Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Insects, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-34
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Comparison of Model Predictions and Laboratory Observations of Transgene Frequencies in Continuously-Breeding Mosquito Populations
Insects 2016, 7(4), 47; doi:10.3390/insects7040047
Received: 23 April 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
PDF Full-text (1526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The persistence of transgenes in the environment is a consideration in risk assessments of transgenic organisms. Combining mathematical models that predict the frequency of transgenes and experimental demonstrations can validate the model predictions, or can detect significant biological deviations that were neither apparent
[...] Read more.
The persistence of transgenes in the environment is a consideration in risk assessments of transgenic organisms. Combining mathematical models that predict the frequency of transgenes and experimental demonstrations can validate the model predictions, or can detect significant biological deviations that were neither apparent nor included as model parameters. In order to assess the correlation between predictions and observations, models were constructed to estimate the frequency of a transgene causing male sexual sterility in simulated populations of a malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that were seeded with transgenic females at various proportions. Concurrently, overlapping-generation laboratory populations similar to those being modeled were initialized with various starting transgene proportions, and the subsequent proportions of transgenic individuals in populations were determined weekly until the transgene disappeared. The specific transgene being tested contained a homing endonuclease gene expressed in testes, I-PpoI, that cleaves the ribosomal DNA and results in complete male sexual sterility with no effect on female fertility. The transgene was observed to disappear more rapidly than the model predicted in all cases. The period before ovipositions that contained no transgenic progeny ranged from as little as three weeks after cage initiation to as long as 11 weeks. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle How to Start with a Clean Crop: Biopesticide Dips Reduce Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Greenhouse Poinsettia Propagative Cuttings
Insects 2016, 7(4), 48; doi:10.3390/insects7040048
Received: 17 August 2016 / Revised: 15 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 26 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides
[...] Read more.
(1) Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers’ options to control this pest; (2) This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae) and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips) to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa) were determined; (3) Mineral oil (0.1% v/v) and insecticidal soap (0.5%) + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L) were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4) Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Prey-Mediated Effects of Drought on the Consumption Rates of Coccinellid Predators of Elatobium abietinum
Insects 2016, 7(4), 49; doi:10.3390/insects7040049
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 15 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate change in the UK is predicted to cause an increase in summer drought events. Elatobium abietinum is an important pest of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), causing defoliation of trees, and is predicted to become more abundant in response to climatic
[...] Read more.
Climate change in the UK is predicted to cause an increase in summer drought events. Elatobium abietinum is an important pest of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), causing defoliation of trees, and is predicted to become more abundant in response to climatic change, reducing spruce productivity. Populations are also moderated by invertebrate predators, though the extent to which this might be modified under a changing climate is unclear. Elatobium abietinum is preyed upon by the coccinellid species Aphidecta obliterata (a spruce specialist) and Adalia bipunctata (a generalist), populations of which naturally occur in spruce plantations. This study sought to investigate the effect of different intensities and frequencies of drought on the consumption rate of the aphids by the two coccinellids. In Petri dish trials, severe drought stress increased the consumption rates of 3rd instar aphids by both adult and larval coccinellids. Moderate intermittent stress tended to result in a reduced consumption rate for larval coccinellids only, suggesting an age-dependent response. The findings of this study suggest that, under drought conditions, a prey-mediated effect on predator consumption, and, therefore, biocontrol efficacy, is likely, with drought intensity and frequency playing an important role in determining the nature of the response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Periodic Physical Disturbance: An Alternative Method for Controlling Sitophilus zeamais (Maize Weevil) Infestation
Insects 2016, 7(4), 51; doi:10.3390/insects7040051
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is the most important insect pest of stored maize in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to determine the practicality of periodic physical disturbance on S. zeamais mortality and its adoption by smallholder farmers in developing countries. In
[...] Read more.
Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is the most important insect pest of stored maize in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to determine the practicality of periodic physical disturbance on S. zeamais mortality and its adoption by smallholder farmers in developing countries. In this experiment, treatments and control were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and three storage times in three regions of Tanzania. Region was used as the blocking variable. A total of 108 clean 20-L plastic containers were each loaded with 10 kg of fresh white dent corn and 0.50 kg of maize infested with S. zeamais. For the treatment, containers were disturbed twice a day, whereas for the controls the containers were not disturbed until the end of storage. The overall mortality rate (%) after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage were 88%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed for the number of live S. zeamais between the control and experimental treatments. Additionally, the number of live S. zeamais in the treatment significantly decreased as storage time increased. This study shows the potential of a feasible, simple, affordable, and effective method of protecting maize grain for small-holder farmers in developing countries without using chemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Differential Effect of Low-Dose Mixtures of Four Pesticides on the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
Insects 2016, 7(4), 53; doi:10.3390/insects7040053
Received: 13 June 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The modes of action of most insecticides are known, but little information exists regarding the toxicological interactions involving insecticide mixtures at low doses. The effects of mixtures of four insecticides were investigated using LC10 values (concentration leading to 10% mortality), acetamiprid (ACE,
[...] Read more.
The modes of action of most insecticides are known, but little information exists regarding the toxicological interactions involving insecticide mixtures at low doses. The effects of mixtures of four insecticides were investigated using LC10 values (concentration leading to 10% mortality), acetamiprid (ACE, 0.235 µg/mL), chlorpyriphos (CHL, 107.0 µg/mL), deltamethrin (DEL, 5.831 µg/mL), and fipronil (FIP, 3.775 µg/mL) on the larvae of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. After 24 h exposure, 6 of the 11 tested combinations, DEL/FIP, ACE/DEL, CHL/FIP, ACE/DEL/FIP, ACE/CHL/FIP, and ACE/DEL/CHL/FIP, were toxic through an additive effect. Four combinations, ACE/FIP, DEL/CHL, ACE/CHL, and ACE/DEL/CHL had a synergistic effect, whereas only one DEL/CHL/FIP showed an antagonistic effect. The toxic effect of these mixtures was confirmed after 48 h of exposure, revealing an enhanced toxicity of CHL, DEL, and FIP in combination with ACE. We suggest that an insect pest management strategy should be evaluated in the future using different combinations of insecticides. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Label-Free Differential Proteomics and Quantification of Exoenzymes from Isolates of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana
Insects 2016, 7(4), 54; doi:10.3390/insects7040054
Received: 25 April 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 1 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that grows both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo it can colonize live insect hosts, and tissue digestion occurs by secreted hydrolytic exoenzymes. It can also colonize dead insect tissue provided this is free from competing
[...] Read more.
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that grows both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo it can colonize live insect hosts, and tissue digestion occurs by secreted hydrolytic exoenzymes. It can also colonize dead insect tissue provided this is free from competing microorganisms. Depending on whether the host is alive or dead the expression (quality/quantity) of the exoenzymes may vary. We have grown several isolates of B. bassiana in shaking flasks for 120 h at 25 °C in order to evaluate the maximal exoenzyme production using two diet regimes. As sole carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate sources we used 1% shrimp chitin and either 0.5% w/v of dead intact American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) or their isolated cuticles. This is the first report of a differential proteomics of B. bassiana exoenzymes performed by label-free nano-LC MS/MS. Total proteolytic enzyme activity was mainly due to Pr1A or Pr1B depending on the isolate and the diet regime. The most differentially secreted enzymes were: the cuticle-degrading subtilisin Pr1A, GH13 alpha-glycosidase, glucan endo-1,3-beta-glucosidase, subtilisin-like proteinase Spm1, lipase 1, beta-1,3 exoglucanase, and endo-1,3-beta-glucosidase. Among the B. bassiana isolates analyzed, Bb 678 and Bb BG were the most active in Pr1A secretion. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Distribution, Pest Status and Fungal Associates of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in Florida Avocado Groves
Insects 2016, 7(4), 55; doi:10.3390/insects7040055
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 5 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Members of a complex of cryptic species, that correspond morphologically to the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were recently found attacking avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in Israel and California. In early 2016, an outbreak of another member of this
[...] Read more.
Members of a complex of cryptic species, that correspond morphologically to the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were recently found attacking avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in Israel and California. In early 2016, an outbreak of another member of this species complex was detected infesting approximately 1500 avocado trees in an avocado orchard at Homestead, Florida. An area-wide survey was conducted in commercial avocado groves of Miami-Dade County, Florida to determine the distribution and abundance of E. nr. fornicatus, to identify different populations of E. nr. fornicatus and their fungal associates, and to assess the extent of damage to avocado trees. Ewallacea nr. fornicatus were captured in 31 of the 33 sampled sites. A sample of 35 beetles from six different locations was identified as E. nr. fornicatus sp. #2, which is genetically distinct from the species causing damage in California and Israel. Eleven fungal associates were identified: an unknown Fusarium sp., AF-8, AF-6, Graphium euwallaceae, Acremonium sp. Acremonium morum, Acremonium masseei, Elaphocordyceps sp. and three yeast species. The unknown Fusarium isolates were the most abundant and frequently found fungus species associated with adult beetles and lesions surrounding the beetle galleries. In addition to fungal associates, three bacteria species were found associated with adult E. nr. fornicatus. Visual inspections detected significant damage in only two orchards. A large number of beetles were captured in locations with no apparent damage on the avocado trees suggesting that E. nr. fornicatus are associated with other host(s) outside the groves or with dead trees or branches inside the groves. More research is needed to determine the potential threat E. nr. fornicatus and its fungal associates pose to the avocado industry and agricultural and natural ecosystems in Florida. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Insect Species)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam, Dinotefuran and Flupyradifurone in South Florida
Insects 2016, 7(4), 57; doi:10.3390/insects7040057
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Populations of Bemisa tabaci MEAM1 were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone. Eleven
[...] Read more.
Populations of Bemisa tabaci MEAM1 were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone. Eleven populations produced LC50s for one or more chemicals that were not significantly different from the susceptible laboratory colony based on overlapping fiducial limits, indicating some degree of susceptibility. LC50s more than a 100-fold the laboratory colony were measured in at least one population for each material tested, indicating tolerance. LC50s (ppm) from field populations ranged from 0.901–24.952 for imidacloprid, 0.965–24.430 for thiamethoxam, 0.043–3.350 for dinotefuran and 0.011–1.471 for flupyradifurone. Based on overlapping fiducial limits, there were no significant differences in relative mean potency estimates for flupyradifurone and dinotefuran in relation to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Integrated Pest Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Collectively Facilitated Behavior of the Neonate Caterpillars of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
Insects 2016, 7(4), 59; doi:10.3390/insects7040059
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
PDF Full-text (2817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The behavioral biology of the first instar larva of Cactoblastis cactorum was studied from the time of eclosion until the colony penetrated and initiated excavation of the host plant. Hatching from an egg stick was asynchronous, requiring 20 h for the entire cohort
[...] Read more.
The behavioral biology of the first instar larva of Cactoblastis cactorum was studied from the time of eclosion until the colony penetrated and initiated excavation of the host plant. Hatching from an egg stick was asynchronous, requiring 20 h for the entire cohort to eclose at 50%–70% RH and significantly longer at a lower range of RHs. On eclosion, neonates aggregated in an arena at the base of their egg stick and did not attempt to excavate the cladode until an average of 25 caterpillars had collected, approximately 15 h after the onset of egg hatch. Typically only a single entrance hole was formed, limiting the active process of excavating to one or a few individuals at-a-time until the host was fully penetrated and enlarged internally. Olfactometer tests showed that the neonates are strongly attracted to volatile chemicals released when caterpillars chewed into the cladode, accounting for the strong fidelity of the whole cohort to the initial site of penetration. In one instance, the caterpillars were observed to deal with an explosive release of mucilage by imbibing the liquid until the flooded zone was drained and the caterpillars could reenter the plant through the original entrance hole. Once inside the cladode, marked individuals adopted a regular cycle of defecating at the surface at a mean interval of approximately 10 min when followed for 35 successive cycles. Blanket spraying cladodes with a mandibular gland extract prior to hatching led to the independent dispersal of neonates and a failure to form an arena. When the cladode was impenetrable at the site of eclosion, the active cohort of unfed neonates set off together in search of a new site, marking and following a persistent trail that allowed late-to-eclose caterpillars to join their departed siblings. The adaptive significance of these observations is discussed in the context of the life history of the caterpillar. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Impacts of Antibiotic and Bacteriophage Treatments on the Gut-Symbiont-Associated Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae)
Insects 2016, 7(4), 61; doi:10.3390/insects7040061
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 16 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
PDF Full-text (9801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis, possesses specialized midgut crypts that harbor dense populations of the exocellular symbiont Burkholderia. Oral administration of antibiotics suppressed the gut symbionts in B. insularis and negatively impacted insect host fitness, as reflected by retarded development,
[...] Read more.
The Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis, possesses specialized midgut crypts that harbor dense populations of the exocellular symbiont Burkholderia. Oral administration of antibiotics suppressed the gut symbionts in B. insularis and negatively impacted insect host fitness, as reflected by retarded development, smaller body size, and higher susceptibility to an insecticide, bifenthrin. Considering that the antibiotics probably had non-lethal but toxic effects on host fitness, attempts were conducted to reduce gut symbionts using bacteriophage treatment. Soil-lytic phages active against the cultures of specific Burkholderia ribotypes were successfully isolated using a soil enrichment protocol. Characterization of the BiBurk16MC_R phage determined its specificity to the Bi16MC_R_vitro ribotype and placed it within the family Podoviridae. Oral administration of phages to fifth-instar B. insularis, inoculated with Bi16MC_R_vitro as neonates had no deleterious effects on host fitness. However, the ingested phages failed to impact the crypt-associated Burkholderia. The observed inactivity of the phage was likely due to the blockage of the connection between the anterior and posterior midgut regions. These findings suggest that the initial colonization by Burkholderia programs the ontogeny of the midgut, providing a sheltered residence protected from microbial antagonists. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities
Insects 2016, 7(4), 62; doi:10.3390/insects7040062
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp.) have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a native perennial, within intensively
[...] Read more.
Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp.) have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda) plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Toxicity and Feeding Deterrent Effect of 2-Methylanthraquinone from the Wood Extractives of Tectona grandis on the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes speratus
Insects 2016, 7(4), 63; doi:10.3390/insects7040063
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
PDF Full-text (2112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
No-choice feeding tests using ethanol, chloroform, and acetone extractives of teak (Tectona grandis) heartwood clearly showed feeding deterrent activity and toxicity to the subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus. The amount of 2-methylanthraquinone (MAQ) in teak wood extractives was not related to
[...] Read more.
No-choice feeding tests using ethanol, chloroform, and acetone extractives of teak (Tectona grandis) heartwood clearly showed feeding deterrent activity and toxicity to the subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus. The amount of 2-methylanthraquinone (MAQ) in teak wood extractives was not related to the feeding deterrents or toxicity, as shown by the no-choice feeding tests conducted using crude extractives containing various amounts of MAQ, MAQ alone, and fractions of crude extractives. As a native pest, the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus was more tolerant to the fractions of crude extractives than Reticulitermes speratus, and the mortality observed in C. formosanus was not due to the presence of MAQ. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Beyond Focal Pests: Impact of a Neonicotinoid Seed Treatment and Resistant Soybean Lines on a Non-Target Arthropod
Insects 2016, 7(4), 64; doi:10.3390/insects7040064
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
PDF Full-text (693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Integrated pest management (IPM) tactics may effectively control focal pests, but it is also important to test the compatibility of different tactics, and consider non-target organisms. We investigated the effects of a neonicotinoid seed treatment and Rag resistance genes used for soybean aphid
[...] Read more.
Integrated pest management (IPM) tactics may effectively control focal pests, but it is also important to test the compatibility of different tactics, and consider non-target organisms. We investigated the effects of a neonicotinoid seed treatment and Rag resistance genes used for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) control on reproduction of a non-target herbivore (twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch) in short-term greenhouse experiments. We also examined interactions between spider mites and a specialist phytoseiid mite [Ambylseius fallacis (Garman)] and assessed the effects of a co-occurring opportunistic omnivore [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] by including thrips density as a covariate. There were no interactive or main effects of the presence of Rag genes on the densities of any of the arthropods. Overall, effects of the seed treatment on spider mite densities varied, with no difference when mites were confined in clip cages, and higher populations on seed-treated plants when on whole plants. Predatory mites had a consistent negative impact on spider mites, and densities of A. fallacis immatures were similar between seed treated and non-seed treated plants. However, the relationship between spider mite and thrips densities was different between these two plant types, but only in the clip cage experiment lacking predatory mites. This research highlights the importance of considering how IPM tactics might affect non-target organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Integrated Pest Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Efficacy of Topical Application, Leaf Residue or Soil Drench of Blastospores of Isaria fumosorosea for Citrus Root Weevil Management: Laboratory and Greenhouse Investigations
Insects 2016, 7(4), 66; doi:10.3390/insects7040066
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
PDF Full-text (4096 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The efficacy of topical, leaf residue, and soil drench applications with Isaria fumosorosea blastospores (Ifr strain 3581) was assessed for the management of the citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.). Blastospores of Ifr were applied topically at a rate of 107
[...] Read more.
The efficacy of topical, leaf residue, and soil drench applications with Isaria fumosorosea blastospores (Ifr strain 3581) was assessed for the management of the citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.). Blastospores of Ifr were applied topically at a rate of 107 blastospores mL−1 on both the larvae and adults, and each insect stage was incubated in rearing cups with artificial diet at 25 °C, either in the dark or in a growth chamber under a 16 h photophase for 2 weeks, respectively. Percent larval and adult mortality due to the infection of Ifr was assessed after 14 days as compared to untreated controls. Leaf residue assays were assessed by feeding the adults detached citrus leaves previously sprayed with Ifr (107 blastospores mL−1) in Petri dish chambers and then incubating them at 25 °C for 2–3 weeks. Efficacy of the soil drench applications was assessed on five larvae feeding on the roots of a Carrizo hybrid citrus seedling ~8.5–10.5 cm below the sterile sand surface in a single 16 cm × 15.5 cm pot inside a second pot lined with plastic mesh to prevent escapees. Drench treatments per pot consisted of 100 mL of Ifr suspension (107 blastospores mL−1), flushed with 400, 900, or 1400 mL of water compared to 500, 1000, and 1500 mL of water only for controls. The mean concentration of Ifr propagules as colony forming units per gram (CFUs g−1) that leached to different depths in the sand profile per treatment drench rate was also determined. Two weeks post-drenching of Ifr treatments, larvae were assessed for percent mortality, size differences, and effect of treatments in reducing feeding damage to the plant root biomass compared to the controls. Topical spray applications caused 13 and 19% mortality in larvae and adults after 7 days compared to none in the control after 14 days, respectively. Adults feeding on a single Ifr treated leaf for 24 h consumed less than the control, and resulted in 100% mortality 35 days post-treatment compared to 33% in the untreated control. Although offered fresh, untreated leaves after 24 h, only adults in the control group consumed them. Ifr CFUs g−1 were isolated 8.5–10.5 cm below the sand surface for the 1000 and 1500 mL drench rates only, resulting in 2%–4% larval mortality. For all the Ifr drench treatments, no differences were observed in percent larval mortality and size or the effect of treatments in reducing feeding damage to the plant root biomass compared to the controls. These results suggest that the foliar application of Ifr may be an efficient biocontrol strategy for managing adult populations of D. abbreviatus; potential alternative larval management strategies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Interactions between the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle Harmonia axyridis and the Parasitoid Dinocampus coccinellae
Insects 2016, 7(4), 67; doi:10.3390/insects7040067
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 19 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been introduced either intentionally or accidentally in different areas outside its native range, where it is often regarded as invasive. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank) has been recorded to parasitize H. axyridis in the field, both in the native and introduced
[...] Read more.
Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been introduced either intentionally or accidentally in different areas outside its native range, where it is often regarded as invasive. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank) has been recorded to parasitize H. axyridis in the field, both in the native and introduced areas, Italy included. The percent of parasitism found in our field investigation was low (four percent). The effect of exposure time of H. axyridis to D. coccinellae and the impact of parasitization on host longevity, oviposition capacity and egg fertility were evaluated in the laboratory. The acceptance and suitability of H. axyridis as host for D. coccinellae were then studied, in comparison with the native coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (L.), which shares the same ecological niche. The effects of parasitization on female longevity and reproduction capacity in the exotic vs. the indigenous lady beetle were also investigated. The overall results showed that D. coccinellae negatively affected the fitness of H. axyridis, more than that of A. bipunctata. The parasitoid may thus play a marginal role in controlling the populations of the Asian lady beetle, without representing a threat to A. bipunctata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program
Insects 2016, 7(4), 68; doi:10.3390/insects7040068
Received: 12 March 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1060 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE), with either acetic acid (AA) or sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), might improve monitoring of codling
[...] Read more.
Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE), with either acetic acid (AA) or sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT) and mating disruption (MD). Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio) using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild), AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA), and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg) and MD (10 mg) programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2–3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W) ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using codlemone lures. AA-PE lures allow detection of wild female moths that may measure damage potential more accurately than detection of wild males. The short-range activity of AA-PE lures compared with that of codlemone-based lures appears to improve the ability to measure S:W ratios and the impact of SIT on population control near the site where wild moths are trapped. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Integrated Pest Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples
Insects 2016, 7(4), 71; doi:10.3390/insects7040071
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments.
[...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Insecticide Effect of Zeolites on the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
Insects 2016, 7(4), 72; doi:10.3390/insects7040072
Received: 27 April 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
PDF Full-text (4772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
(1) Background: The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key tomato insect pest. At present, it is considered to be a serious threat in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and Middle East. The extensive use and the developed resistance of
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key tomato insect pest. At present, it is considered to be a serious threat in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and Middle East. The extensive use and the developed resistance of T. absoluta to spinosad causes some concern, which leads to the need for alternative products. (2) Materials and Methods: Several laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the ovicidal properties of a zeolite particle film on T. absoluta. The toxicity of three different zeolites and six zeolite formulations to T. absoluta eggs and larvae was determined using different exposure methods. (3) Results: In general, the formulated zeolites yielded higher egg and larvae mortality values, especially when the zeolite particle film was residually applied. Notable differences in mortality rates from exposure to zeolites compared to other products, such as kaolin, its formulated product Surround, and the insecticide spinosad, were observed. Kaolin and Surround exhibited little or no effect for both application methods, while the hatch rate was reduced by 95% when spinosad was applied topically. Spinosad yielded egg and larvae mortality rates of 100% for both application methods. Additionally, increased oviposition activity was observed in adults exposed to the wettable powder (WP) formulations. These WP formulations increased egg deposition, while Surround and spinosad elicited a negative oviposition response. (4) Conclusions: It can be derived that the tested products, zeolites BEA (Beta polymorph A), FAU (Faujasite), LTA (Linde type A), and their formulations, had no real insecticidal activity against the eggs of T. absoluta. Nevertheless, egg exposure to zeolites seemed to affect the development process by weakening the first instar larvae and increasing their mortality. Subsequently, based on the choice test, no significant difference was observed between the number of eggs laid on the treated leaves and control leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts as Insecticides in Pest Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The First Finding of Six Instars of Larvae in Heteroptera and the Negative Correlation between Precipitation and Number of Individuals Collected in Sea Skaters of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae)
Insects 2016, 7(4), 73; doi:10.3390/insects7040073
Received: 4 September 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study, conducted during a scientific cruise, MR15-04, aims, first, to examine species and larval/adult components of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) inhabiting the tropical Indian Ocean of 4°00′ S–7°00′ S, 101°00′ E–103°00′ E and, second, to examine the correlative relationship between precipitation just before
[...] Read more.
This study, conducted during a scientific cruise, MR15-04, aims, first, to examine species and larval/adult components of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) inhabiting the tropical Indian Ocean of 4°00′ S–7°00′ S, 101°00′ E–103°00′ E and, second, to examine the correlative relationship between precipitation just before collection and the number of sea skaters collected in November and December 2015. Near Sumatra (50 km south-west), larvae and adults of four species of Halobates (Halobates germanes White, 1883; Halobates micans Eschscholtz, 1822; Halobates princeps White, 1883; undescribed species: Halobates sp.) were collected. Adults of an undescribed species had about a 5 mm long body in a gourd-like shape. One male adult specimen of H. princeps was collected. Body length, body width, and head width was measured in all specimens of Halobates. Six larval stages were detected in all three species of sea skaters as the first finding for Heteropteran insects. There was a negative correlation between amount of precipitation for 19 h before collection and the number of Halobates individuals collected by the neuston net. Death or (positive or passive) sinking by sea skaters could be due to occasional rain fall on the sea surface. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evidence of Tolerance to Silica-Based Desiccant Dusts in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
Insects 2016, 7(4), 74; doi:10.3390/insects7040074
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management) strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica
[...] Read more.
Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management) strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. However, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecticides, such as cuticle thickening, on the performance of these dusts has yet to be determined. In the present study, two desiccant dusts, CimeXa Insecticide Dust (silica gel) and Bed Bug Killer Powder (diatomaceous earth) were evaluated against two strains of C. lectularius; one highly pyrethroid-resistant and one insecticide-susceptible. Label-rate doses of both products produced 100% mortality in both strains, albeit over dissimilar time-frames (3–4 days with CimeXa vs. 14 days with Bed Bug Killer). Sub-label rate exposure to CimeXa indicated that the pyrethroid-resistant strain possessed a degree of tolerance to this product, surviving 50% longer than the susceptible strain. This is the first study to suggest that mechanisms conferring resistance to pyrethroids, such as cuticular thickening, may have potential secondary impacts on non-synthetic insecticides, including desiccant dusts, which target the bed bug’s cuticle. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Biological Control Outcomes Using the Generalist Aphid Predator Aphidoletes aphidimyza under Multi-Prey Conditions
Insects 2016, 7(4), 75; doi:10.3390/insects7040075
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
PDF Full-text (2036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is used in biological control programs against aphids in many crops. Short-term trials with this natural enemy demonstrated that that females prefer to oviposit among aphids colonizing the new growth of plants, leading to differential attack
[...] Read more.
The aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is used in biological control programs against aphids in many crops. Short-term trials with this natural enemy demonstrated that that females prefer to oviposit among aphids colonizing the new growth of plants, leading to differential attack rates for aphid species that differ in their within-plant distributions. Thus, we hypothesized that biological control efficacy could be compromised when more than one aphid species is present. We further hypothesized that control outcomes may be different at different crop stages if aphid species shift their preferred feeding locations. Here, we used greenhouse trials to determine biological control outcomes using A. aphidimyza under multi-prey conditions and at different crop stages. At all plant stages, aphid species had a significant effect on the number of predator eggs laid. More eggs were found on M. persicae versus A. solani-infested plants, since M. persicae consistently colonized plant meristems across plant growth stages. This translated to higher numbers of predatory larvae on M. periscae-infested plants in two out of our three experiments, and more consistent control of this pest (78%–95% control across all stages of plant growth). In contrast, control of A. solani was inconsistent in the presence of M. persicae, with 36%–80% control achieved. An additional experiment demonstrated control of A. solani by A. aphidimyza was significantly greater in the absence of M. persicae than in its presence. Our study illustrates that suitability of a natural enemy for pest control may change over a crop cycle as the position of prey on the plant changes, and that prey preference based on within-plant prey location can negatively influence biological control programs in systems with pest complexes. Careful monitoring of the less-preferred pest and its relative position on the plant is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effect of West Nile Virus Infection on the Midgut Gene Expression of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Insects 2016, 7(4), 76; doi:10.3390/insects7040076
Received: 25 September 2016 / Revised: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
PDF Full-text (1503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The interaction of the mosquito and the invading virus is complex and can result in physiological and gene expression alterations in the insect. The association of West Nile virus (WNV) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes results in measurable changes in gene expression; 22
[...] Read more.
The interaction of the mosquito and the invading virus is complex and can result in physiological and gene expression alterations in the insect. The association of West Nile virus (WNV) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes results in measurable changes in gene expression; 22 gene products were shown previously to have altered expression. Sequence analysis of one product, CQ G1A1, revealed 100% amino acid identity to gram negative bacteria binding proteins (CPQGBP) in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti (70%) and Anopheles gambiae (63%) that function in pathogen recognition. CQ G1A1 also was differentially expressed following WNV infection in two populations of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus colonized from Florida with known differences in vector competence for WNV and showed spatial and temporal gene expression differences in midgut, thorax, and carcass tissues. These data suggest gene expression of CQ G1A1 is influenced by WNV infection and the WNV infection-controlled expression differs between populations and tissues. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Habitat Surveillance by Android Mobile Devices in Guangzhou, China
Insects 2016, 7(4), 79; doi:10.3390/insects7040079
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
PDF Full-text (1033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 2014, Guangzhou City, South China, suffered from its worst outbreak of dengue fever in decades. Larval mosquito habitat surveillance was carried out by using android mobile devices in four study sites in May 2015. The habitats with larval mosquitoes were recorded as
[...] Read more.
In 2014, Guangzhou City, South China, suffered from its worst outbreak of dengue fever in decades. Larval mosquito habitat surveillance was carried out by using android mobile devices in four study sites in May 2015. The habitats with larval mosquitoes were recorded as photo waypoints in OruxMaps or in videos. The total number of potential mosquito habitats was 342, of which 166 (49%) were found to have mosquito larvae or pupae. Small containers were the most abundant potential habitats, accounting for 26% of the total number. More mosquito larvae and pupae, were found in small containers than in other objects holding water, for example, potted or hydroponic plants (p < 0.05). Mosquito larvae were collected from all plastic road barriers, used tires, and underground water. Aedes albopictus larvae were found from small and large containers, stumps, among others. The overall route index (RI) was 11.3, which was 14.2 times higher than the grade C criteria of the National Patriotic Health Campaign Committee (NPHCC), China. The higher RIs were found from the bird and flower markets, schools, and underground parking lots. The results indicated that Android mobile devices are a convenient and useful tool for surveillance of mosquito habitats, and the enhancement of source reduction may benefit the prevention and control of dengue vector mosquitoes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Reduced Diversity in the Bacteriome of the Phytophagous Mite Brevipalpus yothersi (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)
Insects 2016, 7(4), 80; doi:10.3390/insects7040080
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tenuipalpidae comprises mites that transmit viruses to agriculturally important plants. Several tenuipalpid species present parthenogenesis, and in Brevipalpus yothersi, the endosymbiont Cardinium has been associated with female-only colonies. It is unclear what the bacterial composition of B. yothersi is, and how common
[...] Read more.
Tenuipalpidae comprises mites that transmit viruses to agriculturally important plants. Several tenuipalpid species present parthenogenesis, and in Brevipalpus yothersi, the endosymbiont Cardinium has been associated with female-only colonies. It is unclear what the bacterial composition of B. yothersi is, and how common Cardinium is in those microbiomes. We performed a comparative analysis of the bacteriomes in three populations of B. yothersi and three additional Tetranychoidea species using sequences from V4-fragment of 16S DNA. The bacteriomes were dominated by Bacteroidetes (especially Cardinium) and Proteobacteria, showing a remarkably low alpha diversity. Cardinium was present in about 22% of all sequences; however, it was not present in R. indica and T. evansi. In B. yothersi, the proportion of Cardinium was higher in adults than eggs, suggesting that proliferation of the bacteria could be the result of selective pressures from the host. This hypothesis was further supported because colonies of B. yothersi from different populations showed different bacterial assemblages, and bacteriomes from different mite species showed similar abundances of Cardinium. A phylogenetic analysis of Cardinium revealed that not only specialization but horizontal transmission has been important for this symbiosis. Together, these results represent a glimpse into the evolution of the Tetranychoidea and Cardinium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida’s Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases
Insects 2016, 7(4), 50; doi:10.3390/insects7040050
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
PDF Full-text (3905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state’s mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida’s mosquitoes has resulted in the development
[...] Read more.
Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state’s mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida’s mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida’s east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM), has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage. Research has led to the development of an arbovirus surveillance system which includes sentinel chicken surveillance, real time use of environmental contributing factors like meteorology and hydrology to target mosquito control, as well as public health efforts to mitigate disease outbreaks to areas with risk of disease. These research driven improvements have provided substantial benefits to all of Florida. More research is needed to meet the future challenges to reduce emerging pathogens like Zika virus and the consequences of environmental changes like global climate change that are likely to influence the effects of mosquito-borne pathogens on human health and well-being. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors: Past, Present, and Future
Insects 2016, 7(4), 52; doi:10.3390/insects7040052
Received: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 3 October 2016
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (4631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mosquitoes represent the major arthropod vectors of human disease worldwide transmitting malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and arboviruses such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Unfortunately, no treatment (in the form of vaccines or drugs) is available for most of these diseases and vector control
[...] Read more.
Mosquitoes represent the major arthropod vectors of human disease worldwide transmitting malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and arboviruses such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Unfortunately, no treatment (in the form of vaccines or drugs) is available for most of these diseases and vector control is still the main form of prevention. The limitations of traditional insecticide-based strategies, particularly the development of insecticide resistance, have resulted in significant efforts to develop alternative eco-friendly methods. Biocontrol strategies aim to be sustainable and target a range of different mosquito species to reduce the current reliance on insecticide-based mosquito control. In this review, we outline non-insecticide based strategies that have been implemented or are currently being tested. We also highlight the use of mosquito behavioural knowledge that can be exploited for control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Looking Backward, Looking Forward: The Long, Torturous Struggle with Mosquitoes
Insects 2016, 7(4), 56; doi:10.3390/insects7040056
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 5 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The American anti-mosquito movement grew out of the discovery of the role of mosquitoes in transferring pathogens and public concern about pest and nuisance mosquitoes in the late 1800s. In the 20th century, organized mosquito control in the United States passed through three
[...] Read more.
The American anti-mosquito movement grew out of the discovery of the role of mosquitoes in transferring pathogens and public concern about pest and nuisance mosquitoes in the late 1800s. In the 20th century, organized mosquito control in the United States passed through three eras: mechanical, chemical, and integrated mosquito control. Mosquito control in the 21st century faces the challenge of emerging pathogens, invasive mosquito species, and balancing concerns about the environment with effective control strategies. Full article
Open AccessReview Genome Investigations of Vector Competence in Aedes aegypti to Inform Novel Arbovirus Disease Control Approaches
Insects 2016, 7(4), 58; doi:10.3390/insects7040058
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 30 October 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dengue (DENV), yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the
[...] Read more.
Dengue (DENV), yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The “vectorial capacity” of A. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmit a given arbovirus. This intrinsic ability is known as “vector competence”. Based on whole transcriptome analysis, several genes and pathways have been predicated to have an association with a susceptible or refractory response in A. aegypti to DENV infection. However, the functional genomics of vector competence of A. aegypti is not well understood, primarily due to lack of integrative approaches in genomic or transcriptomic studies. In this review, we focus on the present status of genomics studies of DENV vector competence in A. aegypti as limited information is available relative to the other arboviruses. We propose future areas of research needed to facilitate the integration of vector and virus genomics and environmental factors to work towards better understanding of vector competence and vectorial capacity in natural conditions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Sodium Channel Mutations and Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes aegypti
Insects 2016, 7(4), 60; doi:10.3390/insects7040060
Received: 2 September 2016 / Revised: 22 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insect pests and human disease vectors. Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary targets of pyrethroid insecticides. Mutations in the sodium channel have been shown to be responsible for pyrethroid resistance, known as knockdown resistance (kdr), in
[...] Read more.
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insect pests and human disease vectors. Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary targets of pyrethroid insecticides. Mutations in the sodium channel have been shown to be responsible for pyrethroid resistance, known as knockdown resistance (kdr), in various insects including mosquitoes. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the principal urban vectors of dengue, zika, and yellow fever viruses, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sodium channel gene have been found in pyrethroid-resistant populations and some of them have been functionally confirmed to be responsible for kdr in an in vitro expression system, Xenopus oocytes. This mini-review aims to provide an update on the identification and functional characterization of pyrethroid resistance-associated sodium channel mutations from Aedes aegypti. The collection of kdr mutations not only helped us develop molecular markers for resistance monitoring, but also provided valuable information for computational molecular modeling of pyrethroid receptor sites on the sodium channel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Molecular Toxicology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Mosquito Oviposition Behavior and Vector Control
Insects 2016, 7(4), 65; doi:10.3390/insects7040065
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2083 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with
[...] Read more.
The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation. An understanding of mosquito oviposition behavior is necessary for the development of surveillance and control opportunities directed against specific disease vectors. For example, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is the vector of viruses causing important human diseases including yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. The preference of this species to oviposit in natural and artificial containers has facilitated the development of Ae. aegypti-specific surveillance and toxic oviposition traps designed to detect and control this important vector species in and around disease foci. A better understanding of the wide diversity of mosquito oviposition behavior will allow the development of new and innovative surveillance and control devices directed against other important mosquito vectors of human and animal disease. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Positive and Negative Impacts of Non-Native Bee Species around the World
Insects 2016, 7(4), 69; doi:10.3390/insects7040069
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 28 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Though they are relatively understudied, non-native bees are ubiquitous and have enormous potential economic and environmental impacts. These impacts may be positive or negative, and are often unquantified. In this manuscript, I review literature on the known distribution and environmental and economic impacts
[...] Read more.
Though they are relatively understudied, non-native bees are ubiquitous and have enormous potential economic and environmental impacts. These impacts may be positive or negative, and are often unquantified. In this manuscript, I review literature on the known distribution and environmental and economic impacts of 80 species of introduced bees. The potential negative impacts of non-native bees include competition with native bees for nesting sites or floral resources, pollination of invasive weeds, co-invasion with pathogens and parasites, genetic introgression, damage to buildings, affecting the pollination of native plant species, and changing the structure of native pollination networks. The potential positive impacts of non-native bees include agricultural pollination, availability for scientific research, rescue of native species, and resilience to human-mediated disturbance and climate change. Most non-native bee species are accidentally introduced and nest in stems, twigs, and cavities in wood. In terms of number of species, the best represented families are Megachilidae and Apidae, and the best represented genus is Megachile. The best studied genera are Apis and Bombus, and most of the species in these genera were deliberately introduced for agricultural pollination. Thus, we know little about the majority of non-native bees, accidentally introduced or spreading beyond their native ranges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Insect Species)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Biological Control beneath the Feet: A Review of Crop Protection against Insect Root Herbivores
Insects 2016, 7(4), 70; doi:10.3390/insects7040070
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is
[...] Read more.
Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is offering promising solutions for crop protection against herbivore pests. While most research has focused on aboveground systems, several major crop pests are uniquely feeding on roots. We here aim at documenting the current and potential use of several biological control agents, including micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes) and invertebrates included among the macrofauna of soils (arthropods and annelids) that are used against root herbivores. In addition, we discuss the synergistic action of different bio-control agents when co-inoculated in soil and how the induction and priming of plant chemical defense could be synergized with the use of the bio-control agents described above to optimize root pest control. Finally, we highlight the gaps in the research for optimizing a more sustainable management of root pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview A Review of the Tawny Crazy Ant, Nylanderia fulva, an Emergent Ant Invader in the Southern United States: Is Biological Control a Feasible Management Option?
Insects 2016, 7(4), 77; doi:10.3390/insects7040077
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
PDF Full-text (1465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tawny crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), has invaded states of the U.S. including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Native to South America, N. fulva is considered a pest in the U.S. capable of annoying homeowners and farmers, as
[...] Read more.
The tawny crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), has invaded states of the U.S. including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Native to South America, N. fulva is considered a pest in the U.S. capable of annoying homeowners and farmers, as well as displacing native ant species. As it continues to expand its range, there is a growing need to develop novel management techniques to control the pest and prevent further spread. Current management efforts rely heavily on chemical control, but these methods have not been successful. A review of the biology, taxonomy, ecology, and distribution of N. fulva, including discussion of ecological and economic consequences of this invasive species, is presented. Options for future management are suggested focusing on biological control, including parasitoid flies in the genus Pseudacteon, the microsporidian parasite Myrmecomorba nylanderiae, and a novel polynucleotide virus as potential biological control agents. We suggest further investigation of natural enemies present in the adventive range, as well as foreign exploration undertaken in the native range including Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina. We conclude that N. fulva may be a suitable candidate for biological control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Insect Species)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Crapemyrtle Bark Scale: A New Threat for Crapemyrtles, a Popular Landscape Plant in the U.S.
Insects 2016, 7(4), 78; doi:10.3390/insects7040078
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
PDF Full-text (8996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), is a newly introduced insect pest on crapemyrtles, Lagerstroemia spp. (Myrtales: Lythraceae), one of the most popular flowering shrubs in the U.S. Since first detected in Texas in 2004, this pest has
[...] Read more.
Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), is a newly introduced insect pest on crapemyrtles, Lagerstroemia spp. (Myrtales: Lythraceae), one of the most popular flowering shrubs in the U.S. Since first detected in Texas in 2004, this pest has spread to twelve states causing losses to stakeholders. To develop a management plan, we reviewed current knowledge about the pest’s biology and ecology, and suggested research approaches including studying its thermal tolerance, host range, plant resistance and biological control. Parasitoids and predators have been reared from A. lagerstroemiae in the U.S. and China. However, new surveys of natural enemies should be conducted in China, and studies on the host range and impacts of natural enemies on A. lagerstroemiae may help determine the potential for classical biological control. The life history, preying efficiency and rearing methods are important for coccinellid predators found in the U.S. including Chilocorus cacti L. and Hyperaspis spp. To enhance natural enemy performance, it is important to evaluate a sustainable insecticide program that considers efficacy, timing, rate and impact on pollinator health. Finally, an integrated management program of A. lagerstroemiae is discussed including planting resistant cultivars, using host specific natural enemies, and prudent use of insecticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Insect Species)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top