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Symmetry, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In this study, we considered incomplete parity and time reversal transformations. Appropriately [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Merger and Acquisition Target Selection Based on Interval Neutrosophic Multigranulation Rough Sets over Two Universes
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070126
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
As a significant business activity, merger and acquisition (M&A) generally means transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined. In a typical M&A procedure, M&A target selection is an important issue that tends
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As a significant business activity, merger and acquisition (M&A) generally means transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined. In a typical M&A procedure, M&A target selection is an important issue that tends to exert an increasingly significant impact on different business areas. Although some research works based on fuzzy methods have been explored on this issue, they can only deal with incomplete and uncertain information, but not inconsistent and indeterminate information that exists universally in the decision making process. Additionally, it is advantageous to solve M&A problems under the group decision making context. In order to handle these difficulties in M&A target selection background, we introduce a novel rough set model by combining interval neutrosophic sets (INSs) with multigranulation rough sets over two universes, called an interval neutrosophic (IN) multigranulation rough set over two universes. Then, we discuss the definition and some fundamental properties of the proposed model. Finally, we establish decision making rules and computing approaches for the proposed model in M&A target selection background, and the effectiveness of the decision making approach is demonstrated by an illustrative case analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Theories Applied in Engineering)
Open AccessArticle IoT-Based Image Recognition System for Smart Home-Delivered Meal Services
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070125
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Population ageing is an important global issue. The Taiwanese government has used various Internet of Things (IoT) applications in the “10-year long-term care program 2.0”. It is expected that the efficiency and effectiveness of long-term care services will be improved through IoT support.
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Population ageing is an important global issue. The Taiwanese government has used various Internet of Things (IoT) applications in the “10-year long-term care program 2.0”. It is expected that the efficiency and effectiveness of long-term care services will be improved through IoT support. Home-delivered meal services for the elderly are important for home-based long-term care services. To ensure that the right meals are delivered to the right recipient at the right time, the runners need to take a picture of the meal recipient when the meal is delivered. This study uses the IoT-based image recognition system to design an integrated service to improve the management of image recognition. The core technology of this IoT-based image recognition system is statistical histogram-based k-means clustering for image segmentation. However, this method is time-consuming. Therefore, we proposed using the statistical histogram to obtain a probability density function of pixels of a figure and segmenting these with weighting for the same intensity. This aims to increase the computational performance and achieve the same results as k-means clustering. We combined histogram and k-means clustering in order to overcome the high computational cost for k-means clustering. The results indicate that the proposed method is significantly faster than k-means clustering by more than 10 times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Internet of Things)
Open AccessArticle Forecasting Based on High-Order Fuzzy-Fluctuation Trends and Particle Swarm Optimization Machine Learning
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070124
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Most existing fuzzy forecasting models partition historical training time series into fuzzy time series and build fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups to generate forecasting rules. The determination process of intervals is complex and uncertain. In this paper, we present a novel fuzzy forecasting model
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Most existing fuzzy forecasting models partition historical training time series into fuzzy time series and build fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups to generate forecasting rules. The determination process of intervals is complex and uncertain. In this paper, we present a novel fuzzy forecasting model based on high-order fuzzy-fluctuation trends and the fuzzy-fluctuation logical relationships of the training time series. Firstly, we compare each piece of data with the data of theprevious day in a historical training time series to generate a new fluctuation trend time series (FTTS). Then, we fuzzify the FTTS into a fuzzy-fluctuation time series (FFTS) according to the up, equal, or down range and orientation of the fluctuations. Since the relationship between historical FFTS and the fluctuation trend of the future is nonlinear, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to estimate the proportions for the lagged variables of the fuzzy AR (n) model. Finally, we use the acquired parameters to forecast future fluctuations. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of the other models, we apply the proposed method to forecast the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) time series datasets. The experimental results and the comparison results show that the proposed method can be successfully applied in stock market forecasting or similarkinds of time series. We also apply the proposed method to forecast Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SHSECI) and DAX30 index to verify its effectiveness and universality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Sets Theory and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Expressions of Rock Joint Roughness Coefficient Using Neutrosophic Interval Statistical Numbers
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070123
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
In nature, the mechanical properties of geological bodies are very complex, and their various mechanical parameters are vague, incomplete, imprecise, and indeterminate. However, we cannot express them by the crisp values in classical probability and statistics. In geotechnical engineering, we need to try
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In nature, the mechanical properties of geological bodies are very complex, and their various mechanical parameters are vague, incomplete, imprecise, and indeterminate. However, we cannot express them by the crisp values in classical probability and statistics. In geotechnical engineering, we need to try our best to approximate exact values in indeterminate environments because determining the joint roughness coefficient (JRC) effectively is a key parameter in the shear strength between rock joint surfaces. In this original study, we first propose neutrosophic interval probability (NIP) and define the confidence degree based on the cosine measure between NIP and the ideal NIP. Then, we propose a new neutrosophic interval statistical number (NISN) by combining the neutrosophic number with the confidence degree to express indeterminate statistical information. Finally, we apply NISNs to express JRC under indeterminate (imprecise, incomplete, and uncertain, etc.) environments. By an actual case, the results demonstrate that NISNs are suitable and effective for JRC expressions and have the objective advantage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Minimal-Entanglement Entanglement-Assisted Quantum Error Correction Codes from Modified Circulant Matrices
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070122
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, new construction methods of entanglement-assisted quantum error correction code (EAQECC) from circulant matrices are proposed. We first construct the matrices from two vectors of constraint size, and determine the isotropic subgroup. Then, we also propose a method for calculation of
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In this paper, new construction methods of entanglement-assisted quantum error correction code (EAQECC) from circulant matrices are proposed. We first construct the matrices from two vectors of constraint size, and determine the isotropic subgroup. Then, we also propose a method for calculation of the entanglement subgroup based on standard forms of binary matrices to satisfy the constraint conditions of EAQECC. With isotropic and entanglement subgroups, we determine all the parameters and the minimum distance of the EAQECC. The proposed EAQECC with small lengths are presented to explain the practicality of this construction of EAQECC. Comparison with some earlier constructions of EAQECC shows that the proposed EAQECC is better. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cosine Measures of Neutrosophic Cubic Sets for Multiple Attribute Decision-Making
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070121
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
The neutrosophic cubic set can contain much more information to express its interval neutrosophic numbers and single-valued neutrosophic numbers simultaneously in indeterminate environments. Hence, it is a usual tool for expressing much more information in complex decision-making problems. Unfortunately, there has been no
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The neutrosophic cubic set can contain much more information to express its interval neutrosophic numbers and single-valued neutrosophic numbers simultaneously in indeterminate environments. Hence, it is a usual tool for expressing much more information in complex decision-making problems. Unfortunately, there has been no research on similarity measures of neutrosophic cubic sets so far. Since the similarity measure is an important mathematical tool in decision-making problems, this paper proposes three cosine measures between neutrosophic cubic sets based on the included angle cosine of two vectors, distance, and cosine functions, and investigates their properties. Then, we develop a cosine measures-based multiple attribute decision-making method under a neutrosophic cubic environment in which, from the cosine measure between each alternative (each evaluated neutrosophic cubic set) and the ideal alternative (the ideal neutrosophic cubic set), the ranking order of alternatives and the best option can be obtained, corresponding to the cosine measure values in the decision-making process. Finally, an illustrative example about the selection problem of investment alternatives is provided to illustrate the application and feasibility of the developed decision-making method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Theories Applied in Engineering)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quantum Correlations under Time Reversal and Incomplete Parity Transformations in the Presence of a Constant Magnetic Field
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070120
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
We derive the quantum analogues of some recently discovered symmetry relations for time correlation functions in systems subject to a constant magnetic field. The symmetry relations deal with the effect of time reversal and do not require—as in the formulations of Casimir and
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We derive the quantum analogues of some recently discovered symmetry relations for time correlation functions in systems subject to a constant magnetic field. The symmetry relations deal with the effect of time reversal and do not require—as in the formulations of Casimir and Kubo—that the magnetic field be reversed. It has been anticipated that the same symmetry relations hold for quantum systems. Thus, here we explicitly construct the required symmetry transformations, acting upon the relevant quantum operators, which conserve the Hamiltonian of a system of many interacting spinless particles, under time reversal. Differently from the classical case, parity transformations always reverse the sign of both the coordinates and of the momenta, while time reversal only of the latter. By implementing time reversal in conjunction with ad hoc “incomplete” parity transformations (i.e., transformations that act upon only some of the spatial directions), it is nevertheless possible to achieve the construction of the quantum analogues of the classical maps. The proof that the mentioned symmetry relations apply straightforwardly to quantal time correlation functions is outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Symmetry Breaking in Quantum Mechanics)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Rough Set Model in Generalized Single Valued Neutrosophic Approximation Spaces and Its Application
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070119
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we extend the rough set model on two different universes in intuitionistic fuzzy approximation spaces to a single-valued neutrosophic environment. Firstly, based on the (α,β,γ)-cut relation R˜{(α,β
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In this paper, we extend the rough set model on two different universes in intuitionistic fuzzy approximation spaces to a single-valued neutrosophic environment. Firstly, based on the ( α , β , γ ) -cut relation R ˜ { ( α , β , γ ) } , we propose a rough set model in generalized single-valued neutrosophic approximation spaces. Then, some properties of the new rough set model are discussed. Furthermore, we obtain two extended models of the new rough set model—the degree rough set model and the variable precision rough set model—and study some of their properties. Finally, we explore an example to illustrate the validity of the new rough set model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Theories Applied in Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Modeling the 0-1 Knapsack Problem in Cargo Flow Adjustment
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070118
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
China’s railway network is one of the largest railway networks in the world. By the end of 2016, the total length of railway in operation reached 124,000 km and the annual freight volume exceeded 3.3 billion tons. However, the structure of network does
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China’s railway network is one of the largest railway networks in the world. By the end of 2016, the total length of railway in operation reached 124,000 km and the annual freight volume exceeded 3.3 billion tons. However, the structure of network does not completely match transportation demand, i.e., there still exist a few bottlenecks in the network, which forces some freight flows to travel along non-shortest paths. At present, due to the expansion of the high-speed railway network, more passengers will travel by electric multiple unit (EMU) trains running on the high-speed railway. Therefore, fewer passenger trains will move along the regular medium-speed lines, resulting in more spare capacity for freight trains. In this context, some shipments flowing on non-shortest paths can shift to shorter paths. And consequently, a combinatorial optimization problem concerning which origin-destination (O-D) pairs should be adjusted to their shortest paths will arise. To solve it, mathematical models are developed to adjust freight flows between their shortest paths and non-shortest paths based on the 0-1 knapsack problem. We also carry out computational experiments using the commercial software Gurobi and a greedy algorithm (GA), respectively. The results indicate that the proposed models are feasible and effective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Model to Implement Virtual Computing Labs via Cloud Computing Services
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070117
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, we have seen a significant number of new technological ideas appearing in literature discussing the future of education. For example, E-learning, cloud computing, social networking, virtual laboratories, virtual realities, virtual worlds, massive open online courses (MOOCs), and bring your own
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In recent years, we have seen a significant number of new technological ideas appearing in literature discussing the future of education. For example, E-learning, cloud computing, social networking, virtual laboratories, virtual realities, virtual worlds, massive open online courses (MOOCs), and bring your own device (BYOD) are all new concepts of immersive and global education that have emerged in educational literature. One of the greatest challenges presented to e-learning solutions is the reproduction of the benefits of an educational institution’s physical laboratory. For a university without a computing lab, to obtain hands-on IT training with software, operating systems, networks, servers, storage, and cloud computing similar to that which could be received on a university campus computing lab, it is necessary to use a combination of technological tools. Such teaching tools must promote the transmission of knowledge, encourage interaction and collaboration, and ensure students obtain valuable hands-on experience. That, in turn, allows the universities to focus more on teaching and research activities than on the implementation and configuration of complex physical systems. In this article, we present a model for implementing ecosystems which allow universities to teach practical Information Technology (IT) skills. The model utilizes what is called a “social cloud”, which utilizes all cloud computing services, such as Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Additionally, it integrates the cloud learning aspects of a MOOC and several aspects of social networking and support. Social clouds have striking benefits such as centrality, ease of use, scalability, and ubiquity, providing a superior learning environment when compared to that of a simple physical lab. The proposed model allows students to foster all the educational pillars such as learning to know, learning to be, learning to live together, and, primarily, learning to do, through hands-on IT training from a MOOCs. An aspect of the model has been verified experimentally and statistically through a course of computer operating systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced in Artificial Intelligence and Cloud Computing)
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Open AccessArticle The Fuzzy u-Chart for Sustainable Manufacturing in the Vietnam Textile Dyeing Industry
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070116
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
The inevitability of measurement errors and/or humans of subjectivity in data collection processes make accumulated data imprecise, and are thus called fuzzy data. To adapt to this fuzzy domain in a manufacturing process, a traditional u control chart for monitoring the average number
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The inevitability of measurement errors and/or humans of subjectivity in data collection processes make accumulated data imprecise, and are thus called fuzzy data. To adapt to this fuzzy domain in a manufacturing process, a traditional u control chart for monitoring the average number of nonconformities per unit is required to extend. In this paper, we first generalize the u chart, named fuzzy u-chart, whose control limits are built on the basis of resolution identity, which is a well-known fuzzy set theory. Then, an approach to fuzzy-logic reasoning, incorporating the decision-maker’s varying levels of optimism towards the online process, is proposed to categorize the manufacturing conditions. In addition, we further develop a condition-based classification mechanism, where the process conditions can be discriminated into intermittent states between in-control and out-of-control. As anomalous conditions are monitored to some extent, this condition-based classification mechanism can provide the critical information to deliberate the cost of process intervention with respect to the gain of quality improvement. Finally, the proposed fuzzy u-chart is implemented in the Vietnam textile dyeing industry to replace its conventional u-chart. The results demonstrate that the industry can effectively evade unnecessary adjustments to its current processes; thus, the industry can substantially reduce its operational cost and potential loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Sets Theory and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Lie Symmetry Classification of the Generalized Nonlinear Beam Equation
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070115
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper we make a Lie symmetry analysis of a generalized nonlinear beam equation with both second-order and fourth-order wave terms, which is extended from the classical beam equation arising in the historical events of travelling wave behavior in the Golden Gate
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In this paper we make a Lie symmetry analysis of a generalized nonlinear beam equation with both second-order and fourth-order wave terms, which is extended from the classical beam equation arising in the historical events of travelling wave behavior in the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. We perform a complete Lie symmetry group classification by using the equivalence transformation group theory for the equation under consideration. Lie symmetry reductions of a nonlinear beam-like equation which are singled out from the classification results are investigated. Some classes of exact solutions, including solitary wave solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions and rational solutions of the nonlinear beam-like equations are constructed by means of the reductions and symbolic computation. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Case Study on Iteratively Assessing and Enhancing Wearable User Interface Prototypes
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070114
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
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Abstract
Wearable devices are being explored and investigated as a promising computing platform as well as a source of personal big data for the post smartphone era. To deal with a series of rapidly developed wearable prototypes, a well-structured strategy is required to assess
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Wearable devices are being explored and investigated as a promising computing platform as well as a source of personal big data for the post smartphone era. To deal with a series of rapidly developed wearable prototypes, a well-structured strategy is required to assess the prototypes at various development stages. In this paper, we first design and develop variants of advanced wearable user interface prototypes, including joystick-embedded, potentiometer-embedded, motion-gesture and contactless infrared user interfaces for rapidly assessing hands-on user experience of potential futuristic user interfaces. To achieve this goal systematically, we propose a conceptual test framework and present a case study of using the proposed framework in an iterative cyclic process to prototype, test, analyze, and refine the wearable user interface prototypes. We attempt to improve the usability of the user interface prototypes by integrating initial user feedback into the leading phase of the test framework. In the following phase of the test framework, we track signs of improvements through the overall results of usability assessments, task workload assessments and user experience evaluation of the prototypes. The presented comprehensive and in-depth case study demonstrates that the iterative approach employed by the test framework was effective in assessing and enhancing the prototypes, as well as gaining insights on potential applications and establishing practical guidelines for effective and usable wearable user interface development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Approaches and Advances in Big Data)
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Open AccessArticle Combining the Technology Acceptance Model and Uses and Gratifications Theory to examine the usage behavior of an Augmented Reality Tour-sharing Application
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070113
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 9 July 2017
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Abstract
An intelligent tour service system including an augmented reality (AR) tour-sharing Application (APP) and a query-answering server was developed in this study to promote tourist attractions involving local Hakka culture in Thailand. Subsequently, use of this APP to navigate Hakka culture tourist attractions
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An intelligent tour service system including an augmented reality (AR) tour-sharing Application (APP) and a query-answering server was developed in this study to promote tourist attractions involving local Hakka culture in Thailand. Subsequently, use of this APP to navigate Hakka culture tourist attractions in Thailand was observed. The novel random neural networks (RNNs) were proposed to obtain query-answering services, and the practical experimental results showed that the accuracy of RNNs was 99.51%. This study also integrated the Technology Acceptance Model with Uses and Gratifications Theory to predict the gratification, usage intention, and user attitudes toward marketed attractions of the AR tour-sharing APP. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and 446 valid questionnaires were returned. The following results were obtained: (a) self-presentation and perceived usefulness (PU) directly influenced gratification; (b) perceived entertainment indirectly influenced gratification through perceived ease of use and PU, and information sharing indirectly influenced gratification through PU; and (c) gratification was significantly and positively related to usage intention and attitude toward attractions. Based on these results, suggestions that new technology marketing can be used to promote causes other than Hakka tourist attractions established in Thailand can be contrived. For example, the tour-sharing APP developed in this study could be applied to emphasize the characteristics of Thai Hakka culture; users’ fondness for self-presentation and information sharing can be used for word-of-mouth marketing to attract additional visitors. In addition, this research provides a reference for enterprises and marketers regarding the use of AR tour-sharing APPs to market tourist attractions, and also for future related studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On Submanifolds in a Riemannian Manifold with a Semi-Symmetric Non-Metric Connection
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9070112
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we study submanifolds in a Riemannian manifold with a semi-symmetric non-metric connection. We prove that the induced connection on a submanifold is also semi-symmetric non-metric connection. We consider the total geodesicness and minimality of a submanifold with respect to the
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In this paper, we study submanifolds in a Riemannian manifold with a semi-symmetric non-metric connection. We prove that the induced connection on a submanifold is also semi-symmetric non-metric connection. We consider the total geodesicness and minimality of a submanifold with respect to the semi-symmetric non-metric connection. We obtain the Gauss, Cadazzi, and Ricci equations for submanifolds with respect to the semi-symmetric non-metric connection. Full article
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