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Symmetry, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2017)

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Cover Story In this study, we considered incomplete parity and time reversal transformations. Appropriately [...] Read more.
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Research

Open AccessArticle Optimizing Availability of a Framework in Series Configuration Utilizing Markov Model and Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 96; doi:10.3390/sym9070096
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
This research work is aimed at optimizing the availability of a framework comprising of two units linked together in series configuration utilizing Markov Model and Monte Carlo (MC) Simulation techniques. In this article, effort has been made to develop a maintenance model that
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This research work is aimed at optimizing the availability of a framework comprising of two units linked together in series configuration utilizing Markov Model and Monte Carlo (MC) Simulation techniques. In this article, effort has been made to develop a maintenance model that incorporates three distinct states for each unit, while taking into account their different levels of deterioration. Calculations are carried out using the proposed model for two distinct cases of corrective repair, namely perfect and imperfect repairs, with as well as without opportunistic maintenance. Initially, results are accomplished using an analytical technique i.e., Markov Model. Validation of the results achieved is later carried out with the help of MC Simulation. In addition, MC Simulation based codes also work well for the frameworks that follow non-exponential failure and repair rates, and thus overcome the limitations offered by the Markov Model. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Loop Representation of Wigner’s Little Groups
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 97; doi:10.3390/sym9070097
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
Wigner’s little groups are the subgroups of the Lorentz group whose transformations leave the momentum of a given particle invariant. They thus define the internal space-time symmetries of relativistic particles. These symmetries take different mathematical forms for massive and for massless particles. However,
[...] Read more.
Wigner’s little groups are the subgroups of the Lorentz group whose transformations leave the momentum of a given particle invariant. They thus define the internal space-time symmetries of relativistic particles. These symmetries take different mathematical forms for massive and for massless particles. However, it is shown possible to construct one unified representation using a graphical description. This graphical approach allows us to describe vividly parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation of the internal symmetry groups. As for the language of group theory, the two-by-two representation is used throughout the paper. While this two-by-two representation is for spin-1/2 particles, it is shown possible to construct the representations for spin-0 particles, spin-1 particles, as well as for higher-spin particles, for both massive and massless cases. It is shown also that the four-by-four Dirac matrices constitute a two-by-two representation of Wigner’s little group. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle p-Curve and Selection Methods as Meta-Analytic Supplements for Biologists: A Demonstration of Effect Size Estimation in Studies of Human Fluctuating Asymmetry
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 98; doi:10.3390/sym9070098
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Fluctuating asymmetry is hypothesized to predict developmental instability (DI) and fitness outcomes. While published studies largely support this prediction, publication bias remains an issue. Biologists have increasingly turned to meta-analysis to estimate true support for an effect. Van Dongen and Gangestad (VD&G) performed
[...] Read more.
Fluctuating asymmetry is hypothesized to predict developmental instability (DI) and fitness outcomes. While published studies largely support this prediction, publication bias remains an issue. Biologists have increasingly turned to meta-analysis to estimate true support for an effect. Van Dongen and Gangestad (VD&G) performed a meta-analysis on studies of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and fitness-related qualities in humans. They found an average robust effect size, but estimates varied widely. Recently, psychologists have identified limitations in traditional meta-analyses and popular companion adjustments, and have advocated for alternative meta-analytic techniques. P-curve estimates true mean effects using significant published effects; it also detects the presence of p-hacking (where researchers exploit researcher “degrees of freedom”), not just publication bias. Alternative selection methods also provide a means to estimate average effect size correcting for publication bias, but may better account for heterogeneity in effect sizes and publication decisions than p-curve. We provide a demonstration by performing p-curve and selection method analyses on the set of effects from VD&G. We estimate an overall effect size range (r = 0.08–0.15) comparable to VD&G, but with notable differences between domains and techniques. Results from alternative estimation methods can provide corroborating evidence for, as well as insights beyond, traditional meta-analytic estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Human Evolutionary Biology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Audition and Hemispheric Specialization in Songbirds and New Evidence from Australian Magpies
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 99; doi:10.3390/sym9070099
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
The neural processes of bird song and song development have become a model for research relevant to human acquisition of language, but in fact, very few avian species have been tested for lateralization of the way in which their audio-vocal system is engaged
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The neural processes of bird song and song development have become a model for research relevant to human acquisition of language, but in fact, very few avian species have been tested for lateralization of the way in which their audio-vocal system is engaged in perception, motor output and cognition. Moreover, the models that have been developed have been premised on birds with strong vocal dimorphism, with a tendency to species with complex social and/or monomorphic song systems. The Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen) is an excellent model for the study of communication and vocal plasticity with a sophisticated behavioural repertoire, and some of its expression depends on functional asymmetry. This paper summarizes research on vocal mechanisms and presents field-work results of behavior in the Australian magpie. For the first time, evidence is presented and discussed about lateralized behaviour in one of the foremost songbirds in response to specific and specialized auditory and visual experiences under natural conditions. It presents the first example of auditory lateralization evident in the birds’ natural environment by describing an extractive foraging event that has not been described previously in any avian species. It also discusses the first example of auditory behavioral asymmetry in a songbird tested under natural conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Asymmetry of Structure and/or Function)
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Open AccessArticle Exploiting the Formation of Maximal Cliques in Social Networks
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 100; doi:10.3390/sym9070100
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
In social networking analysis, there exists a fundamental problem called maximal cliques enumeration(MCE), which has been extensively investigated in many fields, including social networks, biological science, etc. As a matter of fact, the formation principle of maximal cliques that can help us to
[...] Read more.
In social networking analysis, there exists a fundamental problem called maximal cliques enumeration(MCE), which has been extensively investigated in many fields, including social networks, biological science, etc. As a matter of fact, the formation principle of maximal cliques that can help us to speed up the detection of maximal cliques from social networks is often ignored by most existing research works. Aiming to exploit the formation of maximal cliques in social networks, this paper pioneers a creative research issue on the detection of bases of maximal cliques in social networks. We propose a formal concept analysis-based approach for detecting the bases of maximal cliques and detection theorem. It is believed that our work can provide a new research solution and direction for future topological structure analysis in various complex networking systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Machine Learning Approaches for Intelligent Big Data)
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Open AccessArticle Threats of Password Pattern Leakage Using Smartwatch Motion Recognition Sensors
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 101; doi:10.3390/sym9070101
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Thanks to the development of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, wearable markets have been growing rapidly. Smartwatches can be said to be the most representative product in wearable markets, and involve various hardware technologies in order to overcome the limitations of small hardware.
[...] Read more.
Thanks to the development of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, wearable markets have been growing rapidly. Smartwatches can be said to be the most representative product in wearable markets, and involve various hardware technologies in order to overcome the limitations of small hardware. Motion recognition sensors are a representative example of those hardware technologies. However, smartwatches and motion recognition sensors that can be worn by users may pose security threats of password pattern leakage. In the present paper, passwords are inferred through experiments to obtain password patterns inputted by users using motion recognition sensors, and verification of the results and the accuracy of the results is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
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Open AccessArticle Fuzzy System-Based Fear Estimation Based on the Symmetrical Characteristics of Face and Facial Feature Points
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 102; doi:10.3390/sym9070102
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
The application of user emotion recognition for fear is expanding in various fields, including the quantitative evaluation of horror movies, dramas, advertisements, games, and the monitoring of emergency situations in convenience stores (i.e., a clerk threatened by a robber), in addition to criminal
[...] Read more.
The application of user emotion recognition for fear is expanding in various fields, including the quantitative evaluation of horror movies, dramas, advertisements, games, and the monitoring of emergency situations in convenience stores (i.e., a clerk threatened by a robber), in addition to criminal psychology. Most of the existing methods for the recognition of fear involve referring to a single physiological signal or recognizing circumstances in which users feel fear by selecting the most informative one among multiple physiological signals. However, the level of accuracy as well as the credibility of these study methods is low. Therefore, in this study, data with high credibility were obtained using non-intrusive multimodal sensors of near-infrared and far-infrared light cameras and selected based on t-tests and Cohen’s d analysis considering the symmetrical characteristics of face and facial feature points. The selected data were then combined into a fuzzy system using the input and output membership functions of symmetrical shape to ultimately derive a new method that can quantitatively show the level of a user’s fear. The proposed method is designed to enhance conventional subjective evaluation (SE) by fuzzy system based on multi-modalities. By using four objective features except for SE and combining these four features into a fuzzy system, our system can produce an accurate level of fear without being affected by the physical, psychological, or fatigue condition of the participants in SE. After conducting a study on 20 subjects of various races and genders, the results indicate that the new method suggested in this study has a higher level of credibility for the recognition of fear than the methods used in previous studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Interval Generalized Ordered Weighted Utility Multiple Averaging Operators and Their Applications to Group Decision-Making
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 103; doi:10.3390/sym9070103
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
We propose a new class of aggregation operator based on utility function and apply them to group decision-making problem. First of all, based on an optimal deviation model, a new operator called the interval generalized ordered weighted utility multiple averaging (IGOWUMA) operator is
[...] Read more.
We propose a new class of aggregation operator based on utility function and apply them to group decision-making problem. First of all, based on an optimal deviation model, a new operator called the interval generalized ordered weighted utility multiple averaging (IGOWUMA) operator is proposed, it incorporates the risk attitude of decision-makers (DMs) in the aggregation process. Some desirable properties of the IGOWUMA operator are studied afterward. Subsequently, under the hyperbolic absolute risk aversion (HARA) utility function, another new operator named as interval generalized ordered weighted hyperbolic absolute risk aversion utility multiple averaging-HARA (IGOWUMA-HARA) operator is also defined. Then, we discuss its families and find that it includes a wide range of aggregation operators. To determine the weights of the IGOWUMA-HARA operator, a preemptive nonlinear objective programming model is constructed, which can determine a uniform weighting vector to guarantee the uniform standard comparison between the alternatives and measure their fair competition under the condition of valid comparison between various alternatives. Moreover, a new approach for group decision-making is developed based on the IGOWUMA-HARA operator. Finally, a comparison analysis is carried out to illustrate the superiority of the proposed method and the result implies that our operator is superior to the existing operator. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Time-Frequency Domain Underdetermined Blind Source Separation Algorithm for MIMO Radar Signals
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 104; doi:10.3390/sym9070104
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
This paper considers the underdetermined blind separation of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar signals that are insufficiently sparse in both time and frequency domains under noisy conditions, while traditional algorithms are usually applied in the ideal sparse environment. An effective separation method
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This paper considers the underdetermined blind separation of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar signals that are insufficiently sparse in both time and frequency domains under noisy conditions, while traditional algorithms are usually applied in the ideal sparse environment. An effective separation method based on single source point (SSP) identification and time-frequency smoothed l 0 norm (TF-SL0) is proposed. Firstly, a preprocessing step of the moving average filter and a novel argument-based time-frequency SSPs detection are employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and signal sparsity of the observed signals, respectively. Then, the mixing matrix is obtained by using clustering algorithms. Secondly, to obtain the optimal solution of underdetermined sparse component analysis, the smoothed l 0 norm (SL0) is introduced to preliminarily achieve signal separation in the time-frequency domain. Finally, time-frequency ridge estimation is proposed to jointly enhance the reconstruction accuracy of the MIMO radar signals, and the time domain waveforms are recovered by the model of the signals. Simulations illustrate the validity of the method and show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional methods in source separation, especially in the non-cooperative electromagnetic case where the prior information is unknown. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fuel Consumption Estimation System and Method with Lower Cost
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 105; doi:10.3390/sym9070105
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
This study proposes a fuel consumption estimation system and method with lower cost. On-board units can report vehicle speed, and user devices can send fuel information to a data analysis server. Then the data analysis server can use the proposed fuel consumption estimation
[...] Read more.
This study proposes a fuel consumption estimation system and method with lower cost. On-board units can report vehicle speed, and user devices can send fuel information to a data analysis server. Then the data analysis server can use the proposed fuel consumption estimation method to estimate the fuel consumption based on driver behaviours without fuel sensors for cost savings. The proposed fuel consumption estimation method is designed based on a genetic algorithm which can generate gene sequences and use crossover and mutation for retrieving an adaptable gene sequence. The adaptable gene sequence can be applied as the set of fuel consumption in accordance with the pattern of driver behaviour. The practical experimental results indicated that the accuracy of the proposed fuel consumption estimation method was about 95.87%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Complex Networks II)
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Open AccessArticle Solving Solar-Wind Power Station Location Problem Using an Extended Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment (WASPAS) Technique with Interval Neutrosophic Sets
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 106; doi:10.3390/sym9070106
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
As one of the promising renewable energy resources, solar-wind energy has increasingly become a regional engine in leading the economy and raising competitiveness. Selecting a solar-wind power station location can contribute to efficient utilization of resource and instruct long-term development of socio-economy. Since
[...] Read more.
As one of the promising renewable energy resources, solar-wind energy has increasingly become a regional engine in leading the economy and raising competitiveness. Selecting a solar-wind power station location can contribute to efficient utilization of resource and instruct long-term development of socio-economy. Since the selection procedure consists of several location alternatives and many influential criteria factors, the selection can be recognized as a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. To better express multiple uncertainty information during the selection procedure, fuzzy set theory is introduced to manage that issue. Interval neutrosophic sets (INSs), which are characterized by truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership functions in the interval numbers (INs) form, are feasible in modeling more uncertainty of reality. In this paper, a newly extended weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) technique, which involves novel three procedures, is utilized to handle MCDM issues under INSs environment. Some modifications are conducted in the extended method comparing with the classical WASPAS method. The most obvious improvement of the extended method relies on that it can generate more realistic criteria weight information by an objective and subjective integrated criteria weight determination method. A case study concerning solar-wind power station location selection is implemented to demonstrate the applicability and rationality of the proposed method in practice. Its validity and feasibility are further verified by a sensitivity analysis and a comparative analysis. These analyses effectively reveal that the extended WASPAS technique can well match the reality and appropriately handle the solar-wind power station location selection problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Theories Applied in Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Interference Alignment Based on Rank Constraint in MIMO Cognitive Radio Networks
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 107; doi:10.3390/sym9070107
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we focus on the interference management in the cognitive radio (CR) network comprised of multiple primary users (PUs) and multiple secondary users (SUs). Firstly, two interference alignment (IA) schemes are proposed to mitigate the interference among PUs. The first one
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we focus on the interference management in the cognitive radio (CR) network comprised of multiple primary users (PUs) and multiple secondary users (SUs). Firstly, two interference alignment (IA) schemes are proposed to mitigate the interference among PUs. The first one is an interference rank minimization (IRM) scheme, which aims to minimize the rank of the joint interference matrix via alternating between the forward and reverse communication links. Considering the overhead of information exchanged between the transmitters and receivers in the IRM scheme, we further develop an interference subspace distance minimization (ISDM) scheme which runs at the transmitters only. The ISDM scheme focuses on aligning the subspaces spanned by interference with an aligned subspace introduced in this paper. For the secondary network, though IRM and ISDM mitigate the received interference at secondary receivers, they make no attempt to eliminate the interference from SUs to PUs. To address this, we improve the IRM and ISDM schemes by putting a rank constraint into their optimizations, where the rank constraint forces the ranks of the interference matrices from SUs to PUs to be zero. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes in terms of the average sum rate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting Purpose Data Analysis and Methodology Comparison of Neural Model Perspective
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 108; doi:10.3390/sym9070108
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
The goal of this paper is to compare and analyze the forecasting performance of two artificial neural network models (i.e., MLP (multi-layer perceptron) and DNN (deep neural network)), and to conduct an experimental investigation by data flow, not economic flow. In this paper,
[...] Read more.
The goal of this paper is to compare and analyze the forecasting performance of two artificial neural network models (i.e., MLP (multi-layer perceptron) and DNN (deep neural network)), and to conduct an experimental investigation by data flow, not economic flow. In this paper, we investigate beyond the scope of simple predictions, and conduct research based on the merits and data of each model, so that we can predict and forecast the most efficient outcomes based on analytical methodology with fewer errors. In particular, we focus on identifying two models of neural networks (NN), a multi-layer perceptron (i.e., MLP) model and an excellent model between the neural network (i.e., DNN) model. At this time, predictability and accuracy were found to be superior in the DNN model, and in the MLP model, it was found to be highly correlated and accessible. The major purpose of this study is to analyze the performance of MLP and DNN through a practical approach based on an artificial neural network stock forecasting method. Although we do not limit S&P (i.e., Standard&Poor’s 500 index) to escape other regional exits in order to see the proper flow of capital, we first measured S&P data for 100 months (i.e., 407 weeks) and found out the following facts: First, the traditional artificial neural network (ANN) model, according to the specificity of each model and depending on the depth of the layer, shows the model of the prediction well and is sensitive to the index data; Second, comparing the two models, the DNN model showed better accuracy in terms of data accessibility and prediction accuracy than MLP, and the error rate was also shown in the weekly and monthly data; Third, the difference in the prediction accuracy of each model is not statistically significant. However, these results are correlated with each other, and are considered robust because there are few error rates, thanks to the accessibility to various other prediction accuracy measurement methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Complex Networks II)
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Open AccessArticle Parameters Tuning Approach for Proportion Integration Differentiation Controller of Magnetorheological Fluids Brake Based on Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 109; doi:10.3390/sym9070109
Received: 4 June 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
In order to improve the response performance of a proportion integration differentiation (PID) controller for magnetorheological fluids (MRF) brake and to reduce the braking fluctuation rate, an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm for PID controller parameters tuning of MRF brake is proposed. A
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In order to improve the response performance of a proportion integration differentiation (PID) controller for magnetorheological fluids (MRF) brake and to reduce the braking fluctuation rate, an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm for PID controller parameters tuning of MRF brake is proposed. A data acquisition system for MRF brake is designed and the transfer function of MRF brake is identified. Moreover, an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (IFOA) through integration of PID control strategy and cloud model algorithm is proposed to design a PID controller for MRF brake. Finally, the simulation and experiment are carried out. The results show that IFOA, with a faster response output and no overshoot, is superior to the conventional PID and fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) PID controller. Full article
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Open AccessArticle User Classification in Crowdsourcing-Based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 110; doi:10.3390/sym9070110
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
This paper studies cooperative spectrum sensing based on crowdsourcing in cognitive radio networks. Since intelligent mobile users such as smartphones and tablets can sense the wireless spectrum, channel sensing tasks can be assigned to these mobile users. This is referred to as the
[...] Read more.
This paper studies cooperative spectrum sensing based on crowdsourcing in cognitive radio networks. Since intelligent mobile users such as smartphones and tablets can sense the wireless spectrum, channel sensing tasks can be assigned to these mobile users. This is referred to as the crowdsourcing method. However, there may be some malicious mobile users that send false sensing reports deliberately, for their own purposes. False sensing reports will influence decisions about channel state. Therefore, it is necessary to classify mobile users in order to distinguish malicious users. According to the sensing reports, mobile users should not just be divided into two classes (honest and malicious). There are two reasons for this: on the one hand, honest users in different positions may have different sensing outcomes, as shadowing, multi-path fading, and other issues may influence the sensing results; on the other hand, there may be more than one type of malicious users, acting differently in the network. Therefore, it is necessary to classify mobile users into more than two classes. Due to the lack of prior information of the number of user classes, this paper casts the problem of mobile user classification as a dynamic clustering problem that is NP-hard. The paper uses the interdistance-to-intradistance ratio of clusters as the fitness function, and aims to maximize the fitness function. To cast this optimization problem, this paper proposes a distributed algorithm for user classification in order to obtain bounded close-to-optimal solutions, and analyzes the approximation ratio of the proposed algorithm. Simulations show the distributed algorithm achieves higher performance than other algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making Method Based on Linguistic Neutrosophic Numbers
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 111; doi:10.3390/sym9070111
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Existing intuitionistic linguistic variables can describe the linguistic information of both the truth/membership and falsity/non-membership degrees, but it cannot represent the indeterminate and inconsistent linguistic information. To deal with the issue, this paper originally proposes the concept of a linguistic neutrosophic number (LNN),
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Existing intuitionistic linguistic variables can describe the linguistic information of both the truth/membership and falsity/non-membership degrees, but it cannot represent the indeterminate and inconsistent linguistic information. To deal with the issue, this paper originally proposes the concept of a linguistic neutrosophic number (LNN), which is characterized independently by the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity linguistic variables. Then, we define the basic operational laws of LNNs and the score and accuracy functions of LNN for comparing LNNs. Next, we develop an LNN-weighted arithmetic averaging (LNNWAA) operator and an LNN-weighted geometric averaging (LNNWGA) operator to aggregate LNN information and investigate their properties. Further, a multiple attribute group decision-making method based on the proposed LNNWAA or LNNWGA operator is established under LNN environment. Finally, an illustrative example about selecting problems of investment alternatives is presented to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Theories Applied in Engineering)
Open AccessArticle On Submanifolds in a Riemannian Manifold with a Semi-Symmetric Non-Metric Connection
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 112; doi:10.3390/sym9070112
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we study submanifolds in a Riemannian manifold with a semi-symmetric non-metric connection. We prove that the induced connection on a submanifold is also semi-symmetric non-metric connection. We consider the total geodesicness and minimality of a submanifold with respect to the
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In this paper, we study submanifolds in a Riemannian manifold with a semi-symmetric non-metric connection. We prove that the induced connection on a submanifold is also semi-symmetric non-metric connection. We consider the total geodesicness and minimality of a submanifold with respect to the semi-symmetric non-metric connection. We obtain the Gauss, Cadazzi, and Ricci equations for submanifolds with respect to the semi-symmetric non-metric connection. Full article
Open AccessArticle Combining the Technology Acceptance Model and Uses and Gratifications Theory to examine the usage behavior of an Augmented Reality Tour-sharing Application
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 113; doi:10.3390/sym9070113
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 9 July 2017
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Abstract
An intelligent tour service system including an augmented reality (AR) tour-sharing Application (APP) and a query-answering server was developed in this study to promote tourist attractions involving local Hakka culture in Thailand. Subsequently, use of this APP to navigate Hakka culture tourist attractions
[...] Read more.
An intelligent tour service system including an augmented reality (AR) tour-sharing Application (APP) and a query-answering server was developed in this study to promote tourist attractions involving local Hakka culture in Thailand. Subsequently, use of this APP to navigate Hakka culture tourist attractions in Thailand was observed. The novel random neural networks (RNNs) were proposed to obtain query-answering services, and the practical experimental results showed that the accuracy of RNNs was 99.51%. This study also integrated the Technology Acceptance Model with Uses and Gratifications Theory to predict the gratification, usage intention, and user attitudes toward marketed attractions of the AR tour-sharing APP. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and 446 valid questionnaires were returned. The following results were obtained: (a) self-presentation and perceived usefulness (PU) directly influenced gratification; (b) perceived entertainment indirectly influenced gratification through perceived ease of use and PU, and information sharing indirectly influenced gratification through PU; and (c) gratification was significantly and positively related to usage intention and attitude toward attractions. Based on these results, suggestions that new technology marketing can be used to promote causes other than Hakka tourist attractions established in Thailand can be contrived. For example, the tour-sharing APP developed in this study could be applied to emphasize the characteristics of Thai Hakka culture; users’ fondness for self-presentation and information sharing can be used for word-of-mouth marketing to attract additional visitors. In addition, this research provides a reference for enterprises and marketers regarding the use of AR tour-sharing APPs to market tourist attractions, and also for future related studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Case Study on Iteratively Assessing and Enhancing Wearable User Interface Prototypes
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 114; doi:10.3390/sym9070114
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
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Abstract
Wearable devices are being explored and investigated as a promising computing platform as well as a source of personal big data for the post smartphone era. To deal with a series of rapidly developed wearable prototypes, a well-structured strategy is required to assess
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Wearable devices are being explored and investigated as a promising computing platform as well as a source of personal big data for the post smartphone era. To deal with a series of rapidly developed wearable prototypes, a well-structured strategy is required to assess the prototypes at various development stages. In this paper, we first design and develop variants of advanced wearable user interface prototypes, including joystick-embedded, potentiometer-embedded, motion-gesture and contactless infrared user interfaces for rapidly assessing hands-on user experience of potential futuristic user interfaces. To achieve this goal systematically, we propose a conceptual test framework and present a case study of using the proposed framework in an iterative cyclic process to prototype, test, analyze, and refine the wearable user interface prototypes. We attempt to improve the usability of the user interface prototypes by integrating initial user feedback into the leading phase of the test framework. In the following phase of the test framework, we track signs of improvements through the overall results of usability assessments, task workload assessments and user experience evaluation of the prototypes. The presented comprehensive and in-depth case study demonstrates that the iterative approach employed by the test framework was effective in assessing and enhancing the prototypes, as well as gaining insights on potential applications and establishing practical guidelines for effective and usable wearable user interface development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Approaches and Advances in Big Data)
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Open AccessArticle Lie Symmetry Classification of the Generalized Nonlinear Beam Equation
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 115; doi:10.3390/sym9070115
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper we make a Lie symmetry analysis of a generalized nonlinear beam equation with both second-order and fourth-order wave terms, which is extended from the classical beam equation arising in the historical events of travelling wave behavior in the Golden Gate
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In this paper we make a Lie symmetry analysis of a generalized nonlinear beam equation with both second-order and fourth-order wave terms, which is extended from the classical beam equation arising in the historical events of travelling wave behavior in the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. We perform a complete Lie symmetry group classification by using the equivalence transformation group theory for the equation under consideration. Lie symmetry reductions of a nonlinear beam-like equation which are singled out from the classification results are investigated. Some classes of exact solutions, including solitary wave solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions and rational solutions of the nonlinear beam-like equations are constructed by means of the reductions and symbolic computation. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Fuzzy u-Chart for Sustainable Manufacturing in the Vietnam Textile Dyeing Industry
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 116; doi:10.3390/sym9070116
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
The inevitability of measurement errors and/or humans of subjectivity in data collection processes make accumulated data imprecise, and are thus called fuzzy data. To adapt to this fuzzy domain in a manufacturing process, a traditional u control chart for monitoring the average number
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The inevitability of measurement errors and/or humans of subjectivity in data collection processes make accumulated data imprecise, and are thus called fuzzy data. To adapt to this fuzzy domain in a manufacturing process, a traditional u control chart for monitoring the average number of nonconformities per unit is required to extend. In this paper, we first generalize the u chart, named fuzzy u-chart, whose control limits are built on the basis of resolution identity, which is a well-known fuzzy set theory. Then, an approach to fuzzy-logic reasoning, incorporating the decision-maker’s varying levels of optimism towards the online process, is proposed to categorize the manufacturing conditions. In addition, we further develop a condition-based classification mechanism, where the process conditions can be discriminated into intermittent states between in-control and out-of-control. As anomalous conditions are monitored to some extent, this condition-based classification mechanism can provide the critical information to deliberate the cost of process intervention with respect to the gain of quality improvement. Finally, the proposed fuzzy u-chart is implemented in the Vietnam textile dyeing industry to replace its conventional u-chart. The results demonstrate that the industry can effectively evade unnecessary adjustments to its current processes; thus, the industry can substantially reduce its operational cost and potential loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Sets Theory and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Model to Implement Virtual Computing Labs via Cloud Computing Services
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 117; doi:10.3390/sym9070117
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, we have seen a significant number of new technological ideas appearing in literature discussing the future of education. For example, E-learning, cloud computing, social networking, virtual laboratories, virtual realities, virtual worlds, massive open online courses (MOOCs), and bring your own
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In recent years, we have seen a significant number of new technological ideas appearing in literature discussing the future of education. For example, E-learning, cloud computing, social networking, virtual laboratories, virtual realities, virtual worlds, massive open online courses (MOOCs), and bring your own device (BYOD) are all new concepts of immersive and global education that have emerged in educational literature. One of the greatest challenges presented to e-learning solutions is the reproduction of the benefits of an educational institution’s physical laboratory. For a university without a computing lab, to obtain hands-on IT training with software, operating systems, networks, servers, storage, and cloud computing similar to that which could be received on a university campus computing lab, it is necessary to use a combination of technological tools. Such teaching tools must promote the transmission of knowledge, encourage interaction and collaboration, and ensure students obtain valuable hands-on experience. That, in turn, allows the universities to focus more on teaching and research activities than on the implementation and configuration of complex physical systems. In this article, we present a model for implementing ecosystems which allow universities to teach practical Information Technology (IT) skills. The model utilizes what is called a “social cloud”, which utilizes all cloud computing services, such as Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Additionally, it integrates the cloud learning aspects of a MOOC and several aspects of social networking and support. Social clouds have striking benefits such as centrality, ease of use, scalability, and ubiquity, providing a superior learning environment when compared to that of a simple physical lab. The proposed model allows students to foster all the educational pillars such as learning to know, learning to be, learning to live together, and, primarily, learning to do, through hands-on IT training from a MOOCs. An aspect of the model has been verified experimentally and statistically through a course of computer operating systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced in Artificial Intelligence and Cloud Computing)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling the 0-1 Knapsack Problem in Cargo Flow Adjustment
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 118; doi:10.3390/sym9070118
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
China’s railway network is one of the largest railway networks in the world. By the end of 2016, the total length of railway in operation reached 124,000 km and the annual freight volume exceeded 3.3 billion tons. However, the structure of network does
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China’s railway network is one of the largest railway networks in the world. By the end of 2016, the total length of railway in operation reached 124,000 km and the annual freight volume exceeded 3.3 billion tons. However, the structure of network does not completely match transportation demand, i.e., there still exist a few bottlenecks in the network, which forces some freight flows to travel along non-shortest paths. At present, due to the expansion of the high-speed railway network, more passengers will travel by electric multiple unit (EMU) trains running on the high-speed railway. Therefore, fewer passenger trains will move along the regular medium-speed lines, resulting in more spare capacity for freight trains. In this context, some shipments flowing on non-shortest paths can shift to shorter paths. And consequently, a combinatorial optimization problem concerning which origin-destination (O-D) pairs should be adjusted to their shortest paths will arise. To solve it, mathematical models are developed to adjust freight flows between their shortest paths and non-shortest paths based on the 0-1 knapsack problem. We also carry out computational experiments using the commercial software Gurobi and a greedy algorithm (GA), respectively. The results indicate that the proposed models are feasible and effective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Rough Set Model in Generalized Single Valued Neutrosophic Approximation Spaces and Its Application
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 119; doi:10.3390/sym9070119
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we extend the rough set model on two different universes in intuitionistic fuzzy approximation spaces to a single-valued neutrosophic environment. Firstly, based on the (α,β,γ)-cut relation R˜{(α,β
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In this paper, we extend the rough set model on two different universes in intuitionistic fuzzy approximation spaces to a single-valued neutrosophic environment. Firstly, based on the ( α , β , γ ) -cut relation R ˜ { ( α , β , γ ) } , we propose a rough set model in generalized single-valued neutrosophic approximation spaces. Then, some properties of the new rough set model are discussed. Furthermore, we obtain two extended models of the new rough set model—the degree rough set model and the variable precision rough set model—and study some of their properties. Finally, we explore an example to illustrate the validity of the new rough set model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Theories Applied in Engineering)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quantum Correlations under Time Reversal and Incomplete Parity Transformations in the Presence of a Constant Magnetic Field
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 120; doi:10.3390/sym9070120
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
We derive the quantum analogues of some recently discovered symmetry relations for time correlation functions in systems subject to a constant magnetic field. The symmetry relations deal with the effect of time reversal and do not require—as in the formulations of Casimir and
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We derive the quantum analogues of some recently discovered symmetry relations for time correlation functions in systems subject to a constant magnetic field. The symmetry relations deal with the effect of time reversal and do not require—as in the formulations of Casimir and Kubo—that the magnetic field be reversed. It has been anticipated that the same symmetry relations hold for quantum systems. Thus, here we explicitly construct the required symmetry transformations, acting upon the relevant quantum operators, which conserve the Hamiltonian of a system of many interacting spinless particles, under time reversal. Differently from the classical case, parity transformations always reverse the sign of both the coordinates and of the momenta, while time reversal only of the latter. By implementing time reversal in conjunction with ad hoc “incomplete” parity transformations (i.e., transformations that act upon only some of the spatial directions), it is nevertheless possible to achieve the construction of the quantum analogues of the classical maps. The proof that the mentioned symmetry relations apply straightforwardly to quantal time correlation functions is outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Symmetry Breaking in Quantum Mechanics)
Open AccessArticle Cosine Measures of Neutrosophic Cubic Sets for Multiple Attribute Decision-Making
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 121; doi:10.3390/sym9070121
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
The neutrosophic cubic set can contain much more information to express its interval neutrosophic numbers and single-valued neutrosophic numbers simultaneously in indeterminate environments. Hence, it is a usual tool for expressing much more information in complex decision-making problems. Unfortunately, there has been no
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The neutrosophic cubic set can contain much more information to express its interval neutrosophic numbers and single-valued neutrosophic numbers simultaneously in indeterminate environments. Hence, it is a usual tool for expressing much more information in complex decision-making problems. Unfortunately, there has been no research on similarity measures of neutrosophic cubic sets so far. Since the similarity measure is an important mathematical tool in decision-making problems, this paper proposes three cosine measures between neutrosophic cubic sets based on the included angle cosine of two vectors, distance, and cosine functions, and investigates their properties. Then, we develop a cosine measures-based multiple attribute decision-making method under a neutrosophic cubic environment in which, from the cosine measure between each alternative (each evaluated neutrosophic cubic set) and the ideal alternative (the ideal neutrosophic cubic set), the ranking order of alternatives and the best option can be obtained, corresponding to the cosine measure values in the decision-making process. Finally, an illustrative example about the selection problem of investment alternatives is provided to illustrate the application and feasibility of the developed decision-making method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Theories Applied in Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Minimal-Entanglement Entanglement-Assisted Quantum Error Correction Codes from Modified Circulant Matrices
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 122; doi:10.3390/sym9070122
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, new construction methods of entanglement-assisted quantum error correction code (EAQECC) from circulant matrices are proposed. We first construct the matrices from two vectors of constraint size, and determine the isotropic subgroup. Then, we also propose a method for calculation of
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In this paper, new construction methods of entanglement-assisted quantum error correction code (EAQECC) from circulant matrices are proposed. We first construct the matrices from two vectors of constraint size, and determine the isotropic subgroup. Then, we also propose a method for calculation of the entanglement subgroup based on standard forms of binary matrices to satisfy the constraint conditions of EAQECC. With isotropic and entanglement subgroups, we determine all the parameters and the minimum distance of the EAQECC. The proposed EAQECC with small lengths are presented to explain the practicality of this construction of EAQECC. Comparison with some earlier constructions of EAQECC shows that the proposed EAQECC is better. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Expressions of Rock Joint Roughness Coefficient Using Neutrosophic Interval Statistical Numbers
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 123; doi:10.3390/sym9070123
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
In nature, the mechanical properties of geological bodies are very complex, and their various mechanical parameters are vague, incomplete, imprecise, and indeterminate. However, we cannot express them by the crisp values in classical probability and statistics. In geotechnical engineering, we need to try
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In nature, the mechanical properties of geological bodies are very complex, and their various mechanical parameters are vague, incomplete, imprecise, and indeterminate. However, we cannot express them by the crisp values in classical probability and statistics. In geotechnical engineering, we need to try our best to approximate exact values in indeterminate environments because determining the joint roughness coefficient (JRC) effectively is a key parameter in the shear strength between rock joint surfaces. In this original study, we first propose neutrosophic interval probability (NIP) and define the confidence degree based on the cosine measure between NIP and the ideal NIP. Then, we propose a new neutrosophic interval statistical number (NISN) by combining the neutrosophic number with the confidence degree to express indeterminate statistical information. Finally, we apply NISNs to express JRC under indeterminate (imprecise, incomplete, and uncertain, etc.) environments. By an actual case, the results demonstrate that NISNs are suitable and effective for JRC expressions and have the objective advantage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting Based on High-Order Fuzzy-Fluctuation Trends and Particle Swarm Optimization Machine Learning
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 124; doi:10.3390/sym9070124
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Most existing fuzzy forecasting models partition historical training time series into fuzzy time series and build fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups to generate forecasting rules. The determination process of intervals is complex and uncertain. In this paper, we present a novel fuzzy forecasting model
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Most existing fuzzy forecasting models partition historical training time series into fuzzy time series and build fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups to generate forecasting rules. The determination process of intervals is complex and uncertain. In this paper, we present a novel fuzzy forecasting model based on high-order fuzzy-fluctuation trends and the fuzzy-fluctuation logical relationships of the training time series. Firstly, we compare each piece of data with the data of theprevious day in a historical training time series to generate a new fluctuation trend time series (FTTS). Then, we fuzzify the FTTS into a fuzzy-fluctuation time series (FFTS) according to the up, equal, or down range and orientation of the fluctuations. Since the relationship between historical FFTS and the fluctuation trend of the future is nonlinear, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to estimate the proportions for the lagged variables of the fuzzy AR (n) model. Finally, we use the acquired parameters to forecast future fluctuations. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of the other models, we apply the proposed method to forecast the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) time series datasets. The experimental results and the comparison results show that the proposed method can be successfully applied in stock market forecasting or similarkinds of time series. We also apply the proposed method to forecast Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SHSECI) and DAX30 index to verify its effectiveness and universality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Sets Theory and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle IoT-Based Image Recognition System for Smart Home-Delivered Meal Services
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 125; doi:10.3390/sym9070125
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Population ageing is an important global issue. The Taiwanese government has used various Internet of Things (IoT) applications in the “10-year long-term care program 2.0”. It is expected that the efficiency and effectiveness of long-term care services will be improved through IoT support.
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Population ageing is an important global issue. The Taiwanese government has used various Internet of Things (IoT) applications in the “10-year long-term care program 2.0”. It is expected that the efficiency and effectiveness of long-term care services will be improved through IoT support. Home-delivered meal services for the elderly are important for home-based long-term care services. To ensure that the right meals are delivered to the right recipient at the right time, the runners need to take a picture of the meal recipient when the meal is delivered. This study uses the IoT-based image recognition system to design an integrated service to improve the management of image recognition. The core technology of this IoT-based image recognition system is statistical histogram-based k-means clustering for image segmentation. However, this method is time-consuming. Therefore, we proposed using the statistical histogram to obtain a probability density function of pixels of a figure and segmenting these with weighting for the same intensity. This aims to increase the computational performance and achieve the same results as k-means clustering. We combined histogram and k-means clustering in order to overcome the high computational cost for k-means clustering. The results indicate that the proposed method is significantly faster than k-means clustering by more than 10 times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Internet of Things)
Open AccessArticle Merger and Acquisition Target Selection Based on Interval Neutrosophic Multigranulation Rough Sets over Two Universes
Symmetry 2017, 9(7), 126; doi:10.3390/sym9070126
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
As a significant business activity, merger and acquisition (M&A) generally means transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined. In a typical M&A procedure, M&A target selection is an important issue that tends
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As a significant business activity, merger and acquisition (M&A) generally means transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined. In a typical M&A procedure, M&A target selection is an important issue that tends to exert an increasingly significant impact on different business areas. Although some research works based on fuzzy methods have been explored on this issue, they can only deal with incomplete and uncertain information, but not inconsistent and indeterminate information that exists universally in the decision making process. Additionally, it is advantageous to solve M&A problems under the group decision making context. In order to handle these difficulties in M&A target selection background, we introduce a novel rough set model by combining interval neutrosophic sets (INSs) with multigranulation rough sets over two universes, called an interval neutrosophic (IN) multigranulation rough set over two universes. Then, we discuss the definition and some fundamental properties of the proposed model. Finally, we establish decision making rules and computing approaches for the proposed model in M&A target selection background, and the effectiveness of the decision making approach is demonstrated by an illustrative case analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Theories Applied in Engineering)

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