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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Effect of Altering Dietary n-6:n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio with Plant and Marine-Based Supplement on Biomarkers of Bone Turnover in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101162
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Although there is accumulating evidence for a protective role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on bone health, there are limited studies that examine the effect of altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio with plant and marine
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Although there is accumulating evidence for a protective role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on bone health, there are limited studies that examine the effect of altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio with plant and marine sources of n-3 PUFA on bone health. Healthy adults (n = 24) were randomized into an eight-week crossover study with a four-week washout between treatments, with each subject consuming three of four diets. The four diets differed in the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios and either had an algal oil supplement added or not: (Control diet (10:1); α-linolenic acid (ALA) diet (2:1); Eicosapentaenoic acid/Docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) diet (10:1 plus supplement (S) containing EPA/DHA; Combination diet (2:1 + S)). The supplement was microalgae oil that provided 1 g EPA + DHA/day. Flaxseed oil and walnuts provided 8.6 g of ALA/day in the 2:1 diets. Serum levels of c-telopeptide (CTX), procollagen Type I N-terminal peptide, and osteocalcin showed significant correlation with age but none of the bone markers or peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ mRNA expression was significantly different between the diets. Serum CTX was negatively associated with red blood cell membrane linoleic acid and ALA and positively associated with membrane DHA. Neither altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio from a 10:1 to a 2:1 ratio nor adding EPA/DHA supplement significantly changed bone turnover in the short term in healthy adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Flavonoid Naringenin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Improves Neurotrophic Effects in the Diabetic Rat Retina
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101161
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness worldwide. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is believed to be the key factor that initiates neuronal damage in the diabetic retina leading to DR. Experimental approaches to utilize dietary flavonoids, which
[...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness worldwide. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is believed to be the key factor that initiates neuronal damage in the diabetic retina leading to DR. Experimental approaches to utilize dietary flavonoids, which possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant activities, might protect the retinal damage in diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of naringenin in the retina of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were orally treated and untreated with naringenin (50 mg/kg/day) for five weeks and retinas were analyzed for markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurotrophic factors. Systemic effects of naringenin treatments were also analyzed and compared with untreated groups. The results showed that elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and decreased level of glutathione (GSH) in diabetic rats were ameliorated with naringenin treatments. Moreover, decreased levels of neuroprotective factors (Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)), tropomyosin related kinase B (TrkB) and synaptophysin in diabetic retina were augmented with naringenin treatments. In addition, naringenin treatment ameliorated the levels of apoptosis regulatory proteins; B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 in the diabetic retina. Thus, the study demonstrates the beneficial effects of naringenin that possesses anti-diabetic, antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, which may limit neurodegeneration by providing neurotrophic support to prevent retinal damage in diabetic retinopathy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Diosgenin-Rich Yam Extract Enhances Cognitive Function: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study of Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101160
Received: 17 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Diosgenin, a yam-derived compound, was found to facilitate the repair of axonal atrophy and synaptic degeneration and improve memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It was also found to enhance neuronal excitation and memory function even in normal
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Diosgenin, a yam-derived compound, was found to facilitate the repair of axonal atrophy and synaptic degeneration and improve memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It was also found to enhance neuronal excitation and memory function even in normal mice. We hypothesized that diosgenin, either isolated or in an extract, may represent a new category of cognitive enhancers with essential activities that morphologically and functionally reinforce neuronal networks. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a diosgenin-rich yam extract on cognitive enhancement in healthy volunteers. For this placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy volunteers (age: 20–81 years) were recruited from Toyama Prefecture, Japan, and was randomly assigned to receive either a yam extract or placebo. Preliminary functional animal experiments indicated that an oil solvent mediated the most efficient distribution of diosgenin into the blood and brain after oral administration, and was a critical factor in the cognitive benefits. Therefore, test samples (placebo and yam extract) were prepared with olive oil and formulated as soft capsules. The intake period was 12 weeks, and a 6-week washout period separated the two crossover intake periods. The Japanese version of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) test was used for neurocognitive assessment, and the adverse effects were monitored through blood testing. Diosgenin-rich yam extract consumption for 12 weeks yielded significant increases in total RBANS score. Among the 12 individual standard cognitive subtests, diosgenin-rich yam extract use significantly improved the semantic fluency. No adverse effects were reported. The diosgenin-rich yam extract treatment appeared to safely enhance cognitive function in healthy adults. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Muscle Glycogen Content in Rats Seven Days after Eccentric Contraction
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101159
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, which impairs recovery of glycogen and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content over several days. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) enhance the recovery in muscles that are damaged after eccentric contractions. However, the role of LEAAs in this process remains
[...] Read more.
Eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, which impairs recovery of glycogen and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content over several days. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) enhance the recovery in muscles that are damaged after eccentric contractions. However, the role of LEAAs in this process remains unclear. We evaluated the content in glycogen and high energy phosphates molecules (phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine di-phosphate (ADP) and ATP) in rats that were following electrically stimulated eccentric contractions. Muscle glycogen content decreased immediately after the contraction and remained low for the first three days after the stimulation, but increased seven days after the eccentric contraction. LEAAs administration did not change muscle glycogen content during the first three days after the contraction. Interestingly, however, it induced a further increase in muscle glycogen seven days after the stimulation. Contrarily, ATP content decreased immediately after the eccentric contraction, and remained lower for up to seven days after. Additionally, LEAAs administration did not affect the ATP content over the experimental period. Finally, ADP and PCr levels did not significantly change after the contractions or LEAA administration. LEAAs modulate the recovery of glycogen content in muscle after damage-inducing exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessReview Probiotic Modulation of Innate Cell Pathogen Sensing and Signaling Events
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101156
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which
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There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which have appreciable influence on homeostasis, inflammatory- and suppressive-immunopathology. What is becoming apparent is the ability of these probiotics to modulate innate immune responses via direct or indirect effects on the signaling pathways that drive these activatory or suppressive/tolerogenic mechanisms. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics on signaling pathways in innate immune cells: from positive to negative regulation associated with innate immune cells driving gut mucosal functionality. Research investigations have shown probiotics to modulate innate functionality in many ways including, receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding to and expression of adaptor proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, induction of micro-RNAs, endotoxin tolerisation and finally, the secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, lipids and metabolites. The detailed understanding of the immunomodulatory signaling effects of probiotic strains will facilitate strain-specific selective manipulation of innate cell signal mechanisms in the modulation of mucosal adjuvanticity, immune deviation and tolerisation in both healthy subjects and patients with inflammatory and suppressive pathology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Micellar Incorporation and the Intestinal Cell Uptake of Cholecalciferol, 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol and 1-α-Hydroxycholecalciferol
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101152
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
In the context of the global prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, we compared two key determinants of the bioavailability of 3 vitamin D forms with significant biopotencies: cholecalciferol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol. To this aim, we studied their incorporation into synthetic mixed micelles and
[...] Read more.
In the context of the global prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, we compared two key determinants of the bioavailability of 3 vitamin D forms with significant biopotencies: cholecalciferol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol. To this aim, we studied their incorporation into synthetic mixed micelles and their uptake by intestinal cells in culture. Our results show that 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol was significantly more solubilized into mixed micelles compared to the other forms (1.6-fold and 2.9-fold improvement compared to cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, respectively). In Caco-2 TC7 cells, the hydroxylated forms were taken up more efficiently than cholecalciferol (p < 0.05), and conversely to cholecalciferol, their uptake was neither SR-BI(Scavenger-Receptor class B type I)- nor NPC1L1 (NPC1 like intracellular cholesterol transporter 1)-dependent. Besides, the apical membrane sodium–bile acid transporter ASBT (Apical Sodium-dependent Bile acid Transporter) was not involved, at least in vitro, in the uptake of any of the three vitamin D forms. Further investigations are needed to identify the uptake pathways of both 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. However, considering its high bioavailability, our results suggest the potential interest of using 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol in the treatment of severe vitamin D deficiency. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fatty Acids Consumption: The Role Metabolic Aspects Involved in Obesity and Its Associated Disorders
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101158
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are
[...] Read more.
Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are proposed to treat and prevent these disorders. Some studies demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFA) are considered detrimental for treating these disorders. A high fat diet rich in palmitic acid, a SFA, is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and it may also increase atherosclerosis parameters. On the other hand, a high intake of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids may promote positive effects, especially on triglyceride levels and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are effective at limiting the hepatic steatosis process through a series of biochemical events, such as reducing the markers of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increasing the gene expression of lipid metabolism, decreasing lipogenic activity, and releasing adiponectin. This current review shows that the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, MUFA, and PUFA, and especially EPA and DHA, which can be applied as food supplements, may promote effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as on metabolic inflammation, gut microbiota, and hepatic metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA) of Foodservice Operation, Dietary Life Education, and Nutrition Counseling Tasks of Nutrition Teachers and Dietitians in Jeju, Korea
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101157
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze foodservice operation, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians in elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju, Korea, and to provide effective ways to implement dietary life education and nutrition
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The purpose of this study was to analyze foodservice operation, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians in elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju, Korea, and to provide effective ways to implement dietary life education and nutrition counseling in schools. This study surveyed 94 nutrition teachers and 46 dietitians working at elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju during 7–14 May 2015. The importance and performance of 16 tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians were measured using questionnaires. The data was analyzed by using the SPSS software and Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA). Importance was ranked in the order of foodservice operation (4.72), dietary life education (4.37), and nutrition counseling (4.24); and performance was ranked in the order of foodservice operation (4.48), dietary life education (3.70), and nutrition counseling (3.22). The importance–performance matrix showed that in Quadrant 4, the “Concentrate Here” item was “nutrition and dietary life education for students”, while in Quadrant 2, the “Possible Overkill” item was “cost control and office management”. These findings suggest that it is important to reduce unnecessary administrative and office management tasks in order for nutrition teachers and dietitians to implement effective nutrition education, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling programs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Diet Quality and Adiposity in the Atlantic PATH Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101155
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
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The aim of this study was to examine diet quality among participants in the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (PATH) cohort and to assess the association with adiposity. Data were collected from participants (n = 23,768) aged 35–69 years that were residents
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The aim of this study was to examine diet quality among participants in the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (PATH) cohort and to assess the association with adiposity. Data were collected from participants (n = 23,768) aged 35–69 years that were residents of the Atlantic Canadian provinces. Both measured and self-reported data were used to examine adiposity (including body mass index (BMI), abdominal obesity, waist-to-hip ratio and fat mass) and food frequency questionnaires were used to assess diet quality. Overall, diet quality was statistically different among provinces. Of concern, participants across all the provinces reported consuming only 1–2 servings of vegetables and 1–2 servings fruit per day. However, participants also reported some healthy dietary choices such as consuming more servings of whole grains than refined grains, and eating at fast food restaurants ≤1 per month. Significant differences in BMI, body weight, percentage body fat, and fat mass index were also observed among provinces. Adiposity measures were positively associated with consumption of meat/poultry, fish, snack food, sweeteners, diet soft drinks, and frequenting fast food restaurants, and inversely associated with consumption of whole grains and green tea. Although all four provinces are in the Atlantic region, diet quality vary greatly among provinces and are associated with adiposity. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Prevalence and Predictors of Dietary Supplement Use in the Australian Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101154
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Current dietary supplement use in Australia is not well described. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of supplement use in the Australian population (n = 19,257) using data from the 2014–2015 National Health Survey. We reported the prevalence of supplement use by
[...] Read more.
Current dietary supplement use in Australia is not well described. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of supplement use in the Australian population (n = 19,257) using data from the 2014–2015 National Health Survey. We reported the prevalence of supplement use by sex and age group and investigated the independent predictors of supplement use in adults, adolescents, and children using multiple logistic regression models. A total of 43.2% of adults (34.9% of males, 50.3% of females), 20.1% of adolescents (19.7% of males, 20.6% of females), and 23.5% of children (24.4% of males, 22.5% of females) used at least one dietary supplement in the previous two weeks. The most commonly used supplements were multivitamins and/or multiminerals and fish oil preparations. In adults, independent predictors of supplement use included being female, increasing age, being born outside Australia and other main English-speaking countries, having a higher education level, having a healthy BMI compared to those who were obese, being physically active, and being a non-smoker. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed investigation of dietary supplement use in a nationally-representative sample of the Australian population. Future studies investigating the contribution of supplements to overall dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Multivariable Analysis of Nutritional and Socio-Economic Profiles Shows Differences in Incident Anemia for Northern and Southern Jiangsu in China
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101153
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anemia is a prevalent public health problem associated with nutritional and socio-economic factors that contribute to iron deficiency. To understand the complex interplay of risk factors, we investigated a prospective population sample from the Jiangsu province in China. At baseline, three-day food intake
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Anemia is a prevalent public health problem associated with nutritional and socio-economic factors that contribute to iron deficiency. To understand the complex interplay of risk factors, we investigated a prospective population sample from the Jiangsu province in China. At baseline, three-day food intake was measured for 2849 individuals (20 to 87 years of age, mean age 47 ± 14, range 20–87 years, 64% women). At a five-year follow-up, anemia status was re-assessed for 1262 individuals. The dataset was split and age-matched to accommodate cross-sectional (n = 2526), prospective (n = 837), and subgroup designs (n = 1844). We applied a machine learning framework (self-organizing map) to define four subgroups. The first two subgroups were primarily from the less affluent North: the High Fibre subgroup had a higher iron intake (35 vs. 21 mg/day) and lower anemia incidence (10% vs. 25%) compared to the Low Vegetable subgroup. However, the predominantly Southern subgroups were surprising: the Low Fibre subgroup showed a lower anemia incidence (10% vs. 27%), yet also a lower iron intake (20 vs. 28 mg/day) compared to the High Rice subgroup. These results suggest that interventions and iron intake guidelines should be tailored to regional, nutritional, and socio-economic subgroups. Full article
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Open AccessReview Neural and Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Controlling the Quality of Feeding Behavior: Diet Selection and Feeding Patterns
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101151
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
We are what we eat. There are three aspects of feeding: what, when, and how much. These aspects represent the quantity (how much) and quality (what and when) of feeding. The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily
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We are what we eat. There are three aspects of feeding: what, when, and how much. These aspects represent the quantity (how much) and quality (what and when) of feeding. The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily determined by the balance between caloric intake and expenditure. In contrast, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the qualitative aspects of feeding, although they also significantly impact the control of weight and health. However, two aspects of feeding quality relevant to weight loss and weight regain are discussed in this review: macronutrient-based diet selection (what) and feeding pattern (when). This review covers the importance of these two factors in controlling weight and health, and the central mechanisms that regulate them. The relatively limited and fragmented knowledge on these topics indicates that we lack an integrated understanding of the qualitative aspects of feeding behavior. To promote better understanding of weight control, research efforts must focus more on the mechanisms that control the quality and quantity of feeding behavior. This understanding will contribute to improving dietary interventions for achieving weight control and for preventing weight regain following weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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Open AccessArticle Zinc Supplementation Improves Glucose Homeostasis in High Fat-Fed Mice by Enhancing Pancreatic β-Cell Function
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101150
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Zinc is an essential component of the insulin granule and it possibly modulates insulin secretion and signaling. Since insulin resistance is a hallmark in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this study aimed at investigating if zinc supplementation is able to improve
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Zinc is an essential component of the insulin granule and it possibly modulates insulin secretion and signaling. Since insulin resistance is a hallmark in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this study aimed at investigating if zinc supplementation is able to improve glucose tolerance and β-cell function in a model of insulin resistance. Male C57BL/6 mice were distributed in four groups according to the diet: normal fat (NF); normal fat supplemented with ZnCl2 (NFZ); high-fat (HF); and, high-fat chow supplemented with ZnCl2 (HFZ). Intraperitoneal glucose (ipGTT) and insulin (ipITT) tolerance, glycemia, insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were determined after 15 weeks in each diet. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was investigated in isolated islets. The insulin effect on glucose uptake, metabolism, and signaling was investigated in soleus muscle. ZnCl2 did not affect body mass or insulin sensitivity as assessed by ipITT, HOMA-IR, muscle glucose metabolism, and Akt and GSK3-β phosphorylation. However, glucose tolerance, HOMA-β, and GSIS were significantly improved by ZnCl2 supplementation. Therefore, ZnCl2 supplementation improves glucose homeostasis in high fat-fed mice by a mechanism that enhances β-cell function, rather than whole-body or muscle insulin sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Body Weight Cycling with Identical Diet Composition Does Not Affect Energy Balance and Has No Adverse Effect on Metabolic Health Parameters
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101149
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Background: Body weight (BW) cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters
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Background: Body weight (BW) cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters measured, and definitions of BW cycling. Here, we examined the effect of repetitive BW cycling versus single- and non-cycling control groups, without alterations in diet composition, on steady state BW and metabolic parameters. Methods: We induced well-defined BW cycles on a semi-purified high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, a well-described animal model for diet-induced obesity, and measured energy expenditure and relevant metabolic parameters. Results: Our setup indeed resulted in the intended BW changes and always reached a stage of energy balance. A history of weight cycling did not result in increased BW or fat mass compared with the control group, nor in deteriorated serum concentrations of glucose, adipokines and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. If anything, BW tended to be reduced, presumably because of a reduced overall energy intake in BW cycling animals. Conclusion: Repeated cycling in BW without changes in diet composition does not lead to impaired metabolic health nor increased BW (gain). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of a Weight Loss Intervention on Diet Quality and Eating Behaviours in People with Obesity and COPD
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101147
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index;
[...] Read more.
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status. This sub-study aims to evaluate the intervention by (a) examining changes in dietary intake and nutritional biomarkers and (b) examining predictors of weight loss. Dietary intake was evaluated using four-day food diaries, and analysis of plasma fatty acids and plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of dietary fat intake and fruit and vegetable intake, respectively. Twenty-eight obese COPD subjects (n = 17 males, n = 11 females) with a mean (standard deviation; SD) age of 67.6 (6.3) years completed the 12-week weight loss intervention. Pre-intervention, mean (SD) BMI was 36.3 (4.6) kg/m2. Micronutrient intake improved from pre- to post-intervention, with the percentage of subjects meeting the Nutrient Reference Values increased for all micronutrients. Post-intervention, significant decreases in total (p = 0.009) and saturated fat intake (p = 0.037), and corresponding decreases in total (p = 0.007) and saturated plasma fatty acids (p = 0.003) were observed. There was a trend towards higher total carotenoids post-intervention (p = 0.078). Older age (p = 0.025), higher pre-intervention uncontrolled eating (p < 0.001) and plasma carotenoids (p = 0.009) predicted weight loss. This demonstrates the efficacy of a weight loss intervention in improving diet quality of obese COPD adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Fat Diet with a High Monounsaturated Fatty Acid and Polyunsaturated/Saturated Fatty Acid Ratio Suppresses Body Fat Accumulation and Weight Gain in Obese Hamsters
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101148
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high fat diet with experimental oil consisting of 60% MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) with a P/S ratio of 5 on fat deposition and lipid metabolism in obese hamsters. Hamsters were randomly
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high fat diet with experimental oil consisting of 60% MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) with a P/S ratio of 5 on fat deposition and lipid metabolism in obese hamsters. Hamsters were randomly assigned to a control group and a diet-induced obesity group for nine weeks. Then an additional eight-week experimental period began, during which obese hamsters were randomly divided into three groups and fed different amounts of the experimental oil mixture in their diets as follows: 5%, 15%, and 20% w/w (OB-M5, OB-M15, and OB-M20 groups, respectively). The results showed that the OB-M15 and OB-M20 groups had significantly lower blood cholesterol and higher insulin levels. Compared to the control group, the three obese groups exhibited higher hepatic fatty acid synthase activity; however, the acyl-CoA oxidase activities were also enhanced. Although dietary fat content differed, there were no differences in energy intake, final body weights, and epididymal fat weights among the four groups. These results suggest that regardless of whether the specimens had a high fat intake or not, dietary fat containing high MUFAs with a high P/S ratio had beneficial effects on maintaining blood lipid profiles and may not result in body fat accumulation in obese hamsters, possibly by promoting lipolytic enzyme activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Curcumin on the Diversity of Gut Microbiota in Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101146
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Curcumin has been proven to have a weight-loss effect in a menopausal rat model induced by ovariectomy. However, the effects of curcumin on gut microfloral communities of ovariectomized (OVX) rats remains unclear. Here, we used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing to explore the effects
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Curcumin has been proven to have a weight-loss effect in a menopausal rat model induced by ovariectomy. However, the effects of curcumin on gut microfloral communities of ovariectomized (OVX) rats remains unclear. Here, we used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing to explore the effects of curcumin on microbial diversity in the gut of OVX rats. Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM group). The OVX rats were treated with vehicle (OVX group) or curcumin (CUR group) by oral gavage. After 12-week treatments, the weights of the bodies and uteri of rats were recorded, the levels of estradiol in the serum were assayed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Then, the fragments encompassing V3–V4 16S rDNA hypervariable regions were PCR amplified from fecal samples, and the PCR products of V3–V4 were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq for characterization of the gut microbiota. Our results showed that, compared to rats in the SHAM group, rats in the OVX group had more weight gain and lower levels of estradiol in the serum, and curcumin could cause significant weight loss in OVX rats but did not increase the levels of estradiol. Sequencing results revealed the presence of 1120, 1114, and 1119 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found in the SHAM, OVX, and CUR groups, respectively. The percentage of shared OTUs was 86.1603%. Gut microbiota of rats from the SHAM or CUR group had higher levels of biodiversity and unevenness estimations than those from the OVX group. At the phyla level, compared to rats in SHAM group, rats in the OVX group had a higher ratio of phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut; at the genus level, four differential gut microbiota (Incertae_Sedis, Anaerovorax, Anaerotruncus, and Helicobacter) between SHAM and OVX groups were found, whereas seven differential gut microbiota (Serratia, Anaerotruncus, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Papillibacter, Exiguobacterium, and Helicobacter) between OVX and CUR groups were found. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency induced by ovariectomy caused changes in the distribution and structure of intestinal microflora in rats, and curcumin could partially reverse changes in the diversity of gut microbiota. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Brain and Hepatic Mt mRNA Is Reduced in Response to Mild Energy Restriction and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency in Juvenile Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101145
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Metallothioneins (MTs) perform important regulatory and cytoprotective functions in tissues including the brain. While it is known that energy restriction (ER) and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency impact postnatal brain growth and development, little data exist regarding the impact of
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Metallothioneins (MTs) perform important regulatory and cytoprotective functions in tissues including the brain. While it is known that energy restriction (ER) and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency impact postnatal brain growth and development, little data exist regarding the impact of undernutrition upon MT expression in growing animals. We tested the hypothesis that ER with and without dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency reduces MT expression in juvenile rats. ER rats were individually pair-fed at 75% of the ad libitum (AL) intake of control rats provided diets consisting of either soybean oil (SO) that is α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) sufficient or corn oil (CO; ALA-deficient). Fatty acids (FA) and metal concentrations of liver and brain regions were analyzed. Tissue expression of MTs (Mt1-3) and modulators of MT expression including glucocorticoid receptors (Nr3c1 and Nr3c2) and several mediators of thyroid hormone regulation (Dio1-3, Mct8, Oatp1c1, Thra, and Thrb) were measured. Plasma corticosterone and triiodothyronine levels were also evaluated. ER, but not metal deficiency, reduced Mt2 expression in the cerebellum (50%) and cerebral cortex (23%). In liver, a reduction in dietary n-3 PUFA reduced Mt1, Mt2, Nr3c1, Mct8, and Thrb. ER elevated Nr3c1, Dio1, and Thrb and reduced Thra in the liver. Given MT’s role in cellular protection, further studies are needed to evaluate whether ER or n-3 PUFA deficiency may leave the juvenile brain and/or liver more susceptible to endogenous or environmental stressors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Migration Rate Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cells Treated by Caffeic Acid and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: An In Vitro Comparison Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101144
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
One of the deadliest cancers among women is a breast cancer. Research has shown that two natural substances occurring in propolis, caffeic acid (CA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), have significant anticancer effects. The purpose of our in vitro study was to
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One of the deadliest cancers among women is a breast cancer. Research has shown that two natural substances occurring in propolis, caffeic acid (CA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), have significant anticancer effects. The purpose of our in vitro study was to compare cytotoxic activity and migration rate inhibition using CA and CAPE (doses of 50 and 100 µm) against triple-negative, MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma line cells, drawn from Caucasian women. Viability was measured by XTT-NR-SRB assay (Tetrazolium hydroxide-Neutral Red-Sulforhodamine B) for 24 h and 48 h periods. Cell migration for wound healing assay was taken for 0 h, 8 h, 16 h, and 24 h periods. CAPE displayed more than two times higher cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 cells. IC50 values for the XTT assay were as follows: CA for 24 h and 48 h were 150.94 µM and 108.42 µM, respectively, while CAPE was 68.82 µM for 24 h and 55.79 µM for 48 h. For the NR assay: CA was 135.85 µM at 24 h and 103.23 µM at 48 h, while CAPE was 64.04 µM at 24 h and 53.25 µM at 48 h. For the SRB assay: CA at 24 h was 139.80 µM and at 48 h 103.98 µM, while CAPE was 66.86 µM at 24 h and 47.73 µM at 48 h. Both agents suspended the migration rate; however, CAPE displayed better activity. Notably, for the 100 µM CAPE dose, motility of the tested breast carcinoma cells was halted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Association of Vitamin E Levels with Metabolic Syndrome, and MRI-Derived Body Fat Volumes and Liver Fat Content
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101143
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
We aimed to relate circulating α- and γ-tocopherol levels to a broad spectrum of adiposityrelated traits in a cross-sectional Northern German study. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and adipose tissue volumes and liver fat were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 641 individuals (mean
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We aimed to relate circulating α- and γ-tocopherol levels to a broad spectrum of adiposityrelated traits in a cross-sectional Northern German study. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and adipose tissue volumes and liver fat were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 641 individuals (mean age 61 years; 40.6% women). Concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to assess associations of circulating α- and γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio levels with visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), liver signal intensity (LSI), fatty liver disease (FLD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and its individual components. The α- tocopherol/cholesterol ratio was positively associated with VAT (β scaled by interquartile range (IQR): 0.036; 95%Confidence Interval (CI): 0.0003; 0.071) and MetS (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.83; 95% CI: 1.21–2.76 for 3rd vs. 1st tertile), and the γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio was positively associated with VAT (β scaled by IQR: 0.066; 95% CI: 0.027; 0.104), SAT (β scaled by IQR: 0.048; 95% CI: 0.010; 0.087) and MetS (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.23–2.84 for 3rd vs. 1st tertile). α- and γ-tocopherol levels were positively associated with high triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all Ptrend < 0.05). No association of α- and γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio with LSI/FLD was observed. Circulating vitamin E levels displayed strong associations with VAT and MetS. These observations lay the ground for further investigation in longitudinal studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Piceatannol from Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Seeds on Metabolic Health in Humans
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101142
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of piceatannol on metabolic health; however, there is a lack of human studies designed to examine these effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on metabolic health in humans. This
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Animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of piceatannol on metabolic health; however, there is a lack of human studies designed to examine these effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on metabolic health in humans. This randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 39 subjects, including 10 overweight men and 9 overweight women (BMI ≥ 25), as well as 10 non-overweight men and 10 non-overweight women (BMI < 25). Subjects received piceatannol (20 mg/day) or placebo capsules for eight weeks in a random order. The primary outcome was the effect of piceatannol on glucose-metabolism, including insulin sensitivity. The secondary outcomes were the effects on other parameters, including blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1 and phospho-AMP-activated kinase (p-AMPK) expression in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). Supplementation with piceatannol in overweight men reduced serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, BP and HR. Other groups, including non-overweight men, as well as overweight and non-overweight women, showed no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, BP and HR. Furthermore, piceatannol is not associated with other data, including body weight (BW), body composition, endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1/p-AMPK expression in PBMNCs. In conclusion, supplementation with piceatannol can improve metabolic health, including insulin sensitivity, BP and HR, in overweight men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101141
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
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Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English were selected if they had any pair of interventions (calcium, vitamin D, both, or placebo). Systematic review with two-step network-meta-analysis was used to indirectly estimate supplementary effects. Twenty-seven RCTs with 28,000 women were eligible. A direct meta-analysis suggested that calcium, vitamin D, and calcium plus vitamin D could lower risk of preeclampsia when compared to placebo with the pooled risk ratios (RRs) of 0.54 (0.41, 0.70), 0.47 (0.24, 0.89) and 0.50 (0.32, 0.78), respectively. Results of network meta-analysis were similar with the corresponding RRs of 0.49 (0.35, 0.69), 0.43 (0.17, 1.11), and 0.57 (0.30, 1.10), respectively. None of the controls were significant. Efficacy of supplementation, which was ranked by surface under cumulative ranking probabilities, were: vitamin D (47.4%), calcium (31.6%) and calcium plus vitamin D (19.6%), respectively. Calcium supplementation may be used for prevention for preeclampsia. Vitamin D might also worked well but further large scale RCTs are warranted to confirm our findings. Full article
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Open AccessReview Qualitative Studies of Infant and Young Child Feeding in Lower-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101140
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Continued high rates of both under- and over-nutrition in low- and low-middle-income countries highlight the importance of understanding dietary practices such as early and exclusive breastfeeding, and dietary patterns such as timely, appropriate complementary feeding—these behaviors are rooted in complex cultural ecologies. A
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Continued high rates of both under- and over-nutrition in low- and low-middle-income countries highlight the importance of understanding dietary practices such as early and exclusive breastfeeding, and dietary patterns such as timely, appropriate complementary feeding—these behaviors are rooted in complex cultural ecologies. A systematic review and synthesis of available qualitative research related to infant and young child dietary patterns and practices from the perspective of parents and families in low income settings is presented, with a focus on barriers and facilitators to achieving international recommendations. Data from both published and grey literature from 2006 to 2016 was included in the review. Quality assessment consisted of two phases (Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) guidelines and assessment using GRADE-CERQual), followed by synthesis of the studies identified, and subsequent thematic analysis and interpretation. The findings indicated several categories of both barriers and facilitators, spanning individual and system level factors. The review informs efforts aimed at improving child health and nutrition, and represents the first such comprehensive review of the qualitative literature, uniquely suited to understanding complex behaviors leading to infant and young child dietary patterns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intrauterine Zn Deficiency Favors Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Increasing Effects on Thyrotropin Serum Levels and Induces Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Weaned Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101139
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient) develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, but
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Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient) develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH) levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII) in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH). PPII is an enzyme that degrades thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). This hypothalamic peptide stimulates its receptor in adenohypophysis, thereby increasing TSH release. We analyzed whether earlier low TH is responsible for the high TSH levels reported in adults, or if TRH release is enhanced by Zn deficiency at weaning. Dams were fed a 2 ppm Zn-deficient diet in the period from one week prior to gestation and up to three weeks after delivery. We found a high release of hypothalamic TRH, which along with reduced MBH PPII activity, increased TSH levels in Zn-deficient pups independently of changes in TH concentration. We found that primary hypothyroidism did not develop in intrauterine Zn-deficient weaned rats and we confirmed that metal deficiency enhances TSH levels since early-life, favoring subclinical hypothyroidism development which remains into adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101138
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis
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The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nutritional Implications: Special Focus on Copper
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101137
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excess lipids in hepatocytes, due to excessive fatty acid influx from adipose tissue, de novo hepatic lipogenesis, in addition to excessive dietary fat and carbohydrate intake. Chronic hepatic lipid overload induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excess lipids in hepatocytes, due to excessive fatty acid influx from adipose tissue, de novo hepatic lipogenesis, in addition to excessive dietary fat and carbohydrate intake. Chronic hepatic lipid overload induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and cellular damage leading the development of NAFLD into a more severe liver disease condition, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH). In turn, this can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among others, copper is one of the main bio-metals required for the preponderance of the enzymes involved in physiological redox reactions, which primarily occurs during mitochondrial respiration. Thus, copper homeostasis could be considered a target point for counteracting the progression of NAFLD. Accordingly, many diseases are correlated to unbalanced copper levels and, actually, some clinical trials are examining the use of copper chelating agents. Currently, no pharmacological interventions are approved for NAFLD, but nutritional and lifestyle modifications are always recommended. Fittingly, antioxidant food agents recognized to improve NAFLD and its complications have been described in the literature to bind copper. Therefore, this review describes the role of nutrition in the development and progression of NAFLD with a particular focus on copper and copper-binding antioxidant compounds against NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle A National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) for the Dutch Population: Rationale behind the Design
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101136
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs,
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The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs, we developed a comprehensive National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) detailing information about the level and variation in dietary intake of people 20–70 years old in the general Dutch population. This paper describes the methods and characteristics of the population included in the NDARD database. A total of 1063 men and 985 women agreed to participate in this study. Dietary intake data were collected using different FFQs, web-based and telephone-based 24-h recalls, as well as blood and urine-based biomarkers. The baseline FFQ was completed by 1647 participants with a mean age of 51 ± 12 years, BMI of 26 ± 4 kg/m2, and energy intake of 2051 ± 605 kcal/day. The percentage of total energy intake from proteins, carbohydrates, and fats were 15 ± 2, 43 ± 6, and 36 ± 5 En%, respectively. A total of 1113 participants completed telephone-based recalls and 1783 participants completed web-based recalls. This database will enable researchers to validate existing national FFQs and to develop new high quality dietary assessment methods. Full article
Open AccessArticle Predictors Associated with Increase in Skeletal Muscle Mass after Sustained Virological Response in Chronic Hepatitis C Treated with Direct Acting Antivirals
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101135
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Aims: We aimed to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients undergoing interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy who achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Patients and methods: A total of 69 CHC patients treated with DAAs were
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Aims: We aimed to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients undergoing interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy who achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Patients and methods: A total of 69 CHC patients treated with DAAs were analyzed. We compared the changes in skeletal muscle index (SMI) using bio-impedance analysis at baseline and SMI at SVR. SMI was calculated as the sum of skeletal muscle mass in upper and lower extremities divided by height squared (cm2/m2). Further, we identified pretreatment parameters contributing to the increased SMI at SVR. Results: SMI in males at baseline ranged from 6.73 to 9.08 cm2/m2 (median, 7.65 cm2/m2), while that in females ranged from 4.45 to 7.27 cm2/m2 (median, 5.81 cm2/m2). At SVR, 36 patients (52.2%) had increased SMI as compared with baseline. In the univariate analysis, age (p = 0.0392), hyaluronic acid (p = 0.0143), and branched-chain amino acid to tyrosine ratio (BTR) (p = 0.0024) were significant pretreatment factors linked to increased SMI at SVR. In the multivariate analysis, only BTR was an independent predictor linked to the increased SMI at SVR (p = 0.0488). Conclusion: Pretreatment BTR level can be helpful for predicting increased SMI after SVR in CHC patients undergoing IFN-free DAAs therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Citrulline Malate Does Not Improve Muscle Recovery after Resistance Exercise in Untrained Young Adult Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101132
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
The effects of citrulline malate (CM) on muscle recovery from resistance exercise remains unknown. We aimed to determine if citrulline malate supplementation improves muscle recovery after a single session of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adult men. Nine young adult men
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The effects of citrulline malate (CM) on muscle recovery from resistance exercise remains unknown. We aimed to determine if citrulline malate supplementation improves muscle recovery after a single session of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adult men. Nine young adult men (24.0 ± 3.3 years) participated in a double-blind crossover study in which they received 6 g of CM and placebo (PL) on two occasions, separated by a seven-day washout period. Each occasion consisted of a single session of high-intensity RE (0 h) and three subsequent fatigue tests sessions (at 24, 48, and 72 h) to assess the time course of muscle recovery. During the tests sessions, we assessed the following variables: number of maximum repetitions, electromyographic signal (i.e., root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF)), muscle soreness and perceived exertion, as well as blood levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate, insulin, and testosterone:cortisol ratio. CK levels increased at 24 h post-exercise and remained elevate at 48 and 72 h, with no difference between CM and PL conditions. Muscle soreness increased at 24 h post-exercise, which progressively returned to baseline at 72 h in both conditions. Lactate levels increased immediately post-exercise and remained elevated at 24, 48, and 72 h in both conditions. No significant treatment × time interaction was found for all dependents variables (maximum repetitions, perceived exertion, CK, lactate, RMS, MF, and testosterone:cortisol ratio) during the recovery period. In conclusion, our data indicate that CM supplementation (single 6 g dose pre-workout) does not improve the muscle recovery process following a high-intensity RE session in untrained young adult men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Indications and Use of the Gluten Contamination Elimination Diet for Patients with Non-Responsive Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101129
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
For the majority of patients diagnosed with celiac disease, once a gluten-free diet is initiated, symptoms improve within weeks and may completely resolve in months. However, up to 30% of patients may show signs, symptoms or persistent small intestinal damage after one year
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For the majority of patients diagnosed with celiac disease, once a gluten-free diet is initiated, symptoms improve within weeks and may completely resolve in months. However, up to 30% of patients may show signs, symptoms or persistent small intestinal damage after one year on a gluten-free diet. These patients require evaluation for other common GI etiologies and assessment of their celiac disease status in order to make a diagnosis and suggest treatment. Here, we propose an approach to evaluating patients with celiac disease with persistent symptoms, persistently elevated serology, and or persistent villous atrophy despite a gluten-free diet. We detail how to diagnose and distinguish between non-responsive and refractory celiac disease. Finally, we introduce the indications for use of the gluten contamination elimination diet and provide information for practitioners to implement the diet when necessary in their practice. Full article
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