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Water, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Groundwater resources of low-lying atoll islands are threatened due to changes in rainfall, wave [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Distribution, Adsorption/Release Characteristics, and Environment Influence of Phosphorus on Sediment in Reservoir
Water 2017, 9(9), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090724
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Sediment gradually accumulates at the bottom of reservoirs after decades of running. To explore the influences of sediments on the water quality of reservoirs, the spatial distribution, adsorption/release characteristics, and environment influence of sediment pollutants should be analyzed. In this paper, the spatial
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Sediment gradually accumulates at the bottom of reservoirs after decades of running. To explore the influences of sediments on the water quality of reservoirs, the spatial distribution, adsorption/release characteristics, and environment influence of sediment pollutants should be analyzed. In this paper, the spatial distributions of phosphorus (P) and P fractions in the Biliuhe reservoir (river valley reservoirs) sediments were investigated. The adsorption and release characteristics of sediments P were studied in the experiment, while its environmental influence was analyzed too. The results indicate that the concentration of P in sediments was higher at the dam and the Zhongling site, while lower at other entrances of the reservoir and the smallest in the water-level fluctuating zone. Total Phosphorus (TP) varied from 355.46 to 764.57 mg/kg. Inorganic Phosphorus (IP) was the main form of TP in sediments, making up a proportion of 56–75%, while the correlation coefficient of P bound to Al, Fe, and Mn oxides was 0.922. Hydroxide (Fe/Al-P) was the main form of IP, which accounted for 46–83% with a correlation coefficient of 0.888. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated by Langmuir model was between 714.29 and 3333.33 mg/kg. The adsorption efficiency obtained by the Freundlich model was within the range of 0.40–1.42, which indicated that P adsorption was more difficult in the water-level fluctuating zone. The critical adsorption and release concentration range was 0.1–0.2 mg/L for the majority of the sampling points. The amount of P released in 24 h (the initial concentration of TP in the overlying water was 0 mg/L) accounted for 1.15–4.16% of TP in sediments, which was higher than the average concentration in the reservoir. It is concluded that the sediment is the potential pollution source. The relationship between the change of environmental factors and the release of sediment contaminants should be considered in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Hydrochemical Groundwater Processes in an Inland Agricultural Area with Limited Data: A Clustering Approach
Water 2017, 9(9), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090723
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Groundwater chemistry data are normally scarce in remote inland areas. Effective statistical approaches are highly desired to extract important information about hydrochemical processes from the limited data. This study applied a clustering approach based on the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to a hydrochemical
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Groundwater chemistry data are normally scarce in remote inland areas. Effective statistical approaches are highly desired to extract important information about hydrochemical processes from the limited data. This study applied a clustering approach based on the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to a hydrochemical dataset of groundwater collected in the middle Heihe River Basin (HRB) of northwestern China. Independent hydrological data were introduced to examine whether the clustering results led to an appropriate interpretation on the hydrochemical processes. The main findings include the following. First, in the middle HRB, although groundwater chemistry reflects primarily a natural salinization process, there are evidence for significant anthropogenic influence such as irrigation and fertilization. Second, the regional hydrological cycle, particularly surface water-groundwater interaction, has a profound and spatially variable impact on groundwater chemistry. Third, the interaction between the regional agricultural development and the groundwater quality is complicated. Overall, this study demonstrates that the GMM clustering can effectively analyze hydrochemical datasets and that these clustering results can provide insights into hydrochemical processes, even with a limited number of observations. The clustering approach introduced in this study represents a cost-effective way to investigate groundwater chemistry in remote inland areas where groundwater monitoring is difficult and costly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Threshold of Slope Instability Induced by Rainfall and Lateral Flow
Water 2017, 9(9), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090722
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
In this study, a two-dimensional numerical landslide model was developed to investigate the effects of the amount of rainfall and lateral flow on induced slope failures. The Richard’s equation was used to evaluate pore water pressure distribution in response to moisture content variations
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In this study, a two-dimensional numerical landslide model was developed to investigate the effects of the amount of rainfall and lateral flow on induced slope failures. The Richard’s equation was used to evaluate pore water pressure distribution in response to moisture content variations induced by rainfall and infiltration in soil mass. The slope stability was then assessed using the limit equilibrium method of slices, and the moment equilibrium was considered. Several hypothetical cases involving various rainfall amounts and durations were simulated using the proposed model to investigate the possible tendency toward slope instability caused by rainfall time-series processes. After the rainfall conditions were analyzed, rainfall patterns were categorized as uniform, intermediate, advanced, and delayed types. Furthermore, the lateral flows running through the upstream and downstream boundaries of a slope were analyzed to investigate the lateral effects on the hillslope. The results indicated that the lateral flow may increase or reduce the groundwater table and, thus, accelerate or reduce the occurrence of slope failure. In addition, several rainfall threshold curves that accounted for the rainfall amounts, durations, and patterns were developed and appeared more realistic and to approximate real conditions more accurately than those created using one-dimensional landslide modeling do. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adsorption Capacity of a Volcanic Rock—Used in ConstructedWetlands—For Carbamazepine Removal, and Its Modification with Biofilm Growth
Water 2017, 9(9), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090721
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the aim was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a volcanic rock commonly used in Mexico as filter medium in constructed wetlands (locally named tezontle) for carbamazepine (CBZ) adsorption, as well as to analyze the change in its capacity
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In this study, the aim was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a volcanic rock commonly used in Mexico as filter medium in constructed wetlands (locally named tezontle) for carbamazepine (CBZ) adsorption, as well as to analyze the change in its capacity with biofilm growth. Adsorption essays were carried out under batch conditions by evaluating two particle sizes of tezontle, two values of the solution pH, and two temperatures; from these essays, optimal conditions for carbamazepine adsorption were obtained. The optimal conditions (pH 8, 25 °C and 0.85–2.0 mm particle-size) were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of tezontle with biofilm, which was promoted through tezontle exposition to wastewater in glass columns, for six months. The maximum adsorption capacity of clean tezontle was 3.48 µg/g; while for the tezontle with biofilm, the minimum value was 1.75 µg/g (after the second week) and the maximum, was 3.3 µg/g (after six months) with a clear tendency of increasing over time. The adsorption kinetic was fitted to a pseudo-second model for both tezontle without biofilm and with biofilm, thus indicating a chemisorption process. On clean tezontle, both acid active sites (AAS) and basic active sites (BAS) were found in 0.087 and 0.147 meq/g, respectively. The increase in the adsorption capacity of tezontle with biofilm, along the time was correlated with a higher concentration of BAS, presumably from a greater development of biofilm. The presence of biofilm onto tezontle surface was confirmed through FTIR and FE-SEM. These results confirm the essential role of filter media for pharmaceutical removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flow Hydrodynamics across Open Channel Flows with Riparian Zones: Implications for Riverbank Stability
Water 2017, 9(9), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090720
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Riverbank vegetation is of high importance both for preserving the form (morphology) and function (ecology) of natural river systems. Revegetation of riverbanks is commonly used as a means of stream rehabilitation and management of bank instability and erosion. In this experimental study, the
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Riverbank vegetation is of high importance both for preserving the form (morphology) and function (ecology) of natural river systems. Revegetation of riverbanks is commonly used as a means of stream rehabilitation and management of bank instability and erosion. In this experimental study, the effect of different riverbank vegetation densities on flow hydrodynamics across the channel, including the riparian zone, are reported and discussed. The configuration of vegetation elements follows either linear or staggered arrangements as vegetation density is progressively increased, within a representative range of vegetation densities found in nature. Hydrodynamic measurements including mean streamwise velocity and turbulent intensity flow profiles are recorded via acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV)—both at the main channel and within the riverbank. These results show that for the main channel and the toe of riverbank, turbulence intensity for the low densities (λ ≈ 0 to 0.12 m−1) can increase up to 40% compared the case of high densities (λ = 0.94 to 1.9 m−1). Further analysis of these data allowed the estimation of bed-shear stresses, demonstrating 84% and 23% increase at the main channel and near the toe region, for increasing densities (λ = 0 to 1.9 m−1). Quantifying these hydrodynamic effects is important for assessing the contribution of physically representative ranges of riparian vegetation densities on hydrogeomorphologic feedback. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Dimensional Equilibrium Allocation Model of Water Resources Based on a Groundwater Multiple Loop Iteration Technique
Water 2017, 9(9), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090718
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, a multi-dimensional equilibrium allocation model of water resources was developed based on the groundwater multiple loop iteration technique. The proposed model is an integrated framework of three modules respectively corresponding to the input layer, operation layer, and feedback layer in
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In this paper, a multi-dimensional equilibrium allocation model of water resources was developed based on the groundwater multiple loop iteration technique. The proposed model is an integrated framework of three modules respectively corresponding to the input layer, operation layer, and feedback layer in the allocation process. Firstly, a prediction model integrating the genetic algorithm-back propagation (GA-BP) model, the general regression neural network (GRNN) model, and the support vector machine (SVM) model was built to predict the future reservoir runoff, and the results were entered into the database of an optimal allocation model. Furthermore, taking exploitable groundwater as the feedback factor, the water resource optimal allocation model was continuously optimized. Also, the groundwater multiple loop iteration technique was applied to the feedback process. The proposed model was successfully applied to a typical region in Jinan, Eastern China. The uncertainties of future reservoir runoff and exploitable groundwater were taken into account. The results revealed that groundwater represented 36.6% of water supply in the base year, indicating that it is the main water source in Jinan. However, the amount of groundwater mining was decreased after considering the exploitable groundwater. The developed framework provides a comprehensive approach towards optimal future allocation of water resources, especially for the regions with overexploited groundwater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Water Policy Reforms in South Korea: A Historical Review and Ongoing Challenges for Sustainable Water Governance and Management
Water 2017, 9(9), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090717
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
This study aims to provide an opinion on the state-of-the-art of changes and reforms of water policies in South Korea, as well as the challenges along with their implications for sustainable water governance and management. In parallel with change in water resource characteristics
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This study aims to provide an opinion on the state-of-the-art of changes and reforms of water policies in South Korea, as well as the challenges along with their implications for sustainable water governance and management. In parallel with change in water resource characteristics generated by physical, environmental and socio-economic challenges such as: (1) uncertainties about climate change (flooding and drought) including seasonal and regional variation in precipitation; (2) significant increase in water use caused by rapid urbanization and population growth in industrialized urban areas; (3) inadequate water pricing mechanism which covers only around 80% of the production cost and makes it harder to maintain water systems; and (4) recursive water quality degradation and conflicts over water rights between regions resulting from non-point source pollution in highland versus lowland areas, Korean water policies have been developed through diverse reforms over 100 years. Nevertheless, new challenges for sustainable water management are continuously emerging. To meet those challenges we provide two ideas: (i) provider-gets-principle (payment for ecosystem services) of cost-benefit sharing among stakeholders who benefit from water use; and (ii) water pricing applying full-cost pricing-principle internalizing environmental externalities caused by the intensive water use. Funds secured from the application of those methods would facilitate: (1) support for upstream (rural) low income householders suffering from economic restrictions; (2) improvement in water facilities; and (3) efficient water use and demand management in South Korea’s water sectors. We expect that this paper can examine the lessons relevant to challenges that South Korea faces and offer some implications on the formulation of new integration and further reforms of the institutions, laws and organizations responsible for managing water resources in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bedload and Suspended Load Transport in the 140-km Reach Downstream of the Mississippi River Avulsion to the Atchafalaya River
Water 2017, 9(9), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090716
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
The Mississippi River Delta has been continuously losing land since the 1930s due to several factors, chief of which is the reduced sediment supply. A few recent studies have estimated individual components of short-term sediment transport, i.e., bedload and suspended load, separately for
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The Mississippi River Delta has been continuously losing land since the 1930s due to several factors, chief of which is the reduced sediment supply. A few recent studies have estimated individual components of short-term sediment transport, i.e., bedload and suspended load, separately for some locations along the Lowermost Mississippi River (LmMR, commonly considered as the last 500-km reach of the Mississippi River before entering the Gulf of Mexico). However, the combined effects of both components on the long-term sediment supply along the river reach are still unclear. One of the major obstacles here hindering our understanding is that it is difficult and impractical to accurately measure bedloads in large alluvial rivers, such as the Mississippi. In this study, we estimated bedloads of three medium grain sizes (D50 = 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mm) for three locations along the uppermost 140-km reach of the LmMR: Tarbert Landing (TBL) at river kilometer (rk) 493, St Francisville (St F) at rk 419, and Baton Rouge (BTR) at rk 367.5 during 2004–2015. We also estimated suspended loads at St F during 1978–2015 and at BTR during 2004–2015 in order to discern the interactive relationship between bedloads and suspended loads. We found gradually increasing bedloads for all the three medium grain sizes from TBL (83, 41.5 and 20.75 million tons (MT), respectively) to BTR (96, 48 and 24 MT). We also found that suspended loads at TBL (reported previously) were significantly higher than those at St F and BTR during corresponding overlapping periods. Bedloads increased almost linearly with suspended loads, river discharge and river stage at the upstream locations (TBL and St F); however, such a relationship was not evident downstream at BTR. The total sediment load (bedload + suspended sediment load) was substantially higher at TBL (931 MT), while lower and nearly equal at other two downstream locations (550 MT at St F and 544 MT at BTR) during 2004–2010 (the matching period of availability of both loads). These findings indicate that the uppermost 20–25 km LmMR reach (covering TBL) has potentially entrapped substantial suspended load over the last three to four decades, while bedload transport prevails in the lower reach (covering St F and BTR). We suggest that future sediment management in the river should seek engineering solutions for moving trapped coarse sediments downstream towards the coast for the Mississippi River Delta restoration Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Research on River Deltas)
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Open AccessArticle Enabling Efficient and Sustainable Transitions of Water Distribution Systems under Network Structure Uncertainty
Water 2017, 9(9), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090715
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the performance of water distribution systems (WDSs) during long-term city transitions. A transition describes the pathway from an initial to a final planning stage including the structural and functional changes on the infrastructure over time. A methodology is presented
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This paper focuses on the performance of water distribution systems (WDSs) during long-term city transitions. A transition describes the pathway from an initial to a final planning stage including the structural and functional changes on the infrastructure over time. A methodology is presented where consecutive WDSs under changing conditions are automatically created, simulated and then analyzed at specific points in time during a transition process of several decades. Consequential WDS analyses include (a) uncertain network structure, (b) temporal and spatial demand variation and (c) network displacement. With the proposed approach, it is possible to identify robust WDS structures and critical points in time for which sufficient hydraulic and water quality requirements cannot be ensured to the customers. The approach is applied to a case study, where a WDS transition of epic dimensions is currently taking place due to a city relocation. The resulting necessity of its WDS transition is modelled with automatically created planning options for consecutive years of the transition process. For the investigated case study, we tested a traditional “doing-all-at-the-end” approach, where necessary pipe upgrades are performed at the last stages of the transition process. Results show that the sole design of the desired final-stage WDS is insufficient. Owing to the drastic network deconstruction and the stepwise “loss of capacity”, critical pipes must be redesigned at earlier stages to maintain acceptable service levels for most of the investigated future scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Use of Cotton as a Carbon Source for Denitrification in Biofilters for Groundwater Remediation
Water 2017, 9(9), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090714
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
This study is part of a comprehensive research aimed at the development and application of the “Water Sensitive Cities” idea in Israel. This is a sustainable concept, incorporating among others the harvesting, treatment, and reuse of storm-water. The use of engineered biofiltration systems
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This study is part of a comprehensive research aimed at the development and application of the “Water Sensitive Cities” idea in Israel. This is a sustainable concept, incorporating among others the harvesting, treatment, and reuse of storm-water. The use of engineered biofiltration systems for the harvesting and treatment of storm-water in Israel is complicated due to the prolonged dry climate period, spanning 7–8 months of the year. Therefore, the tactic suggested is to use a hybrid biofiltration system for both storm-water harvesting/polishing during winter, and for remediation of nitrate-contaminated groundwater during summer. This paper focuses on the summer design (denitrification) configuration. In preliminary experiments, it was found that crude cotton could serve as an effective carbon source for denitrification. Further results are reported herein regarding the design and operation of biofilter columns applied for the treatment of synthetic mixtures simulating nitrate-contaminated groundwater. The columns were composed of crude cotton wool and polyethylene beads, which prevented the effect of cotton compression. This application was shown to enable controlled removal of nitrate to low levels, while emitting very low concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrite. It was also concluded that a biofilter requires judicious design and operation, since complete removal of nitrogen oxides might lead to the formation of undesired compounds such as sulfides due to the development of anaerobic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Alternative Water Sources in the Urban Sector)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Phytoplankton and Water Quality during Sustainable Restoration of an Urban Lake Used for Recreation and Water Supply
Water 2017, 9(9), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090713
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Groundwater intake near Lake Głębokie, situated in the city of Szczecin in Northwestern Poland, resulted in a distinct decrease in the lake water level. Water intake from a river and a neighboring urban area led to eutrophication and a strong cyanobacterial water bloom.
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Groundwater intake near Lake Głębokie, situated in the city of Szczecin in Northwestern Poland, resulted in a distinct decrease in the lake water level. Water intake from a river and a neighboring urban area led to eutrophication and a strong cyanobacterial water bloom. Both the water intake and recreation were threatened due to the possible influence of cyanobacterial toxins. The lake was subjected to three sustainable restoration methods: aeration of sediment-water; iron addition to precipitate P, and; biomanipulation. The goal of our study was to determine the changes in the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton and chemical water variables during restoration measures. A comparison of the data obtained during this research with the pre-restoration data showed that, as a result of the treatments orthophosphates decreased, rarely exceeding 0.06 mg P·L−1, and cyanobacterial water blooms disappeared. Cyanobacteria were found in the lake but they were not abundant. Chrysophytes and diatoms were the most abundant in springtime of each year. Green algae, desmids and chrysophytes were particularly abundant in summer, while cryptophytes predominated in autumn. Algae from all these groups do not pose a threat to either recreation or water intake. The deep chlorophyll maximum occurring in summer at a depth of 5 m as a result of restoration confirms the lower trophic status of the lake, alluding to mesotrophic conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Incorporating Rainfall-Runoff Events into Nitrate-Nitrogen and Phosphorus Load Assessments for Small Tile-Drained Catchments
Water 2017, 9(9), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090712
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Rainfall-runoff events significantly influence water runoff and the loss of pollutants from tile-drained agricultural land. We monitored ten small (4 to 38 ha) tile-drained catchments in Czechia for three to five years (2012 to 2016). The discharge was measured continuously; a regular 14-day
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Rainfall-runoff events significantly influence water runoff and the loss of pollutants from tile-drained agricultural land. We monitored ten small (4 to 38 ha) tile-drained catchments in Czechia for three to five years (2012 to 2016). The discharge was measured continuously; a regular 14-day scheme of water quality monitoring was accompanied with event sampling provided by automatic samplers in 20 to 120 min intervals. A new semi-automated algorithm was developed for the identification of runoff events (RE) based on discharge and water temperature changes. We then quantified the share of RE on the total runoff and the N and P losses, and we compared six methods for nutrient load estimation on an annual and monthly basis. The results showed considerable differences among the monitored sites, seasons, and applied methods. The share of RE on N loads was on average 5% to 30% of the total annual load, whereas for P (dissolved and total), the share of RE was on average 10% to 80% on the total annual load. The most precise method for nutrient load estimation included the RE. The methods based on point monitoring of the discharge and water quality underestimated the loads of N by 10% to 20% and of P by 30% to 80%. The acquired findings are crucial for the improvement of nutrient load assessment in tile-drained catchments, as well as for the design of various mitigation measures on tile-drained agricultural land. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Variability of Stable Isotope in Lake Water and Its Hydrological Processes Identification in Mt. Yulong Region
Water 2017, 9(9), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090711
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Lakes are regarded as important nodes in water resources, playing pivotal roles in the regional hydrological cycle. However, the systematic study on lake water balance is scarce in Mt. Yulong region. Here, we study the stable isotope compositions of precipitation, inflowing rivers and
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Lakes are regarded as important nodes in water resources, playing pivotal roles in the regional hydrological cycle. However, the systematic study on lake water balance is scarce in Mt. Yulong region. Here, we study the stable isotope compositions of precipitation, inflowing rivers and lake water to exploit the characteristics of hydrological supply and lake water balance. The results showed that there was a typical spatial distribution of surface isotope in August and April. Relatively high δ18O values with low d-excess were found on the east and west shores of the lake in August and in the middle part of the lake in April. The lowest δ18O with highest d-excess were found in the north and south shores in August and April, respectively. Meanwhile, slight isotopic stratification indicated that the lake water was vertically mixed-well. Subsequently, the evaporation-to-inflow ratios (E/Is) during the two periods were further derived based on the isotope mass balance model. Approximately 51% in August and 12% in April of the water flowing into Lashi Lake underwent evaporation. This study provides a reference for the long-term monitoring and modeling the hydrology processes of the basin, and is important for the regional water resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotopes in Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
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Open AccessArticle Ranking of Storm Water Harvesting Sites Using Heuristic and Non-Heuristic Weighing Approaches
Water 2017, 9(9), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090710
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Conservation of water is essential as climate change coupled with land use changes influence the distribution of water availability. Stormwater harvesting (SWH) is a widely used conservation measure, which reduces pressure on fresh water resources. However, determining the availability of stormwater and identifying
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Conservation of water is essential as climate change coupled with land use changes influence the distribution of water availability. Stormwater harvesting (SWH) is a widely used conservation measure, which reduces pressure on fresh water resources. However, determining the availability of stormwater and identifying the suitable sites for SWH require consideration of various socio-economic and technical factors. Earlier studies use demand, ratio of runoff to demand and weighted demand distance, as the screening criteria. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) based screening methodology is adopted for identifying potential suitable SWH sites in urban areas as a first pass, and then a detailed study is done by applying suitability criteria. Initially, potential hotspots are identified by a concept of accumulated catchments and later the sites are screened and ranked using various screening parameters namely demand, ratio of runoff to demand and weighted demand distance. During this process, the opinion of experts for finalizing the suitable SWH sites brings subjectivity in the methodology. To obviate this, heuristic (Saaty Analytic hierarchy process (AHP)) and non-heuristic approaches (Entropy weight, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) weighing techniques) are adapted for allotting weights to the parameters and applied in the ranking of SWH sites in Melbourne, Australia and Dehradun, India. It is observed that heuristic approach is not effective for the study area as it was affected by the subjectivity in the expert opinion. Results obtained by non-heuristic approach come out to be in a good agreement with the sites finalized for SWH by the water planners of the study area. Hence, the proposed ranking methodology has the potential for application in decision making of suitable storm water harvesting sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sponge Cities: Emerging Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Uncertainty of Multiple Input Datasets in the Prediction of Water Resource Components
Water 2017, 9(9), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090709
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
A large number of local and global databases for soil, land use, crops, and climate are now available from different sources, which often differ, even when addressing the same spatial and temporal resolutions. As the correct database is unknown, their impact on estimating
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A large number of local and global databases for soil, land use, crops, and climate are now available from different sources, which often differ, even when addressing the same spatial and temporal resolutions. As the correct database is unknown, their impact on estimating water resource components (WRC) has mostly been ignored. Here, we study the uncertainty stemming from the use of multiple databases and their impacts on WRC estimates such as blue water and soil water for the Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in Iran. Four climate databases and two land use maps were used to build multiple configurations of the KRB model using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), which were similarly calibrated against monthly river discharges. We classified the configurations based on their calibration performances and estimated WRC for each one. The results showed significant differences in WRC estimates, even in models of the same class i.e., with similar performance after calibration. We concluded that a non-negligible level of uncertainty stems from the availability of different sources of input data. As the use of any one database among several produces questionable outputs, it is prudent for modelers to pay more attention to the selection of input data. Full article
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