatment and time. Combining YM intake with prolonged exercise at targeted ”fat-loss”’ intensities augments FAO and improves measures of satiety and mood state. Such positive combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects may provide an important role for designing future fat and weight-loss lifestyle interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of Lycopene on Amyloid-β-Induced Apoptosis in Neuronal Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 883; doi:10.3390/nu9080883
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
Alzheimer′s disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Brain amyloid-β deposition is a crucial feature of AD, causing neuronal cell death by inducing oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate NF-κB, which induces expression of Nucling. Nucling is a pro-apoptotic factor recruiting the
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Alzheimer′s disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Brain amyloid-β deposition is a crucial feature of AD, causing neuronal cell death by inducing oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate NF-κB, which induces expression of Nucling. Nucling is a pro-apoptotic factor recruiting the apoptosome complex. Lycopene is an antioxidant protecting from oxidative stress-induced cell damage. We investigated whether lycopene inhibits amyloid-β-stimulated apoptosis through reducing ROS and inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and NF-κB-mediated Nucling expression in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We prepared cells transfected with siRNA for Nucling or nontargeting control siRNA to determine the role of Nucling in amyloid-β-induced apoptosis. The amyloid-β increased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, apoptotic indices (p53, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 cleavage), NF-kB activation and Nucling expression, while cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and oxygen consumption rate decreased in SH-SY5Y cells. Lycopene inhibited these amyloid-β-induced alterations. However, amyloid-β did not induce apoptosis, determined by cell viability and apoptotic indices (p53, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 cleavage), in the cells transfected with siRNA for Nucling. Lycopene inhibited apoptosis by reducing ROS, and by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and NF-κB-target gene Nucling expression in neuronal cells. Lycopene may be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death in patients with neurodegeneration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Breakfast Cereals Available in the Mexican Market: Sodium and Sugar Content
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 884; doi:10.3390/nu9080884
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
Preschool Mexican children consume 7% of their total energy intake from processed breakfast cereals. This study characterized the nutritional quality and labelling (claims and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA)) of the packaged breakfast cereals available in the Mexican market. Photographs of all breakfast cereals
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Preschool Mexican children consume 7% of their total energy intake from processed breakfast cereals. This study characterized the nutritional quality and labelling (claims and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA)) of the packaged breakfast cereals available in the Mexican market. Photographs of all breakfast cereals available in the 9 main food retail chains in the country were taken. The nutrition quality of cereals was assessed using the United Kingdom Nutrient Profiling Model (UKNPM). Claims were classified using the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy and the GDA was defined according to the Mexican regulation, NOM-051. Overall, a total of 371 different breakfast cereals were analysed. The nutritional profile showed that 68.7% were classified as “less healthy”. GDAs and claims were displayed more frequently on the “less healthy” cereals. Breakfast cereals within the “less healthy” category had significantly higher content of energy, sugar and sodium (p < 0.001). Most of the claims were displayed in the “less healthy” cereals (n = 313). This study has shown that there is a lack of consistency between the labelling on the front of the pack and the nutritional quality of breakfast cereals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fructose Enhances the Ability of Low Concentrations of Angiotensin II to Stimulate Proximal Tubule Na+ Reabsorption
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 885; doi:10.3390/nu9080885
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
Fructose-enriched diets cause salt-sensitive hypertension. Proximal tubules (PTs) reabsorb 70% of the water and salt filtered through the glomerulus. Angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates this process. Normally, dietary salt reduces Ang II allowing the kidney to excrete more salt, thereby preventing hypertension. We
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Fructose-enriched diets cause salt-sensitive hypertension. Proximal tubules (PTs) reabsorb 70% of the water and salt filtered through the glomerulus. Angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates this process. Normally, dietary salt reduces Ang II allowing the kidney to excrete more salt, thereby preventing hypertension. We hypothesized that fructose-enriched diets enhance the ability of low concentrations of Ang II to stimulate PT transport. We measured the effects of a low concentration of Ang II (10−12 mol/L) on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO2), and Na/K-ATPase and Na/H-exchange (NHE) activities and expression in PTs from rats consuming tap water (Control) or 20% fructose (FRUC). In FRUC-treated PTs, Ang II increased QO2 by 14.9 ± 1.3 nmol/mg/min (p < 0.01) but had no effect in Controls. FRUC elevated NHE3 expression by 19 ± 3% (p < 0.004) but not Na/K-ATPase expression. Ang II stimulated NHE activity in FRUC PT (Δ + 0.7 ± 0.1 Arbitrary Fluorescent units (AFU)/s, p < 0.01) but not in Controls. Na/K-ATPase activity was not affected. The PKC inhibitor Gö6976 blocked the ability of FRUC to augment the actions of Ang II. FRUC did not alter the inhibitory effect of dopamine on NHE activity. We conclude that dietary fructose increases the ability of low concentrations of Ang II to stimulate PT Na reabsorption via effects on NHE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Lipids and Inflammatory Markers after Consuming Diets High in Red Meat or Dairy for Four Weeks
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 886; doi:10.3390/nu9080886
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim
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There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim was to determine whether a relationship exists between changes in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory biomarkers, or with lipid species. Fasting Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II (sTNF-RII), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were measured at the end of each diet. TNF-α and the ratio TNF-α/sTNF-RII were not different between diets and TNF-α, sTNF-RII, or the ratio TNF-α/sTNF-RII showed no association with homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A number of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) species differed between dairy and red meat and dairy and control diets, as did many phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and cholesteryl ester (CE) 14:0, CE15:0, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 14:0, and LPC15:0. None had a significant relationship (p = 0.001 or better) with log homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), although LPC14:0 had the strongest relationship (p = 0.004) and may be the main mediator of the effect of dairy on insulin sensitivity. LPC14:0 and the whole LPC class were correlated with CRP. The correlations between dietary change and the minor plasma phospholipids PI32:1 and PE32:1 are novel and may reflect significant changes in membrane composition. Inflammatory markers were not altered by changes in protein source while the correlation of LPC with CRP confirms a relationship between changes in lipid profile and inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) and Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations: A Validation Study in Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 888; doi:10.3390/nu9080888
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality
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Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality and fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed in 99 overweight and obese adults (49.5% female, aged 44.6 ± 9.9 years) at baseline and after three months (198 paired observations). Associations were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and regression analysis, and agreement using weighted kappa (Kw). Small, significantly positive correlations were found between total ARFS and plasma concentrations of total carotenoids (r = 0.17, p < 0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.18, p < 0.05), β-carotene (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). Significant agreement between ARFS categories and plasma carotenoid concentrations was found for total carotenoids (Kw 0.12, p = 0.02), β-carotene (Kw 0.14, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (Kw 0.13, p < 0.01). In fully-adjusted regression models the only signification association with ARFS total score was for α-carotene (β = 0.19, p < 0.01), while ARFS meat and fruit sub-scales demonstrated significant relationships with α-carotene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids (p < 0.05). The weak associations highlight the issues with self-reporting dietary intakes in overweight and obese populations. Further research is required to evaluate the use of the ARFS in more diverse populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle Attenuation of Multiple Organ Damage by Continuous Low-Dose Solvent-Free Infusions of Resveratrol after Severe Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 889; doi:10.3390/nu9080889
Received: 25 June 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
Therapeutic effects of continuous intravenous infusions of solvent-free low doses of resveratrol on organ injury and systemic consequences resulting from severe hemorrhagic shock in rats were studied. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing arterial blood until a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of
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Therapeutic effects of continuous intravenous infusions of solvent-free low doses of resveratrol on organ injury and systemic consequences resulting from severe hemorrhagic shock in rats were studied. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing arterial blood until a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 25–30 mmHg was reached. Following a shock phase of 60 min, rats were resuscitated with the withdrawn blood plus lactated Ringer’s. Resveratrol (20 or 60 μg/kg × h) was continuously infused intravenously starting with the resuscitation phase (30 min) and continued until the end of the experiment (total treatment time 180 min). Animals of the shock control group received 0.9% NaCl solution. After the observation phase (150 min), rats were sacrificed. Resveratrol significantly stabilized the MAP and peripheral oxygen saturation after hemorrhagic shock, decreased the macroscopic injury of the small intestine, significantly attenuated the shock-induced increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the small intestine, liver, kidney and lung, and diminished tissue hemorrhages (particularly in the small intestine and liver) as well as the rate of hemolysis. Already very low doses of resveratrol, continuously infused during resuscitation after severe hemorrhagic shock, can significantly improve impaired systemic parameters and attenuate multiple organ damage in rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 890; doi:10.3390/nu9080890
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential
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Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Results: Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose–response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Conclusions: Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Consistency of Eating Rate, Oral Processing Behaviours and Energy Intake across Meals
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 891; doi:10.3390/nu9080891
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
Faster eating has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and the current study tested whether eating rate is consistent within an individual and linked to energy intake across multiple meals. Measures of ad libitum intake, eating rate, and oral processing at
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Faster eating has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and the current study tested whether eating rate is consistent within an individual and linked to energy intake across multiple meals. Measures of ad libitum intake, eating rate, and oral processing at the same or similar test meal were recorded on four non-consecutive days for 146 participants (117 male, 29 female) recruited across four separate studies. All the meals were video recorded, and oral processing behaviours were derived through behavioural coding. Eating behaviours showed good to excellent consistency across the meals (intra-class correlation coefficients > 0.76, p < 0.001) and participants who ate faster took larger bites (β ≥ 0.39, p < 0.001) and consistently consumed more energy, independent of meal palatability, sex, body composition and reported appetite (β ≥ 0.17, p ≤ 0.025). Importantly, eating faster at one meal predicted faster eating and increased energy intake at subsequent meals (β > 0.20, p < 0.05). Faster eating is relatively consistent within individuals and is predictive of faster eating and increased energy intake at subsequent similar meals consumed in a laboratory context, independent of individual differences in body composition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents: Does Dietary Quality Play a Role?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 892; doi:10.3390/nu9080892
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables and determine whether they vary
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Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables and determine whether they vary by generation, sex, dietary quality, or by the age of the children. The study sample consisted of 1435 families (1007 mothers, 438 fathers, 1035 daughters, and 1080 sons) from the multi-center I.Family study. Dietary intake was assessed in parents and their 2–19 years old children using repeated 24-h dietary recalls, from which the usual energy and food intakes were estimated with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Method. Food items were categorized as healthy or unhealthy based on their sugar, fat, and fiber content. Interclass and intraclass correlations were calculated for relative pairs. Familiality was estimated using variance component methods. Parent–offspring (r = 0.11–0.33), sibling (r = 0.21–0.43), and spouse (r = 0.15–0.33) correlations were modest. Parent–offspring correlations were stronger for the intake of healthy (r = 0.33) than unhealthy (r = 0.10) foods. Familiality estimates were 61% (95% CI: 54–68%) for the intake of fruit and vegetables and the sum of healthy foods and only 30% (95% CI: 23–38%) for the sum of unhealthy foods. Familial factors explained a larger proportion of the variance in healthy food intake (71%; 95% CI: 62–81%) in younger children below the age of 11 than in older children equal or above the age of 11 (48%; 95% CI: 38–58%). Factors shared by family members such as genetics and/or the shared home environment play a stronger role in shaping children’s intake of healthy foods than unhealthy foods. This suggests that family-based interventions are likely to have greater effects when targeting healthy food choices and families with younger children, and that other sorts of intervention are needed to address the intake of unhealthy foods by children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Omega–3 Long-Chain Fatty Acids in the Heart, Kidney, Liver and Plasma Metabolite Profiles of Australian Prime Lambs Supplemented with Pelleted Canola and Flaxseed Oils
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 893; doi:10.3390/nu9080893
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
The objective of the study was to ascertain whether human health beneficial omega–3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in heart, kidney and liver can be enhanced by supplementing prime lambs with graded levels of canola and
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The objective of the study was to ascertain whether human health beneficial omega–3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in heart, kidney and liver can be enhanced by supplementing prime lambs with graded levels of canola and flaxseed oil. Health status of the lambs, as a consequence of the supplementation, was also investigated by examining their plasma metabolites. Sixty purebred and first-cross lambs were allocated to one of five treatments of lucerne hay basal diet supplemented with isocaloric and isonitrogenous wheat-based pellets without oil inclusion (Control) or graded levels of canola oil at 2.5% (2.5C), 5% (5C), flaxseed oil at 2.5% (2.5F) and 5% (5F) in a completely randomised design. Pre-slaughter blood, post-slaughter kidney, liver and heart samples were analysed for plasma metabolite and fatty acid profiles. Summations of docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 LC-PUFA were enhanced in the liver and kidney of 5F supplemented lambs with a marked decrease in n-6/n-3 ratio and significant breed differences detected. There were generally no deleterious impacts on animal health status. A combination of 5% oil supplementation and lamb genetics is an effective and strategic management tool for enhancing n-3 LC-PUFA contents of heart, kidney and liver without compromising lamb health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Renal Failure: Role of eNOS Activation and of Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 895; doi:10.3390/nu9080895
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a key vascular alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether n-3 PUFA could reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD by improving endothelial
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Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a key vascular alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether n-3 PUFA could reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD by improving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and oxidative stress. Methods: 5/6 nephrectomized male Wistar rats (CKD; n = 10) and sham operated animals (SHAM; n = 10) were treated for 6 weeks with standard diet. An additional group of CKD rats were fed an n-3 PUFA enriched diet (CKD + PUFA; n = 10). We then measured endothelium-dependent (EDD) and -independent vasodilation, markers of endothelial function and of oxidative stress in thoracic aortas. Results: Compared to SHAM, in CKD aortas EDD and eNOS expression were reduced (p < 0.05) and 3-nitrotyrosine levels were increased, while expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX4 and p22phox was similar. In-vitro incubation with Tiron failed to reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD. In CKD + PUFA, EDD improved (p < 0.05) compared with CKD rats, while blockade of eNOS by L-NAME worsened EDD. These effects were accompanied by increased (p < 0.05) eNOS and reduced (p < 0.05) expression of NOX4 and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that n-3 PUFA improve endothelial dysfunction by restoring NO bioavailability in CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle Choline Intake and Its Food Sources in the Diet of Romanian Kindergarten Children
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 896; doi:10.3390/nu9080896
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 12 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the usual intake and food sources of choline in a group of Romanian kindergarten children. A cross-sectional study was performed among 71 children aged 4–6 years from four kindergartens from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Dietary intake data
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The objective of this study is to assess the usual intake and food sources of choline in a group of Romanian kindergarten children. A cross-sectional study was performed among 71 children aged 4–6 years from four kindergartens from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Dietary intake data were collected by means of three-day food records. The mean (SD) daily intake of choline was 215 (32) mg/day, 22.5% of the participants fulfilling the adequate intake (AI) for children 4–6 years of age of 250 mg of choline per day. The main food sources were meat (mainly poultry), eggs, grains, cereals, and baked products (mainly bread), and dairy products (mainly milk). The results of the logistic regression analyses show that an appropriate consumption of choline/day was statistically significantly associated with the consumption of at least one egg per three days (OR = 7.5, p < 0.05), a minimum of two portions of milk or dairy products per day (500 mL milk or yoghurt, or 60 g of cheese/day) (OR = 4.4, p < 0.05), and at least one portion of meat/day (90 g/day) (OR = 14.4, p < 0.05). The results underline the need for future surveys in this field, as well as actions to encourage an appropriate diet for children, including an appropriate content of choline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
Open AccessArticle Resveratrol in Hepatitis C Patients Treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α-2b and Ribavirin Reduces Sleep Disturbance
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 897; doi:10.3390/nu9080897
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. Aim: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C
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Background: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. Aim: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Peg-IFN-α and RBV. Patients and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1.5 mg/kg per week), Ribavirin and placebo (N-acetylcysteine 600 mg and lactoferrin 23.6 g), while 30 subjects (Group B) received the same dosage of Pegylated-Interferon-α2b, Ribavirin and association of N-acetylcysteine 600 mg, lactoferrin 23.6 g and Resveratrol 19.8 mg for 12 months. All subjects underwent laboratory exams and questionnaires to evaluate mood and sleep disorders (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)). Results: The comparison between Group A and Group B showed significant differences after six months in C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001); after 12 months in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p < 0.0001) Viremia (p < 0.0001), HAI (p < 0.0012) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001); and at follow up in AST (p < 0.0001), Viremia (p < 0.0026) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001). Significant differences were observed after 12 month and follow-up in General Health Questionnaire, after 1, 6, 12 and follow-up in Profile of Mood States, after 6, 12, follow-up in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Conclusions: Supplementation with Resveratrol decreased General Health Questionnaire score and reduced sleep disorders in patients treated with Peg–IFN-α and RBV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Status of Residents in Taiyuan, China and Influencing Factors
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 898; doi:10.3390/nu9080898
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported worldwide. Residents of Taiyuan, China, were predicted to be at high risk of vitamin D deficiency due to its high latitude, heavy air pollution, and cultural sun avoidance. This study investigated the vitamin D
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High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported worldwide. Residents of Taiyuan, China, were predicted to be at high risk of vitamin D deficiency due to its high latitude, heavy air pollution, and cultural sun avoidance. This study investigated the vitamin D status of office workers, and explored the potential determinants of capillary 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration as well as the relationship between 25(OH)D and metabolic syndrome. Two hundred participants, aged 20 to 80 years, were recruited. Capillary dried blood spot (DBS) 25(OH)D was measured; together with anthropometric (height, weight, and waist circumference), biochemical (serum lipid profile and fasting glucose) measures and a lifestyle questionnaire. Thirty-four percent of participants had 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 nmol/L, indicating deficient vitamin D status. Women’s 25(OH)D (median; 32.7 nmol/L (upper and lower quartile; 25.8, 43.8)) was significantly lower than men (44.0 nmol/L (32.3, 55.4)) (p < 0.01). Female gender, higher fasting glucose, and increased smoking (p < 0.05) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D concentration. However, there was no association found between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 25(OH)D concentration and no significant difference in vitamin D status between men or women with MetS compared to healthy individuals. Vitamin D deficiency was common in urban residents of Taiyuan in winter and more so in women than men. Full article
Open AccessArticle Choline Supplementation Normalizes Fetal Adiposity and Reduces Lipogenic Gene Expression in a Mouse Model of Maternal Obesity
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 899; doi:10.3390/nu9080899
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity which may adversely affect metabolic health of the offspring. Choline regulates lipid metabolism and thus may influence adiposity. This study investigates the effect of maternal choline supplementation on fetal adiposity in a mouse model of maternal obesity. C57BL/6J
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Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity which may adversely affect metabolic health of the offspring. Choline regulates lipid metabolism and thus may influence adiposity. This study investigates the effect of maternal choline supplementation on fetal adiposity in a mouse model of maternal obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (NF) diet and received either 25 mM choline supplemented (CS) or control untreated (CO) drinking water for 6 weeks before timed-mating and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 17.5, HF feeding led to higher (p < 0.05) percent total body fat in fetuses from the HFCO group, while the choline supplemented HFCS group did not show significant difference versus the NFCO group. Similarly, HF feeding led to higher (p < 0.05) hepatic triglyceride accumulation in the HFCO but not the HFCS fetuses. mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as Acc1, Fads1, and Elovl5, as well as the transcription factor Srebp1c that favors lipogenesis were downregulated (p < 0.05) by maternal choline supplementation in the HFCS group, which may serve as a mechanism to reduce fat accumulation in the fetal liver during maternal HF feeding. In summary, maternal choline supplementation improves indices of fetal adiposity in obese dams at late gestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Interaction Study of Omega-3 PUFAs and Other Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Health in the Framingham Heart Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 900; doi:10.3390/nu9080900
Received: 16 July 2017 / Revised: 5 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Numerous genetic loci have been identified as being associated with circulating fatty acid (FA) levels and/or inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular health (e.g., C-reactive protein). Recently, using red blood cell (RBC) FA data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we conducted a genome-wide association study
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Numerous genetic loci have been identified as being associated with circulating fatty acid (FA) levels and/or inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular health (e.g., C-reactive protein). Recently, using red blood cell (RBC) FA data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we conducted a genome-wide association study of over 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 22 RBC FAs (and associated ratios), including the four Omega-3 FAs (ALA, DHA, DPA, and EPA). Our analyses identified numerous causal loci. In this manuscript, we investigate the extent to which polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels moderate the relationship of genetics to cardiovascular health biomarkers using a genome-wide interaction study approach. In particular, we test for possible gene–FA interactions on 9 inflammatory biomarkers, with 2.5 million SNPs and 12 FAs, including all Omega-3 PUFAs. We identified eighteen novel loci, including loci which demonstrate strong evidence of modifying the impact of heritable genetics on biomarker levels, and subsequently cardiovascular health. The identified genes provide increased clarity on the biological functioning and role of Omega-3 PUFAs, as well as other common fatty acids, in cardiovascular health, and suggest numerous candidate loci for future replication and biological characterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle Cognitive Food Processing in Binge-Eating Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 903; doi:10.3390/nu9080903
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n
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Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n = 23 participants with full-syndrome and subsyndromal BED and n = 23 individually matched healthy controls, eye-tracking was used to assess attention to food and non-food stimuli during a free exploration paradigm and a visual search task. In the free exploration paradigm, groups did not differ in their initial fixation position. While both groups fixated non-food stimuli significantly longer than food stimuli, the BED group allocated significantly more attention towards food than controls. In the visual search task, groups did not differ in detection times. However, a significant detection bias for food was found in full-syndrome BED, but not in controls. An increased initial attention towards food was related to greater BED symptomatology and lower body mass index (BMI) only in full-syndrome BED, while a greater maintained attention to food was associated with lower BMI in controls. The results suggest food-biased visual attentional processing in adults with BED. Further studies should clarify the implications of attentional processes for the etiology and maintenance of BED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessArticle Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 904; doi:10.3390/nu9080904
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics’
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Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics’ efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71–0.88), p < 0.0001). According to feeding type, the beneficial effect of probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65–0.86), p < 0.0001). Among HM-fed infants, only probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57–0.80) p < 0.00001). The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nut Allergy in Two Different Areas of Spain: Differences in Clinical and Molecular Pattern
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 909; doi:10.3390/nu9080909
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: Different clinical and molecular patterns of food allergy have been reported in different areas of the world. The aim of the study is to evaluate differences in allergen patterns among nut-allergic patients in two different areas of Spain. Material and methods: A
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Introduction: Different clinical and molecular patterns of food allergy have been reported in different areas of the world. The aim of the study is to evaluate differences in allergen patterns among nut-allergic patients in two different areas of Spain. Material and methods: A total of 77 patients with nut allergy from two different regions of Spain (Madrid and Asturias) were evaluated. Results: Hazelnut, peanut, and walnut were the three most frequent nuts eliciting allergy in both regions, but in a different order. Patients from Madrid experienced systemic reactions more often than patients from Asturias (73.5% Madrid vs. 50.0%, p < 0.05). The percentage of sensitizations to LTP (Lipid Transfer Protein) was higher than Bet v 1 (p < 0.05) in the Madrid area. The percentage of sensitizations in Asturias area was similar to LTP than Bet v 1 (Pru p 3 46.4%, Bet v 1 42.9%, ns). Bet v 1 was the predominant allergen involved among hazelnut-allergic patients (56.2%), while LTP was more common in peanut-allergic patients (61.5%). Conclusion: Walnut, hazelnut, and peanut were the most frequent nuts eliciting allergy in Spain. Despite this, important differences in molecular pattern were appreciated not only between both regions, but also among nut-allergic patients in Asturias. The different molecular pattern was linked to the frequency of systemic symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Adapting the Healthy Eating Index 2010 for the Canadian Population: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 910; doi:10.3390/nu9080910
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made.
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The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made. The aims of this study were: (a) to develop a Canadian adaptation of the HEI-2010 (i.e., Healthy Eating Index-Canada 2010 (HEI-C 2010)) by adapting the recommendations of the HEI-2010 to Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) 2007; (b) to evaluate the validity and reliability of the HEI-C 2010; and (c) to examine relationships between HEI-C 2010 scores with diet quality and the likelihood of being obese. Data from 12,805 participants (≥18 years) were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between compliance to the HEI-C 2010 recommendations and the likelihood of being obese, adjusting for errors in self-reported dietary data. The total mean error-corrected HEI-C 2010 score was 50.85 ± 0.35 out of 100. Principal component analysis confirmed multidimensionality of the HEI-C 2010, while Cronbach’s α = 0.78 demonstrated internal reliability. Participants in the fourth quartile of the HEI-C 2010 with the healthiest diets were less likely to consume refined grains and empty calories and more likely to consume beneficial nutrients and foods (p-trend < 0.0001). Lower adherence to the index recommendations was inversely associated with the likelihood of being obese; this association strengthened after correction for measurement error (Odds Ratio: 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.17–1.71). Closer adherence to Canada’s Food Guide 2007 assessed through the HEI-C 2010 was associated with improved diet quality and reductions in the likelihood of obesity when energy intake and measurement errors were taken into account. Consideration of energy requirements and energy density in future updates of Canada’s Food Guide are important and necessary to ensure broader application and usability of dietary quality indexes developed based on this national nutrition guideline. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Stress and Appetite Responses in Male Power-Trained Athletes during Intensive Training Camp
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 912; doi:10.3390/nu9080912
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end
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An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end of a 9-day intensive training camp (Camp1 and Camp2, respectively) were compared with those of the resting period (Rest) and the regular training period (Regular; n = 13). The stress state was assessed based on plasma cortisol level, salivary immunoglobulin A level, and a profile of mood states score. The sensation of appetite was assessed using visual analog scale scores, and fasting plasma acylated ghrelin, insulin, and glucose were measured. The cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at Camp2 (466.7 ± 60.7 nmol∙L−1) than at Rest (356.3 ± 100.9 nmol∙L−1; p = 0.002) or Regular (361.7 ± 111.4 nmol∙L−1; p = 0.003). Both prospective and actual food consumption significantly decreased at Camp2, and acylated ghrelin concentration was significantly lower at Camp1 (34.2 ± 8.0 pg∙mL−1) and Camp2 (32.0 ± 8.7 pg∙mL−1) than at Rest (47.2 ± 11.2 pg∙mL−1) or Regular (53.4 ± 12.6 pg∙mL−1). Furthermore, the change in acylated ghrelin level was negatively correlated with the change in cortisol concentration. This study’s findings suggest that an early-phase physiological stress response may decrease the acylated ghrelin level in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Potential of Pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) In Vitro and In Vivo
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 915; doi:10.3390/nu9080915
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Several reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of pistachio against oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we investigate if polyphenols extracts from natural raw shelled pistachios (NP) or roasted salted pistachio (RP) kernels have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties at lower doses than reported
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Several reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of pistachio against oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we investigate if polyphenols extracts from natural raw shelled pistachios (NP) or roasted salted pistachio (RP) kernels have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties at lower doses than reported previously, in both in vitro and in vivo models. The monocyte/macrophage cell line J774 was used to assess the extent of protection by NP and RP pistachios against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Moreover, antioxidant activity of NP and RP was assessed in an in vivo model of paw edema in rats induced by carrageenan (CAR) injection in the paw. Results from the in vitro study demonstrated that pre-treatment with NP (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL) and RP (0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL) exerted a significant protection against LPS induced inflammation. Western blot analysis showed NP reduced the degradation of IκB-α, although not significantly, whereas both NP and RP decreased the TNF-α and IL-1β production in a dose-dependent way. A significant reduction of CAR-induced histological paw damage, neutrophil infiltration and nitrotyrosine formation was observed in the rats treated with NP. These data demonstrated that, at lower doses, polyphenols present in pistachios possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This may contribute toward a better understanding of the beneficial health effects associated with consumption of pistachios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oil with Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Wastewater Produced by Physical Refining
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 916; doi:10.3390/nu9080916
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods
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While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods enriched with natural antioxidants, no data has been available on the production of a phenol-enriched refined olive oil with its own phenolic compounds extracted from wastewater produced during physical refining. In this study; we aimed to: (i) verify the effectiveness of a multi-step extraction process to recover the high-added-value phenolic compounds contained in wastewater derived from the preliminary washing degumming step of the physical refining of vegetal oils; (ii) evaluate their potential application for the stabilization of olive oil obtained with refined olive oils; and (iii) evaluate their antioxidant activity in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of using the refining wastewater as a source of bioactive compounds to improve the nutraceutical value as well as the antioxidant capacity of commercial olive oils. In the conditions adopted, the phenolic content significantly increased in the prototypes of phenol-enriched olive oils when compared with the control oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle An Acute Dose of Specific Grape and Apple Polyphenols Improves Endurance Performance: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind versus Placebo Controlled Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 917; doi:10.3390/nu9080917
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Polyphenols are thought to be an interesting ergogenic aid for exercise and recovery. However, most studies regarding the effects of polyphenols investigated several days of supplementations. The present work aimed to study the effects of an acute intake of grape and apple polyphenols
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Polyphenols are thought to be an interesting ergogenic aid for exercise and recovery. However, most studies regarding the effects of polyphenols investigated several days of supplementations. The present work aimed to study the effects of an acute intake of grape and apple polyphenols on the capacity to maintain intense exercise, here named endurance performance. Forty-eight physically active men (31 ± 6 years) were included in this study. During the two testing sessions, volunteers completed an endurance test at a high percentage of their maximal aerobic power and time to exhaustion was measured. Respiratory and pain parameters were also monitored. The preceding evening and 1 h before testing, volunteers had to absorb either 500 mg of polyphenols or placebo according to randomization. In comparison with the placebo, the mean duration of the maximal endurance test was significantly increased with polyphenols (+9.7% ± 6.0%, p < 0.05). The maximal perceived exertion was reached later with polyphenols (+12.8% ± 6.8%, p < 0.05). Practically, the present study showed the beneficial effects of grape and apple polyphenols for athletes looking for endurance performance improvements. The specifically designed profile of polyphenols appeared to enhance the capacity to maintain intensive efforts and delay perceived exertion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of a Voluntary Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labelling System on Packaged Food Reformulation: The Health Star Rating System in New Zealand
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 918; doi:10.3390/nu9080918
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Interpretive, front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels may encourage reformulation of packaged foods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the Health Star Rating (HSR), a new voluntary interpretive FOP labelling system, on food reformulation in New Zealand. Annual surveys of packaged food and beverage
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Interpretive, front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels may encourage reformulation of packaged foods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the Health Star Rating (HSR), a new voluntary interpretive FOP labelling system, on food reformulation in New Zealand. Annual surveys of packaged food and beverage labelling and composition were undertaken in supermarkets before and after adoption of HSR i.e., 2014 to 2016. Outcomes assessed were HSR uptake by food group star ratings of products displaying a HSR label; nutritional composition of products displaying HSR compared with non-HSR products; and the composition of products displaying HSR labels in 2016 compared with their composition prior to introduction of HSR. In 2016, two years after adoption of the voluntary system, 5.3% of packaged food and beverage products surveyed (n = 807/15,357) displayed HSR labels. The highest rates of uptake were for cereals, convenience foods, packaged fruit and vegetables, sauces and spreads, and ‘Other’ products (predominantly breakfast beverages). Products displaying HSR labels had higher energy density but had significantly lower mean saturated fat, total sugar and sodium, and higher fibre, contents than non-HSR products (all p-values < 0.001). Small but statistically significant changes were observed in mean energy density (−29 KJ/100 g, p = 0.002), sodium (−49 mg/100 g, p = 0.03) and fibre (+0.5 g/100 g, p = 0.001) contents of HSR-labelled products compared with their composition prior to adoption of HSR. Reformulation of HSR-labelled products was greater than that of non-HSR-labelled products over the same period, e.g., energy reduction in HSR products was greater than in non-HSR products (−1.5% versus −0.4%), and sodium content of HSR products decreased by 4.6% while that of non-HSR products increased by 3.1%. We conclude that roll-out of the voluntary HSR labelling system is driving healthier reformulation of some products. Greater uptake across the full food supply should improve population diets. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dietary Composition Independent of Weight Loss in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 800; doi:10.3390/nu9080800
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although
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Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and sustainable strategy for NAFLD treatment. In the present review article, we highlight the potential therapeutic role of a “high quality healthy diet” to improve hepatic steatosis and metabolic dysfunction in patients with NAFLD, independent of caloric restriction and weight loss. We provide a literature review evaluating the evidence behind dietary components including fiber-, meat- and omega-3-rich diets and, pending further evidence, we concur with the EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Guidelines recommendation of the Mediterranean diet as the diet of choice in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
Open AccessReview Myth or Reality—Transdermal Magnesium?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 813; doi:10.3390/nu9080813
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Abstract
In the following review, we evaluated the current literature and evidence-based data on transdermal magnesium application and show that the propagation of transdermal magnesium is scientifically unsupported. The importance of magnesium and the positive effects of magnesium supplementation are extensively documented in magnesium
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In the following review, we evaluated the current literature and evidence-based data on transdermal magnesium application and show that the propagation of transdermal magnesium is scientifically unsupported. The importance of magnesium and the positive effects of magnesium supplementation are extensively documented in magnesium deficiency, e.g., cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The effectiveness of oral magnesium supplementation for the treatment of magnesium deficiency has been studied in detail. However, the proven and well-documented oral magnesium supplementation has become questioned in the recent years through intensive marketing for its transdermal application (e.g., magnesium-containing sprays, magnesium flakes, and magnesium salt baths). In both, specialist and lay press as well as on the internet, there are increasing numbers of articles claiming the effectiveness and superiority of transdermal magnesium over an oral application. It is claimed that the transdermal absorption of magnesium in comparison to oral application is more effective due to better absorption and fewer side effects as it bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Full article
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Open AccessReview Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 815; doi:10.3390/nu9080815
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Abstract
Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC)), the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models
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Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC)), the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessReview Benefits of Lactoferrin, Osteopontin and Milk Fat Globule Membranes for Infants
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 817; doi:10.3390/nu9080817
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 23 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Abstract
The provision of essential and non-essential amino acids for breast-fed infants is the major function of milk proteins. In addition, breast-fed infants might benefit from bioactivities of milk proteins, which are exhibited in the intestine during the digestive phase and by absorption of
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The provision of essential and non-essential amino acids for breast-fed infants is the major function of milk proteins. In addition, breast-fed infants might benefit from bioactivities of milk proteins, which are exhibited in the intestine during the digestive phase and by absorption of intact proteins or derived peptides. For lactoferrin, osteopontin and milk fat globule membrane proteins/lipids, which have not until recently been included in substantial amounts in infant formulas, in vitro experiments and animal models provide a convincing base of evidence for bioactivities, which contribute to the protection of the infant from pathogens, improve nutrient absorption, support the development of the immune system and provide components for optimal neurodevelopment. Technologies have become available to obtain these compounds from cow´s milk and the bovine compounds also exhibit bioactivities in humans. Randomized clinical trials with experimental infant formulas incorporating lactoferrin, osteopontin, or milk fat globule membranes have already provided some evidence for clinical benefits. This review aims to compare findings from laboratory and animal experiments with outcomes of clinical studies. There is good justification from basic science and there are promising results from clinical studies for beneficial effects of lactoferrin, osteopontin and the milk fat globule membrane complex of proteins and lipids. Further studies should ideally be adequately powered to investigate effects on clinically relevant endpoints in healthy term infants. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dietary Approaches in the Management of Diabetic Patients with Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 824; doi:10.3390/nu9080824
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 22 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most prevalent complications of diabetes, and patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have a substantially higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death compared to their non-diabetic CKD counterparts. In addition to pharmacologic management strategies, nutritional
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most prevalent complications of diabetes, and patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have a substantially higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death compared to their non-diabetic CKD counterparts. In addition to pharmacologic management strategies, nutritional and dietary interventions in DKD are an essential aspect of management with the potential for ameliorating kidney function decline and preventing the development of other end-organ complications. Among DKD patients with non-dialysis dependent CKD, expert panels recommend lower dietary protein intake of 0.8 g/kg of body weight/day, while higher dietary protein intake (>1.2 g/kg of body weight/day) is advised among diabetic end-stage renal disease patients receiving maintenance dialysis to counteract protein catabolism, dialysate amino acid and protein losses, and protein-energy wasting. Carbohydrates from sugars should be limited to less than 10% of energy intake, and it is also suggested that higher polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat consumption in lieu of saturated fatty acids, trans-fat, and cholesterol are associated with more favorable outcomes. While guidelines recommend dietary sodium restriction to less than 1.5–2.3 g/day, excessively low sodium intake may be associated with hyponatremia as well as impaired glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. As patients with advanced DKD progressing to end-stage renal disease may be prone to the “burnt-out diabetes” phenomenon (i.e., spontaneous resolution of hypoglycemia and frequent hypoglycemic episodes), further studies in this population are particularly needed to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary restrictions in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessReview The Linoleic Acid: Dihomo-γ-Linolenic Acid Ratio (LA:DGLA)—An Emerging Biomarker of Zn Status
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 825; doi:10.3390/nu9080825
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common aliment predicted to affect 17% of the world’s population. Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. Although whole blood, plasma, and urine zinc decrease
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Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common aliment predicted to affect 17% of the world’s population. Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. Although whole blood, plasma, and urine zinc decrease in severe zinc deficiency, accurate assessment of zinc status, especially in mild to moderate deficiency, is difficult as studies with these biomarkers are often contradictory and inconsistent. Hence, as suggested by the World Health Organization, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. In this review, we provide evidence to demonstrate that the LA:DGLA ratio (linoleic acid:dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ratio) may be a useful additional indicator for assessing Zn status more precisely. However, this biomarker needs to be tested further in order to determine its full potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Evaluation of Blood Biomarkers Associated with Risk of Malnutrition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 829; doi:10.3390/nu9080829
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 22 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Malnutrition is a common yet under-recognized problem in hospitalized patients. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and evaluate malnutrition biomarkers among order adults. Eligible studies were identified through Cochrane, PubMed and the ProQuest Dialog. A meta-regression was performed on concentrations
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Malnutrition is a common yet under-recognized problem in hospitalized patients. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and evaluate malnutrition biomarkers among order adults. Eligible studies were identified through Cochrane, PubMed and the ProQuest Dialog. A meta-regression was performed on concentrations of biomarkers according to malnutrition risks classified by validated nutrition assessment tools. A total of 111 studies were included, representing 52,911 participants (55% female, 72 ± 17 years old) from various clinical settings (hospital, community, care homes). The estimated BMI (p < 0.001) and concentrations of albumin (p < 0.001), hemoglobin (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), prealbumin (p < 0.001) and total protein (p < 0.05) among subjects at high malnutrition risk by MNA were significantly lower than those without a risk. Similar results were observed for malnutrition identified by SGA and NRS-2002. A sensitivity analysis by including patients with acute illness showed that albumin and prealbumin concentrations were dramatically reduced, indicating that they must be carefully interpreted in acute care settings. This review showed that BMI, hemoglobin, and total cholesterol are useful biomarkers of malnutrition in older adults. The reference ranges and cut-offs may need to be updated to avoid underdiagnosis of malnutrition. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of the Exclusive Enteral Nutrition on the Microbiota Profile of Patients with Crohn’s Disease: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 832; doi:10.3390/nu9080832
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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The mechanisms behind the efficacy of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in Crohn’s disease (CD) remain poorly understood, despite the high rate of treatment response. Evidence accumulated in the last 20 years suggests that a positive shift of the disrupted microbiota is one of
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The mechanisms behind the efficacy of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in Crohn’s disease (CD) remain poorly understood, despite the high rate of treatment response. Evidence accumulated in the last 20 years suggests that a positive shift of the disrupted microbiota is one of the treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to critically review and summarize data reporting the microbiological effects of EEN in patients with CD. Fourteen studies were considered in the review, overall involving 216 CD patients on EEN. The studies were heterogeneous in methods of microbiota analysis and exclusion criteria. The most frequently reported effect of EEN was a reduction in microbiota diversity, reversible when patients returned to a normal diet. The effect of EEN on specific bacteria was very variable in the different studies, partially due to methodological limitations of the mentioned studies. The EEN seem to induce some metabolomic changes, which are different in long-term responder patients compared to patients that relapse earlier. Bacterial changes can be relevant to explaining the efficacy of EEN; however, microbiological data obtained from rigorously performed studies and derived from last generation techniques are largely inconsistent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
Open AccessReview Food Processing: The Influence of the Maillard Reaction on Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Food Proteins
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 835; doi:10.3390/nu9080835
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and
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The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus influence consumers’ choices. However, in recent years, MRPs have been linked to the increasing prevalence of diet- and inflammation-related non-communicable diseases including food allergy. Although during the last years a better understanding of immunogenicity of MRPs has been achieved, still only little is known about the structural/chemical characteristics predisposing MRPs to interact with antigen presenting cells (APCs). This report provides a comprehensive review of recent studies on the influence of the Maillard reaction on the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Common Genetic Variants Alter Metabolism and Influence Dietary Choline Requirements
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 837; doi:10.3390/nu9080837
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 22 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Nutrient needs, including those of the essential nutrient choline, are a population wide distribution. Adequate Intake (AI) recommendations for dietary choline (put forth by the National Academies of Medicine to aid individuals and groups in dietary assessment and planning) are grouped to account
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Nutrient needs, including those of the essential nutrient choline, are a population wide distribution. Adequate Intake (AI) recommendations for dietary choline (put forth by the National Academies of Medicine to aid individuals and groups in dietary assessment and planning) are grouped to account for the recognized unique needs associated with age, biological sex, and reproductive status (i.e., pregnancy or lactation). Established and emerging evidence supports the notion that common genetic variants are additional factors that substantially influence nutrient requirements. This review summarizes the genetic factors that influence choline requirements and metabolism in conditions of nutrient deprivation, as well as conditions of nutrient adequacy, across biological sexes and reproductive states. Overall, consistent and strong associative evidence demonstrates that common genetic variants in choline and folate pathway enzymes impact the metabolic handling of choline and the risk of nutrient inadequacy across varied dietary contexts. The studies characterized in this review also highlight the substantial promise of incorporating common genetic variants into choline intake recommendations to more precisely target the unique nutrient needs of these subgroups within the broader population. Additional studies are warranted to facilitate the translation of this evidence to nutrigenetics-based dietary approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessReview Health Effects of Carotenoids during Pregnancy and Lactation
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 838; doi:10.3390/nu9080838
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child’s health after birth and during the
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Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child’s health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have also demonstrated the significant role of carotenoids during pregnancy and infancy. Some studies indicate a correlation between carotenoid status and lower risk of pregnancy pathologies induced by intensified oxidative stress, but results of these investigations are equivocal. Carotenoids have been well studied in relation to their beneficial role in the prevention of preeclampsia. It is currently hypothesized that carotenoids can play an important role in the prevention of preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. Carotenoid status in the newborn depends on the nutritional status of the mother, but little is known about the transfer of carotenoids from the mother to the fetus. Carotenoids are among the few nutrients found in breast milk, in which the levels are determined by the mother’s diet. Nutritional status of the newborn directly depends on its diet. Both mix feeding and artificial feeding may cause depletion of carotenoids since infant formulas contain only trace amounts of these compounds. Carotenoids, particularly lutein and zeaxanthin play a significant role in the development of vision and nervous system (among others, they are important for the development of retina as well as energy metabolism and brain electrical activity). Furthermore, more scientific evidence is emerging on the role of carotenoids in the prevention of disorders affecting preterm infants, who are susceptible to oxidative stress, particularly retinopathy of prematurity. Full article
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Open AccessReview Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 840; doi:10.3390/nu9080840
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
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Abstract
After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general
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After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. Full article
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Open AccessReview “Omics” in Human Colostrum and Mature Milk: Looking to Old Data with New Eyes
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 843; doi:10.3390/nu9080843
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract
Human Milk (HM) is the best source for newborn nutrition until at least six months; it exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-infective functions, promotes immune system formation and supports organ development. Breastfeeding could also protect from obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, human colostrum (HC)
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Human Milk (HM) is the best source for newborn nutrition until at least six months; it exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-infective functions, promotes immune system formation and supports organ development. Breastfeeding could also protect from obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, human colostrum (HC) presents a peculiar role in newborn support as a protective effect against allergic and chronic diseases, in addition to long-term metabolic benefits. In this review, we discuss the recent literature regarding “omics” technologies and growth factors (GF) in HC and the effects of pasteurization on its composition. Our aim was to provide new evidence in terms of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics, also in relation to maternal metabolic diseases and/or fetal anomalies and to underline the functions of GF. Since HC results are so precious, particularly for the vulnerable pre-terms category, we also discuss the importance of HM pasteurization to ensure donated HC even to neonates whose mothers are unable to provide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review analyzing in detail the molecular pattern, microbiota, bioactive factors, and dynamic profile of HC, finding clinical correlations of such mediators with their possible in vivo effects and with the consequent impact on neonatal outcomes. Full article
Open AccessReview Personalised Interventions—A Precision Approach for the Next Generation of Dietary Intervention Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 847; doi:10.3390/nu9080847
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 23 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
Diet is a key modifiable risk factor for non-communicable diseases. However, we currently are not benefitting from the full potential of its protective effects. This is due to a number of reasons, including high individual variability in response to certain diets. It is
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Diet is a key modifiable risk factor for non-communicable diseases. However, we currently are not benefitting from the full potential of its protective effects. This is due to a number of reasons, including high individual variability in response to certain diets. It is now well acknowledged that in order to gain the full benefit of dietary regimes it is essential to take into account individual responses. With this in mind, the present review examines the concept of precision nutrition and the performance of n-of-1 studies, and discusses the development of certain approaches that will be critical for development of the concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessReview Cardio-Metabolic Benefits of Plant-Based Diets
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 848; doi:10.3390/nu9080848
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
Cardio-metabolic disease, namely ischemic heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, represent substantial health and economic burdens. Almost one half of cardio-metabolic deaths in the U.S. might be prevented through proper nutrition. Plant-based (vegetarian and vegan) diets are an effective strategy for
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Cardio-metabolic disease, namely ischemic heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, represent substantial health and economic burdens. Almost one half of cardio-metabolic deaths in the U.S. might be prevented through proper nutrition. Plant-based (vegetarian and vegan) diets are an effective strategy for improving nutrient intake. At the same time, they are associated with decreased all-cause mortality and decreased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Evidence suggests that plant-based diets may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events by an estimated 40% and the risk of cerebral vascular disease events by 29%. These diets also reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by about one half. Properly planned vegetarian diets are healthful, effective for weight and glycemic control, and provide metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, including reversing atherosclerosis and decreasing blood lipids and blood pressure. The use of plant-based diets as a means of prevention and treatment of cardio-metabolic disease should be promoted through dietary guidelines and recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Science of Vegetarian Nutrition and Health)
Open AccessReview The Role of Nutritional Aspects in Food Allergy: Prevention and Management
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 850; doi:10.3390/nu9080850
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
The prevalence of food allergy in childhood appears to be increasing in both developed and transitional countries. The aim of this paper is to review and summarise key findings in the prevention and management of food allergy, focusing on the role of dietary
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The prevalence of food allergy in childhood appears to be increasing in both developed and transitional countries. The aim of this paper is to review and summarise key findings in the prevention and management of food allergy, focusing on the role of dietary components and nutritional habits in the development and optimal functioning of the immune system. Essential fatty acids, zinc and vitamin D are likely to enhance the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative barrier and promote immunologic tolerance. Additionally, nutritional components such as pre- and probiotics represent a novel research approach in the attempt to induce a tolerogenic immune environment. For all these reasons, the traditional avoidance diet has been, in recent years, completely reconsidered. New findings on the protective effect of an increased diversity of food introduced in the first year of life on allergic diseases are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to a variety of food antigens during early life might play a role in the development of immune tolerance. Accordingly, therapeutic (and even preventive) interventions should be planned on an individual basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases)
Open AccessReview Role of Microbial Modulation in Management of Atopic Dermatitis in Children
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 854; doi:10.3390/nu9080854
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multifactorial and is a complex interrelationship between skin barrier, genetic predisposition, immunologic development, skin microbiome, environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and psychological factors. Several microbial modulations of the intestinal microbiome with pre- and/or probiotics have been used in
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The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multifactorial and is a complex interrelationship between skin barrier, genetic predisposition, immunologic development, skin microbiome, environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and psychological factors. Several microbial modulations of the intestinal microbiome with pre- and/or probiotics have been used in AD management, with different clinical out-come (both positive, as well as null findings). This review provides an overview of the clinical evidence from trials in children from 2008 to 2017, aiming to evaluate the effect of dietary interventions with pre- and/or pro-biotics for the treatment of AD. By searching the PUBMED/MEDLINE, EMBADE, and COCHRANE databases 14 clinical studies were selected and included within this review. Data extraction was independently conducted by two authors. The primary outcome was an improvement in the clinical score of AD severity. Changes of serum immunological markers and/or gastrointestinal symptoms were explored if available. In these studies some dietary interventions with pre- and/or pro-biotics were beneficial compared to control diets in the management of AD in children, next to treatment with emollients, and/or local corticosteroids. However, heterogeneity between studies was high, making it clear that focused clinical randomized controlled trials are needed to understand the potential role and underlying mechanism of dietary interventions in children with AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases)
Open AccessReview Cell-Surface and Nuclear Receptors in the Colon as Targets for Bacterial Metabolites and Its Relevance to Colon Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 856; doi:10.3390/nu9080856
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
The symbiotic co-habitation of bacteria in the host colon is mutually beneficial to both partners. While the host provides the place and food for the bacteria to colonize and live, the bacteria in turn help the host in energy and nutritional homeostasis, development
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The symbiotic co-habitation of bacteria in the host colon is mutually beneficial to both partners. While the host provides the place and food for the bacteria to colonize and live, the bacteria in turn help the host in energy and nutritional homeostasis, development and maturation of the mucosal immune system, and protection against inflammation and carcinogenesis. In this review, we highlight the molecular mediators of the effective communication between the bacteria and the host, focusing on selective metabolites from the bacteria that serve as messengers to the host by acting through selective receptors in the host colon. These bacterial metabolites include the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate, the tryptophan degradation products indole-3-aldehyde, indole-3-acetic, acid and indole-3-propionic acid, and derivatives of endogenous bile acids. The targets for these bacterial products in the host include the cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109A and the nuclear receptors aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The chemical communication between these bacterial metabolite messengers and the host targets collectively has the ability to impact metabolism, gene expression, and epigenetics in colonic epithelial cells as well as in mucosal immune cells. The end result, for the most part, is the maintenance of optimal colonic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Effects of Vegetables on Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Mechanisms
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 857; doi:10.3390/nu9080857
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular
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Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, and vitamins, essential elements, dietary fibers, botanic proteins and phytochemicals were bioactive components. The cardioprotective effects of vegetables might involve antioxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; regulating blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile; attenuating myocardial damage; and modulating relevant enzyme activities, gene expression, and signaling pathways as well as some other biomarkers associated to cardiovascular diseases. In addition, several vegetables and their bioactive components have been proven to protect against cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials. In this review, we analyze and summarize the effects of vegetables on cardiovascular diseases based on epidemiological studies, experimental research, and clinical trials, which are significant to the application of vegetables in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Bridging the Gap between Gut Microbial Dysbiosis and Cardiovascular Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 859; doi:10.3390/nu9080859
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
The human gut is heavily colonized by a community of microbiota, primarily bacteria, that exists in a symbiotic relationship with the host and plays a critical role in maintaining host homeostasis. The consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet has been shown to induce
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The human gut is heavily colonized by a community of microbiota, primarily bacteria, that exists in a symbiotic relationship with the host and plays a critical role in maintaining host homeostasis. The consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet has been shown to induce gut dysbiosis and reduce intestinal integrity. Recent studies have revealed that dysbiosis contributes to the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by promoting two major CVD risk factors—atherosclerosis and hypertension. Imbalances in host–microbial interaction impair homeostatic mechanisms that regulate health and can activate multiple pathways leading to CVD risk factor progression. Dysbiosis has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis through metabolism-independent and metabolite-dependent pathways. This review will illustrate how these pathways contribute to the various stages of atherosclerotic plaque progression. In addition, dysbiosis can promote hypertension through vascular fibrosis and an alteration of vascular tone. As CVD is the number one cause of death globally, investigating the gut microbiota as a locus of intervention presents a novel and clinically relevant avenue for future research, with vast therapeutic potential. Full article
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Open AccessReview Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Summary of the 2016 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 865; doi:10.3390/nu9080865
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
We summarize the 2016 update of the 2004 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality′s evidence review of omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The overall findings for the effects of marine oil supplements on intermediate CVD outcomes remain largely unchanged. There is
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We summarize the 2016 update of the 2004 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality′s evidence review of omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The overall findings for the effects of marine oil supplements on intermediate CVD outcomes remain largely unchanged. There is high strength of evidence, based on numerous trials, of no significant effects of marine oils on systolic or diastolic blood pressures, but there are small, yet statistically significant increases in high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The clinical significance of these small changes, particularly in combination, is unclear. The strongest effect of marine oils is on triglyceride concentrations. Across studies, this effect was dose-dependent and related to studies′ mean baseline triglyceride concentration. In observational studies, there is low strength of evidence that increased marine oil intake lowers ischemic stroke risk. Among randomized controlled trials and observational studies, there is evidence of variable strength of no association with increased marine oil intake and lower CVD event risk. Evidence regarding alpha-linolenic acid intake is sparser. There is moderate strength of evidence of no effect on blood pressure or lipoprotein concentrations and low strength of evidence of no association with coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessReview The Roles of Vitamin C in Skin Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 866; doi:10.3390/nu9080866
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
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Abstract
The primary function of the skin is to act as a barrier against insults from the environment, and its unique structure reflects this. The skin is composed of two layers: the epidermal outer layer is highly cellular and provides the barrier function, and
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The primary function of the skin is to act as a barrier against insults from the environment, and its unique structure reflects this. The skin is composed of two layers: the epidermal outer layer is highly cellular and provides the barrier function, and the inner dermal layer ensures strength and elasticity and gives nutritional support to the epidermis. Normal skin contains high concentrations of vitamin C, which supports important and well-known functions, stimulating collagen synthesis and assisting in antioxidant protection against UV-induced photodamage. This knowledge is often used as a rationale for the addition of vitamin C to topical applications, but the efficacy of such treatment, as opposed to optimising dietary vitamin C intake, is poorly understood. This review discusses the potential roles for vitamin C in skin health and summarises the in vitro and in vivo research to date. We compare the efficacy of nutritional intake of vitamin C versus topical application, identify the areas where lack of evidence limits our understanding of the potential benefits of vitamin C on skin health, and suggest which skin properties are most likely to benefit from improved nutritional vitamin C intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 894; doi:10.3390/nu9080894
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals,
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There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content. Existing evidence suggests that modulation of human breast milk composition has potential for preventing allergic diseases in early life. In this review, we discuss associations between breastfeeding/human milk composition and allergy development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Applying a Consumer Behavior Lens to Salt Reduction Initiatives
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 901; doi:10.3390/nu9080901
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Reformulation of food products to reduce salt content has been a central strategy for achieving population level salt reduction. In this paper, we reflect on current reformulation strategies and consider how consumer behavior determines the ultimate success of these strategies. We consider the
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Reformulation of food products to reduce salt content has been a central strategy for achieving population level salt reduction. In this paper, we reflect on current reformulation strategies and consider how consumer behavior determines the ultimate success of these strategies. We consider the merits of adopting a ‘health by stealth’, silent approach to reformulation compared to implementing a communications strategy which draws on labeling initiatives in tandem with reformulation efforts. We end this paper by calling for a multi-actor approach which utilizes co-design, participatory tools to facilitate the involvement of all stakeholders, including, and especially, consumers, in making decisions around how best to achieve population-level salt reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
Open AccessReview The Role of MicroRNAs in the Chemopreventive Activity of Sulforaphane from Cruciferous Vegetables
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 902; doi:10.3390/nu9080902
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Colorectal cancer is an increasingly significant cause of mortality whose risk is linked to diet and inversely correlated with cruciferous vegetable consumption. This is likely to be partly attributable to the isothiocyanates derived from eating these vegetables, such as sulforaphane, which is extensively
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Colorectal cancer is an increasingly significant cause of mortality whose risk is linked to diet and inversely correlated with cruciferous vegetable consumption. This is likely to be partly attributable to the isothiocyanates derived from eating these vegetables, such as sulforaphane, which is extensively characterised for cytoprotective and tumour-suppressing activities. However, its bioactivities are likely to extend in complexity beyond those currently known; further insight into these bioactivities could aid the development of sulforaphane-based chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic strategies. Evidence suggests that sulforaphane modulates the expression of microRNAs, many of which are known to regulate genes involved at various stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. Based upon existing knowledge, there exist many plausible mechanisms by which sulforaphane may regulate microRNAs. Thus, there is a strong case for the further investigation of the roles of microRNAs in the anti-cancer effects of sulforaphane. There are several different types of approach to the wide-scale profiling of microRNA differential expression. Array-based methods may involve the use of RT-qPCR or complementary hybridisation probe chips, and tend to be relatively fast and economical. Cloning and deep sequencing approaches are more expensive and labour-intensive, but are worth considering where viable, for their greater sensitivity and ability to detect novel microRNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 906; doi:10.3390/nu9080906
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as
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Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, pica, and rumination. The second is the group of disordered eating symptoms (DES), which include behaviors such as dieting for weight loss, binge eating, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and laxative or diuretic use; these behaviors cannot be categorized as complete diseases, and, although apparently mild, they must be closely evaluated because they can evolve into true EDs. In this review, present knowledge about the clinical relevance of EDs and DES and the possible preventive and therapeutic measures used to reduce their impact on the course of T1D will be discussed. As adolescents with diabetes are at higher risk of eating disturbances and consequently for higher rates of disease complications, care providers should pay attention to clinical warning signs that raise suspicion of disturbed eating to refer these patients early to an expert in nutrition and mental health disorders. To ensure the best care for adolescents with T1D, diabetes teams should be multidisciplinary and include a pediatric diabetologist, a skilled nurse, a dietician, and a psychologist. Full article
Open AccessReview Multi-Targeted Molecular Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Polyphenols: An Opportunity for a Global Approach to Obesity
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 907; doi:10.3390/nu9080907
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
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Abstract
Improper diet can alter gene expression by breaking the energy balance equation and changing metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers, which can result in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. The pleiotropic effects of dietary plant polyphenols are capable of counteracting by modulating different
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Improper diet can alter gene expression by breaking the energy balance equation and changing metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers, which can result in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. The pleiotropic effects of dietary plant polyphenols are capable of counteracting by modulating different key molecular targets at the cell, as well as through epigenetic modifications. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS)-derived polyphenols are known to ameliorate various obesity-related conditions. Recent evidence leads to propose the complex nature of the underlying mechanism of action. This multi-targeted mechanism includes the regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways, transcription factors, hormones and peptides, digestive enzymes, as well as epigenetic modifications. This article reviews the accumulated evidence on the multiple anti-obesity effects of HS polyphenols in cell and animal models, as well as in humans, and its putative molecular targets. In silico studies reveal the capacity of several HS polyphenols to act as putative ligands for different digestive and metabolic enzymes, which may also deserve further attention. Therefore, a global approach including integrated and networked omics techniques, virtual screening and epigenetic analysis is necessary to fully understand the molecular mechanisms of HS polyphenols and metabolites involved, as well as their possible implications in the design of safe and effective polyphenolic formulations for obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview The Effect of Anthocyanin-Rich Foods or Extracts on Vascular Function in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 908; doi:10.3390/nu9080908
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
PDF Full-text (3076 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anthocyanins are of interest due to their anti-oxidative and vasodilatory properties. Earlier reviews have shown that berries and other anthocyanin rich foods or extracts can improve vascular health, however the effect of anthocyanins on vascular function has not yet been reviewed. To address
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Anthocyanins are of interest due to their anti-oxidative and vasodilatory properties. Earlier reviews have shown that berries and other anthocyanin rich foods or extracts can improve vascular health, however the effect of anthocyanins on vascular function has not yet been reviewed. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials examining anthocyanin-rich foods or extracts on measures of vascular reactivity and/or stiffness in adults. Data from 24 studies were pooled as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Anthocyanin consumption significantly improved flow-mediated dilation (FMD) following acute (SMD: 3.92%, 95% CI: 1.47, 6.38, p = 0.002; I2 = 91.8%) and chronic supplementation (SMD: 0.84%, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.12, p = 0.000; I2 = 62.5%). Pulse wave velocity was improved following acute supplementation only (SMD: −1.27 m/s, 95% CI: −1.96, −0.58, p = 0.000; I2 = 17.8%). These results support the findings of previous reviews that anthocyanin rich foods or extracts may indeed improve vascular health, particularly with respect to vascular reactivity measured by FMD. More research is required to determine the optimal dosage, and the long-term effects of consumption. Full article
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Open AccessReview Polyphenolic Nutrients in Cancer Chemoprevention and Metastasis: Role of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal (EMT) Pathway
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 911; doi:10.3390/nu9080911
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer
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The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer metastasis. Polyphenols have been reported to be efficacious in the prevention of cancer and reversing cancer progression. Recently, the antimetastatic efficacy of polyphenols has been reported, thereby expanding the potential use of these compounds beyond chemoprevention. Polyphenols may affect EMT pathways, which are involved in cancer metastasis; for example, polyphenols increase the levels of epithelial markers, but downregulate the mesenchymal markers. Polyphenols also alter the level of expression and functionality of important proteins in other signaling pathways that control cellular mesenchymal characteristics. However, the specific proteins that are directly affected by polyphenols in these signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to analyze current evidence regarding the role of polyphenols in attenuating EMT-mediated cancer progression and metastasis. We also discuss the role of the most important polyphenol subclasses and members of the polyphenols in reversing metastasis and targeting EMT. Finally, limitations and future directions to improve our understanding in this field are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Precision Nutrition: A Review of Personalized Nutritional Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 913; doi:10.3390/nu9080913
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account
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The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account in designing personalized and unbiased nutritional solutions for individuals or population sub-groups. Likewise, a concerted effort among basic, clinical scientists and health professionals will be needed to establish a comprehensive framework allowing the implementation of these new findings at the population level. In a world characterized by an overwhelming increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, tailored nutrition prescription represents a promising approach for both the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. This review aims to discuss recent works in the field of precision nutrition analyzing most relevant aspects affecting an individual response to lifestyle/nutritional interventions. Latest advances in the analysis and monitoring of dietary habits, food behaviors, physical activity/exercise and deep phenotyping will be discussed, as well as the relevance of novel applications of nutrigenomics, metabolomics and microbiota profiling. Recent findings in the development of precision nutrition are highlighted. Finally, results from published studies providing examples of new avenues to successfully implement innovative precision nutrition approaches will be reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
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Open AccessReview Prevention and Therapy of Type 2 Diabetes—What Is the Potential of Daily Water Intake and Its Mineral Nutrients?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 914; doi:10.3390/nu9080914
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
We aim to present an overview of the possible influence of drinking water in general and mineral water in particular in improving glycemic parameters in persons with or without type 2 diabetes. We performed a literature search that produced 15 randomized controlled trials
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We aim to present an overview of the possible influence of drinking water in general and mineral water in particular in improving glycemic parameters in persons with or without type 2 diabetes. We performed a literature search that produced 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic with mainly small sample sizes. We also discuss relevant observational and animal studies as well as the effects of important supplements in mineral water such as hydrogencarbonate and magnesium. There is low evidence for the positive effects of water or mineral water in improving glycemic parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic persons, and the results are heterogenous, making it difficult to reach an unequivocal conclusion. Meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies and other observational studies, studies with animal models and interventional studies using hydrogencarbonate and magnesium supplements suggest a probable positive effect of drinking water and mineral water in particular on glycemic parameters, supporting the positive results found in some of the RCTs, especially those substituting diet beverages or caloric beverages with water, or those using bicarbonate and magnesium-rich water. Regarding the high prevalence, the associated suffering and the resulting health expenditures of type 2 diabetes, it is imperative to conduct larger and more rigorous trials to answer the question whether drinking water or mineral water can improve glycemic parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic persons. Full article
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Open AccessReply Reply to Itkonen and Lamberg-Allardt’s Letter to the Editor Re: McClure et al. Nutrients 2017, 9, 95
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 804; doi:10.3390/nu9080804
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
We appreciate Drs. Itkonen and Lamberg-Allardt’s interest in our recent article “Dietary Sources of Phosphorus among Adults in the United States: Results from NHANES 2001–2014” [1] [...]
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Open AccessLetter Diabetogenic Potential of Ancestral and Modern Wheat Landraces
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 816; doi:10.3390/nu9080816
Received: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Dear Editor, We read with interest the article by Gorelick et al. [1], who assayed the diabetogenic potential of two ancestral wheat landraces (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides and spp. dicoccum), compared to a modern wheat cultivar (T. aestivum) in NOD mice. [...]
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Dear Editor, We read with interest the article by Gorelick et al. [1], who assayed the diabetogenic potential of two ancestral wheat landraces (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides and spp. dicoccum), compared to a modern wheat cultivar (T. aestivum) in NOD mice. [...]
Full article
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Grieger, J.A.; et al.: Comparing the Nutritional Impact of Dietary Strategies to Reduce Discretionary Choice Intake in the Australian Adult Population: A Simulation Modelling Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 442
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 851; doi:10.3390/nu9080851
Received: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
We would like to submit the following correction to our recently published paper [1] because there was an error in the median intake ratio calculation used in the substitution strategies.[...] Full article
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Open AccessComment Comment on: Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-analysis of prospective Studies, Nutrients 2017, 9, 688
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 852; doi:10.3390/nu9080852
Received: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
Shen Yuan et al. [1] highlight the protective cardiometabolic effects of chocolate intake. Without doubt, their work contributes to support evidence about the salutary and wide protective effects of chocolate compounds, particularly flavanols and its derivatives.[...] Full article
Open AccessReply Reply: “Comment on: Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies, Nutrients 2017, 9, 688”
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 855; doi:10.3390/nu9080855
Received: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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To the editor, We would like to thank Dr. Hurtado-Torres for his valuable comments on our article entitled “Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies”, which was published in Nutrients in July 2017 [1].
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To the editor, We would like to thank Dr. Hurtado-Torres for his valuable comments on our article entitled “Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies”, which was published in Nutrients in July 2017 [1]. [...]
Full article
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Gupta, P.M.; et al. Iron, Anemia, and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Young Children in the United States Nutrients 2016, 8, 330
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 876; doi:10.3390/nu9080876
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
We would like to submit the following correction to our recently published paper [1] due to the error in classification of children as anemic [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fortification to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies)
Open AccessBrief Report Diet Quality Scores of Australian Adults Who Have Completed the Healthy Eating Quiz
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 880; doi:10.3390/nu9080880
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
Higher scores obtained using diet quality and variety indices are indicators of more optimal food and nutrient intakes and lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the overall diet quality and variety in a sample of Australian adults
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Higher scores obtained using diet quality and variety indices are indicators of more optimal food and nutrient intakes and lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the overall diet quality and variety in a sample of Australian adults who completed an online diet quality self-assessment tool, the Healthy Eating Quiz. The Healthy Eating Quiz takes approximately five minutes to complete online and computes user responses into a total diet quality score (out of a maximum of 73 points) and then categorizes them into the following groups: ‘needs work’ (<33), ‘getting there’ (33–38), ‘excellent’ (39–46), or ’outstanding’ (47+). There was a total of 93,252 first-time respondents, of which 76% were female. Over 80% of respondents were between 16–44 years of age. The mean total score was 34.1 ± 9.7 points. Females had a higher total score than males (p < 0.001) and vegetarians had higher total scores than non-vegetarians (p < 0.001). Healthy eating quiz scores were higher in those aged 45–75 years compared to 16–44 years (p < 0.001). When comparing Socioeconomic Indices for Areas deciles, those most disadvantaged had a lower total score than those least disadvantaged (p < 0.001). Repeat measures showed that those who scored lowest (needs work) in their first completion increased their total score by 3.2 ± 7.4 at their second completion (p < 0.001). While the Healthy Eating Quiz data indicates that individuals receiving feedback on how to improve their score can improve their diet quality, there is a need for further nutrition promotion interventions in Australian adults. Full article
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Open AccessShort Note The Efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 Probiotic Treatment in Infants with Rotavirus Infection
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 887; doi:10.3390/nu9080887
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
A total of 57 infants hospitalized with rotavirus disease were included in this study. The children were randomly divided into the study’s two treatment groups: three days of the oral administration of (i) a probiotics formula containing both Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus
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A total of 57 infants hospitalized with rotavirus disease were included in this study. The children were randomly divided into the study’s two treatment groups: three days of the oral administration of (i) a probiotics formula containing both Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 (N = 28); or (ii) a placebo (probiotic-free skim milk, N = 29) and the standard therapy for diarrhea. There were no differences in age, sex, or blood characteristics between the two groups. When the 57 cases completed the protocol, the duration of the patients’ diarrhea was significantly shorter in the probiotics group (4.38 ± 1.29, N = 28) than the placebo group (5.61 ± 1.23, N = 29), with a p-value of 0.001. Symptoms such as duration of fever (p = 0.119), frequency of diarrhea (p = 0.119), and frequency of vomiting (p = 0.331) tended to be ameliorated by the probiotic treatment; however, differences were not statistically significant between the two groups. There were no serious, adverse events and no differences in the frequency of adverse events in both groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
Open AccessConcept Paper Dynamic Energy Balance: An Integrated Framework for Discussing Diet and Physical Activity in Obesity Prevention—Is it More than Eating Less and Exercising More?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 905; doi:10.3390/nu9080905
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA
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Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not fully understand their impact on energy flux and how diet alters energy expenditure and energy expenditure alters diet. Many nutrition educators have little training in exercise science; thus, they may not have the knowledge essential to understanding the benefits of PA for health or weight management beyond burning calories. This paper highlights the importance of advancing nutrition educators’ understanding about PA, and its synergistic role with diet, and the value of incorporating a dynamic energy balance approach into obesity-prevention programs. Five key points are highlighted: (1) the concept of dynamic vs. static energy balance; (2) the role of PA in weight management; (3) the role of PA in appetite regulation; (4) the concept of energy flux; and (5) the integration of dynamic energy balance into obesity prevention programs. The rationale for the importance of understanding the physiological relationship between PA and diet for effective obesity prevention programming is also reviewed. Full article
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