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Water, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The Icó-Mandantes Bay is one of the major branches of the Itaparica Reservoir (Sub-Middle São [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources—Global Stages of Interaction
Water 2017, 9(10), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100815
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, and highlight those in this special issue. We identify stages that characterize
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Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, and highlight those in this special issue. We identify stages that characterize increasing interaction between land use and climate change. During the first stage, hydrologic modifications and the built environment amplify overland flow via processes associated with runoff-dominated ecosystems (e.g., soil compaction, impervious surface cover, drainage, and channelization). During the second stage, changes in water storage impact the capacity of ecosystems to buffer extremes in water quantity and quality (e.g., either losses in snowpack, wetlands, and groundwater recharge or gains in water and nutrient storage behind dams in reservoirs). During the third stage, extremes in water quantity and quality contribute to losses in ecosystem services and water security (e.g., clean drinking water, flood mitigation, and habitat availability). During the final stage, management and restoration strategies attempt to regain lost ecosystem structure, function, and services but need to adapt to climate change. By anticipating the increasing interaction between land use and climate change, intervention points can be identified, and management strategies can be adjusted to improve outcomes for realistic expectations. Overall, global water security cannot be adequately restored without considering an increasing interaction between land use and climate change across progressive stages and our ever-increasing human domination of the water cycle from degradation to ecosystem restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Water-Resources Potential of Istanbul by Using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Hydrological Model
Water 2017, 9(10), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100814
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Uncertainties due to climate change and population growth have created a critical situation for many megacities. Investigating spatio-temporal variability of water resources is, therefore, a critical initial step for water-resource management. This paper is a first study on the evaluation of water-budget components
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Uncertainties due to climate change and population growth have created a critical situation for many megacities. Investigating spatio-temporal variability of water resources is, therefore, a critical initial step for water-resource management. This paper is a first study on the evaluation of water-budget components of water resources in Istanbul using a high-resolution hydrological model. In this work, the water resources of Istanbul and surrounding watersheds were modeled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which is a continuous-time, semi-distributed, process-based model. The SWAT-CUP program was used for calibration/validation of the model with uncertainty analysis using the SUFI-2 algorithm over the period 1977–2013 at 25 gauge stations. The results reveal that the annual blue-water potential of Istanbul is 3.5 billion m3, whereas the green-water flow and storage are 2.9 billion m3 and 0.7 billion m3, respectively. Watersheds located on the Asian side of the Istanbul megacity yield more blue-water resources compared to the European side, and constitute 75% of the total potential water resources. The model highlights the water potential of the city under current circumstances and gives an insight into its spatial distribution over the region. This study provides a strong basis for forthcoming studies concerning better water-resources management practices, climate change and water-quality studies, as well as other socio-economic scenario analyses in the region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of a Check Dam on Groundwater Recharge and Sedimentation in an Ephemeral Stream
Water 2017, 9(10), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100813
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Despite the widespread presence of groundwater recharge check dams, there are few studies that quantify their functionality. The objectives of this study are (i) to assess groundwater recharge in an ephemeral river with and without a check dam and (ii) to assess sediment
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Despite the widespread presence of groundwater recharge check dams, there are few studies that quantify their functionality. The objectives of this study are (i) to assess groundwater recharge in an ephemeral river with and without a check dam and (ii) to assess sediment build-up in the check-dam reservoir. Field campaigns were carried out to measure water flow, water depth, and check-dam topography to establish water volume, evaporation, outflow, and recharge relations, as well as sediment build-up. To quantify the groundwater recharge, a water-balance approach was applied at two locations: at the check dam reservoir area and at an 11 km long natural stretch of the river upstream. Prediction intervals were computed to assess the uncertainties of the results. During the four years of operation, the check dam (storage capacity of 25,000 m3) recharged the aquifer with an average of 3.1 million m3 of the 10.4 million m3 year−1 of streamflow (30%). The lower and upper uncertainty limits of the check dam recharge were 0.1 and 9.6 million m3 year−1, respectively. Recharge from the upstream stretch was 1.5 million m3 year−1. These results indicate that check dams are valuable structures for increasing groundwater resources in semi-arid regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Heuristic Optimization Approach for Leak Detection in Pipe Networks Using Ordinal Optimization Approach and the Symbiotic Organism Search
Water 2017, 9(10), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100812
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
A new transient-based hybrid heuristic approach is developed to optimize a transient generation process and to detect leaks in pipe networks. The approach couples the ordinal optimization approach (OOA) and the symbiotic organism search (SOS) to solve the optimization problem by means of
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A new transient-based hybrid heuristic approach is developed to optimize a transient generation process and to detect leaks in pipe networks. The approach couples the ordinal optimization approach (OOA) and the symbiotic organism search (SOS) to solve the optimization problem by means of iterations. A pipe network analysis model (PNSOS) is first used to determine steady-state head distribution and pipe flow rates. The best transient generation point and its relevant valve operation parameters are optimized by maximizing the objective function of transient energy. The transient event is created at the chosen point, and the method of characteristics (MOC) is used to analyze the transient flow. The OOA is applied to sift through the candidate pipes and the initial organisms with leak information. The SOS is employed to determine the leaks by minimizing the sum of differences between simulated and computed head at the observation points. Two synthetic leaking scenarios, a simple pipe network and a water distribution network (WDN), are chosen to test the performance of leak detection ordinal symbiotic organism search (LDOSOS). Leak information can be accurately identified by the proposed approach for both of the scenarios. The presented technique makes a remarkable contribution to the success of leak detection in the pipe networks. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Data-Driven Study of Discolouration Material Mobilisation in Trunk Mains
Water 2017, 9(10), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100811
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
It has been shown that sufficiently high velocities can cause the mobilisation of discolouration material in water distribution systems. However, how much typical hydraulic conditions affect the mobilisation of discolouration material has yet to be thoroughly investigated. In this paper, results are presented
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It has been shown that sufficiently high velocities can cause the mobilisation of discolouration material in water distribution systems. However, how much typical hydraulic conditions affect the mobilisation of discolouration material has yet to be thoroughly investigated. In this paper, results are presented from real turbidity and flow observations collected from three U.K. trunk main networks over a period of two years and 11 months. A methodology is presented that determines whether discolouration material has been mobilised by hydraulic forces and the origin of that material. The methodology found that the majority of turbidity observations over 1 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) could be linked to a preceding hydraulic force that exceeded an upstream pipe’s hydraulically preconditioned state. The findings presented in this paper show the potential in proactively managing the hydraulic profile to reduce discolouration risk and improve customer service. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Spatial and Temporal Structure of Extreme Rainfall Trends in South Korea
Water 2017, 9(10), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100809
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The spatial and temporal structures of extreme rainfall trends in South Korea are investigated in the current study. The trends in the annual maximum rainfall series are detected and their spatial distribution is analyzed. The scaling exponent is employed as an index representing
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The spatial and temporal structures of extreme rainfall trends in South Korea are investigated in the current study. The trends in the annual maximum rainfall series are detected and their spatial distribution is analyzed. The scaling exponent is employed as an index representing the temporal structure. The temporal structure of the annual maximum series is calculated and spatially analyzed. Subsequently, the block bootstrap based Mann-Kendall test is employed detect the trend in the scaling exponent series subsampled by the annual maximum rainfalls using a moving window. Significant trends are detected in a small number of stations and there are no significant trends in many stations for the annual maximum rainfall series. There is a large variability in the temporal structures of the extreme rainfall events. Additionally, the variations of the scaling exponent estimates for each month within a rainy season are larger than the variation of the scaling exponent estimates on an annual basis. Significant trends in the temporal structures are observed at many stations unlike the trend test results of annual maximum rainfall series. Decreasing trends are observed at many stations located in the coastal area, while increasing trends are observed in the inland area. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Water Quality Considerations on the Rise as the Use of Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems Widens
Water 2017, 9(10), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100808
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 8 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique
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Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique in making alternative water resources available, such as reuse of communal effluents for agriculture, industry and even indirect potable reuse. As exemplified by the papers in this Special Issue, consideration of water quality plays a major role in developing the full potential for MAR application, ranging from the improvement of water quality to operational issues (e.g., well clogging) or sustainability concerns (e.g., infiltration of treated waste water). With the application of MAR expanding into a wider range of conditions, from deserts to urban and coastal areas, and purposes, from large scale strategic storage of desalinated water and the reuse of waste water, the importance of these considerations are on the rise. Addressing these appropriately will contribute to a greater understanding, operational reliability and acceptance of MAR applications, and lead to a range of engineered MAR systems that help increase their effectiveness to help secure the availability of water at the desired quality for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
Open AccessReview Essentials of Endorheic Basins and Lakes: A Review in the Context of Current and Future Water Resource Management and Mitigation Activities in Central Asia
Water 2017, 9(10), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100798
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
Endorheic basins (i.e., land-locked drainage networks) and their lakes can be highly sensitive to variations in climate and adverse anthropogenic activities, such as overexploitation of water resources. In this review paper, we provide a brief overview of one major endorheic basin on each
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Endorheic basins (i.e., land-locked drainage networks) and their lakes can be highly sensitive to variations in climate and adverse anthropogenic activities, such as overexploitation of water resources. In this review paper, we provide a brief overview of one major endorheic basin on each continent, plus a number of endorheic basins in Central Asia (CA), a region where a large proportion of the land area is within this type of basin. We summarize the effects of (changing) climate drivers and land surface–atmosphere feedbacks on the water balance. For the CA region, we also discuss key anthropogenic activities, related water management approaches and their complex relationship with political and policy issues. In CA a substantial increase in irrigated agriculture coupled with negative climate change impacts have disrupted the fragile water balance for many endorheic basins and their lakes. Transboundary integrated land and water management approaches must be developed to facilitate adequate climate change adaptation and possible mitigation of the adverse anthropogenic influence on endorheic basins in CA. Suitable climate adaptation, mitigation and efficient natural resource management technologies and methods are available, and are developing fast. A number of these are discussed in the paper, but these technologies alone are not sufficient to address pressing water resource issues in CA. Food–water–energy nexus analyses demonstrate that transboundary endorheic basin management requires transformational changes with involvement of all key stakeholders. Regional programs, supported by local governments and international donors, which incorporate advanced adaptation technologies, water resource research and management capacity development, are essential for successful climate change adaptation efforts in CA. However, there is a need for an accelerated uptake of such programs, with an emphasis on unification of approaches, as the pressures resulting from climate change and aggravated by human mismanagement of natural water resources leave very little time for hesitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Water Management in Central Asia)
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Open AccessReview Fogs: Physical Basis, Characteristic Properties, and Impacts on the Environment and Human Health
Water 2017, 9(10), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100807
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
This work presents a selective overview of natural fogs in terms of fog types, forms and states of occurrence, physical, micro-physical, chemical and dynamic properties, basic characterizing parameters, etc. In focus are related achievements and contributions reported mainly during the last decade and
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This work presents a selective overview of natural fogs in terms of fog types, forms and states of occurrence, physical, micro-physical, chemical and dynamic properties, basic characterizing parameters, etc. In focus are related achievements and contributions reported mainly during the last decade and a half, as a result of both laboratory studies and field observations. Processes of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation are analyzed in the aspects of condensation, nuclei diversity and specifics, as related to the activation, growth and deposition of fog droplets. The effect is highlighted of the water vapor’s partial pressure on the surface tension of the liquid water–air interface and the freezing point of the water droplets. Some problems and aspects of fog modeling, parameterization, and forecasting are outlined and discussed on the examples of newly developed relevant 1D/3D theoretical models. Important issues of fog impacts on the air quality, ecosystems, water basins, societal life, and human health are also addressed and discussed, particularly in cases of anthropogenically modified (chemical, radioactive, etc.) fogs. In view of reducing the possible negative effects of fogs, conclusions are drawn concerning the new demands and challenges to fog characterization imposed by the changing natural and social environment and the needs for new data on and approaches to more adequate observations of fog-related events. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Atmospheric and Surface-Condition Effects on CO2 Exchange in the Liaohe Delta Wetland, China
Water 2017, 9(10), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100806
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
The eddy covariance method was used to study the CO2 budget of the Liaohe Delta reed wetland in northern China during 2012–2015. The changes in environmental factors (including meteorology, vegetation, hydrology, and soil) were analyzed simultaneously. The change in the trend of
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The eddy covariance method was used to study the CO2 budget of the Liaohe Delta reed wetland in northern China during 2012–2015. The changes in environmental factors (including meteorology, vegetation, hydrology, and soil) were analyzed simultaneously. The change in the trend of the CO2 concentration in the reed wetland was similar to global changes over the four years. The average annual CO2 accumulation was 2.037 kg·CO2·m−2, ranging from 1.472 to 2.297 kg·CO2·m−2. The seasonal characteristics of the CO2 exchange included high CO2 absorption in June and July, and high emissions in April and from September to October, with the highest emissions in July 2015. The average temperatures from 2013 to 2015 were higher than the 50-year average, largely due to increased temperatures in winter. Precipitation was below the 50-year average, mainly because of low precipitation in summer. The average wind speed was less than the 50-year average, and sunshine duration decreased each year. The CO2 exchange and environmental factors had a degree of correlation or consistency. The contribution of meteorology, vegetation, hydrology, and soil to the CO2 budget was analyzed using the partial least squares method. Water and soil temperature had a greater effect on the CO2 exchange variability. The regression equation of the CO2 budget was calculated using the significant contributing factors, including temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, water-table level, salinity, and biomass. The model fit explained more than 70% of the CO2 exchange, and the simulation results were robust. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial Adaptation Strategies for Water Resources: Criteria for Research
Water 2017, 9(10), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100805
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
The Paris Agreement presents new fields of research related to the adaptation strategies to climate change. A challenge for future research consists in developing context-specific guidelines to support adaptation. This Special Issue on “Adaptation strategy to climate change for water resources” is born
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The Paris Agreement presents new fields of research related to the adaptation strategies to climate change. A challenge for future research consists in developing context-specific guidelines to support adaptation. This Special Issue on “Adaptation strategy to climate change for water resources” is born in this context. It contains 15 scientific studies facing a diversity of issues inherent to the adaptation strategies for water resources. This editorial analyses how the authors of this collection of papers decided to develop and present their research in order to identify criteria to contribute defining, in a near future, standardized approaches and practices for adaptation studies. Papers have been categorized in two major fields: “Studies for the development of adaptation scenarios” and “Studies for the development of adaptation solutions”. Papers belonging to both categories are generally found missing to treat the ‘uncertainty’ issues arising and the implementation of the proposed adaptation strategies. Studies investigating future adaptation scenarios are generally found to be unbalanced in favor of the assessment of future impacts on water resources and less towards the provision of adaptation scenarios. When these studies do not provide elements to manage the specific uncertainty related to the proposed adaptation solutions, at least exploring the uncertainty related to the climatic and impact scenarios is strongly recommended. Studies providing methodological and/or procedural examinations on adaptation solutions are recommended to suitably report the climatic, environmental, and social context for which the action has been developed. A reduction of uncertainty and an easier implementation of proposed measures could be induced from this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources)
Open AccessArticle Melting Characteristics of Snow Cover on Tidewater Glaciers in Hornsund Fjord, Svalbard
Water 2017, 9(10), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100804
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, the Svalbard area, especially its southern section, has been characterised by an exceptionally thin snow cover, which has a significant impact of the annual mass balance of glaciers. The objective of this study was to determine melting processes of the
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In recent years, the Svalbard area, especially its southern section, has been characterised by an exceptionally thin snow cover, which has a significant impact of the annual mass balance of glaciers. The objective of this study was to determine melting processes of the snow cover deposited on 11 glaciers that terminate into Hornsund Fjord during the melting period of 2014. The study included analyses of snow pits and snow cores, meteorological data collected from automatic weather stations and Polish Polar Station Hornsund, and supervised classification of six Landsat 8 images for assessing the progress of snow cover melting. The calculated Snow-Covered Area (SCA) varied from 98% at the beginning of the melting season to 43% at the end of August. The melting vertical gradient on Hansbreen was −0.34 m 100 m−1, leading to surface melting of −1.4 cm water equivalent (w.e.) day−1 in the ablation zone (c. 200 m a.s.l. (above sea level)) and −0.7 cm w.e. day−1 in the accumulation zone (c. 400 m a.s.l.). Furthermore, the study identified several observed features such as low snow depth in the accumulation zone of the Hornsund glaciers, a large proportion of the snow layers (12–27%) produced by rain-on-snow events, and a frequent occurrence of summer thermal inversions (80% annually), indicating that the area is experiencing intensive climate changes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Relation to the Effects of Climate Change
Water 2017, 9(10), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100803
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Proper water resources management involves the analysis and resolution of various optimization problems according to climate change effects on the availability and distribution of the resources themselves. Specifically, these conditions require the identification of new resource allocation optimization solutions capable of taking into
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Proper water resources management involves the analysis and resolution of various optimization problems according to climate change effects on the availability and distribution of the resources themselves. Specifically, these conditions require the identification of new resource allocation optimization solutions capable of taking into account the water resource losses due to climate change scenarios. As is well known, Southern Italy is a region that is potentially very sensitive to climate change. In this paper, a 1717 km2 area, corresponding to the province of Crotone, was analyzed as a study case. This area is characterized by a sufficient availability of resources as a whole as compared to the needs of the users, but has an unbalanced distribution of water through its various systems. After identifying water resource allocations in detail for this area, an optimization solution accounting for the expected reduced availability of water resources in the context of climate change was created and was compared with the optimization solution for current water availability. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Water and Land Footprints and Economic Productivity as Factors in Local Crop Choice: The Case of Silk in Malawi
Water 2017, 9(10), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100802
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
In deciding what crops to grow, farmers will look at, among other things, the economically most productive use of the water and land resources that they have access to. However, optimizing water and land use at the farm level may result in total
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In deciding what crops to grow, farmers will look at, among other things, the economically most productive use of the water and land resources that they have access to. However, optimizing water and land use at the farm level may result in total water and land footprints at the catchment level that are in conflict with sustainable resource use. This study explores how data on water and land footprints, and on economic water and land productivity can inform micro-level decision making of crop choice, in the macro-level context of sustainable resource use. For a proposed sericulture project in Malawi, we calculated water and land footprints of silk along its production chain, and economic water and land productivities. We compared these to current cropping practices, and addressed the implications of water consumption at the catchment scale. We found that farmers may prefer irrigated silk production over currently grown rain-fed staple crops, because its economic water and land productivity is higher than that for currently grown crops. However, because the water footprint of irrigated silk is higher, sericulture will increase the pressure on local water resources. Since water consumption in the catchment generally does not exceed the maximum sustainable footprint, sericulture is a viable alternative crop for farmers in the case study area, as long as silk production remains small-scale (~3% of the area at most) and does not depress local food markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Water Footprint Assessment)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial Water Economics and Policy
Water 2017, 9(10), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100801
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Economics plays a double role in the field of water management, firstly as a powerful analytical tool supporting water allocation and policy decisions, and secondly in the form of policy instruments (water pricing, markets, etc.). This Special Issue presents a platform for sharing
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Economics plays a double role in the field of water management, firstly as a powerful analytical tool supporting water allocation and policy decisions, and secondly in the form of policy instruments (water pricing, markets, etc.). This Special Issue presents a platform for sharing results connecting excellent interdisciplinary research applied to different regional and sectoral problems around the world. The 22 peer-reviewed papers collected in this Special Issue have been grouped into five broad categories: Water valuation and accounting; Economic instruments; Cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis; and Water productivity and Governance. They are briefly presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
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