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Sports, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Open AccessArticle An Investigation of the Mechanics and Sticking Region of a One-Repetition Maximum Close-Grip Bench Press versus the Traditional Bench Press
Sports 2017, 5(3), 46; doi:10.3390/sports5030046
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
The close-grip bench press (CGBP) is a variation of the traditional bench press (TBP) that uses a narrower grip (~95% of biacromial distance (BAD)) and has potential application for athletes performing explosive arm actions from positions where the hands are held close to
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The close-grip bench press (CGBP) is a variation of the traditional bench press (TBP) that uses a narrower grip (~95% of biacromial distance (BAD)) and has potential application for athletes performing explosive arm actions from positions where the hands are held close to the torso. Limited research has investigated CGBP mechanics compared to the TBP. Twenty-seven resistance-trained individuals completed a one-repetition maximum TBP and CGBP. The TBP was performed with the preferred grip; the CGBP with a grip width of 95% BAD. A linear position transducer measured lift distance and duration; peak and mean power, velocity, and force; distance and time when peak power occurred; and work. Pre-sticking region (PrSR), sticking region, and post-sticking region distance and duration for each lift was measured. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to derive differences between TBP and CGBP mechanics (p < 0.01); effect sizes (d) were also calculated. A greater load was lifted in the TBP, thus mean force was greater (d = 0.16–0.17). Peak power and velocity were higher in the CGBP, which had a longer PrSR distance (d = 0.49–1.32). The CGBP could emphasize power for athletes that initiate explosive upper-body actions with the hands positioned close to the torso. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Exploring Motivation and Barriers to Physical Activity among Active and Inactive Australian Adults
Sports 2017, 5(3), 47; doi:10.3390/sports5030047
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
Physical inactivity is a major global public health issue associated with a range of chronic disease outcomes. As such, the underlying motivation and barriers to whether or not an individual engages in physical activity is of critical public health importance. This study examines
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Physical inactivity is a major global public health issue associated with a range of chronic disease outcomes. As such, the underlying motivation and barriers to whether or not an individual engages in physical activity is of critical public health importance. This study examines the National Heart Foundation of Australia Heart Week Survey conducted in March 2015. A total of 894 (40% female) Australian adults aged 25–54 years completed the survey, including items relating to motivation and barriers to being physically active. The most frequently selected responses regarding motivation for physical activity among those categorised as active (n = 696) were; to lose or maintain weight (36.6%, 95% CI 33.1–40.3), avoid or manage health condition (17.8%, 95% CI 15.1–20.8), and improve appearance (12.8%, 95% CI 10.5–15.5). Some gender differences were found with a greater proportion of females (43.8%, 95% CI 38.0–49.8) reporting lose or maintain weight as their main motivation for being physically active compared to males (31.9%, 95% CI 27.7–36.6). Among those categorised as inactive (n = 198), lack of time (50.0%, 95% CI 43.0–56.8) was the most frequently reported barrier to physical activity. While empirical studies seek to understand the correlates and determinants of physical activity, it is critical that beliefs and perceptions enabling and prohibiting engagement are identified in order to optimise physical activity promotion in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Development of a Digital-Based Instrument to Assess Perceived Motor Competence in Children: Face Validity, Test-Retest Reliability, and Internal Consistency
Sports 2017, 5(3), 48; doi:10.3390/sports5030048
Received: 23 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Assessing children’s perceptions of their movement abilities (i.e., perceived competence) is traditionally done using picture scales—Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children or Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. Pictures fail to capture the temporal components of movement. To
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Assessing children’s perceptions of their movement abilities (i.e., perceived competence) is traditionally done using picture scales—Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children or Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. Pictures fail to capture the temporal components of movement. To address this limitation, we created a digital-based instrument to assess perceived motor competence: the Digital Scale of Perceived Motor Competence. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity, reliability, and internal consistency of the Digital-based Scale of Perceived Motor Skill Competence. The Digital-based Scale of Perceived Motor Skill Competence is based on the twelve fundamental motor skills from the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition with a similar layout and item structure as the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. Face Validity of the instrument was examined in Phase I (n = 56; Mage = 8.6 ± 0.7 years, 26 girls). Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were assessed in Phase II (n = 54, Mage = 8.7 years ± 0.5 years, 26 girls). Intra-class correlations (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha were conducted to determine test-retest reliability and internal consistency for all twelve skills along with locomotor and object control subscales. The Digital Scale of Perceived Motor Competence demonstrates excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.83, total; ICC = 0.77, locomotor; ICC = 0.79, object control) and acceptable/good internal consistency (α = 0.62, total; α = 0.57, locomotor; α = 0.49, object control). Findings provide evidence of the reliability of the three level digital-based instrument of perceived motor competence for older children. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Body Mass Index in the Early Years in Relation to Motor Coordination at the Age of 5–7 Years
Sports 2017, 5(3), 49; doi:10.3390/sports5030049
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) are consistently associated with motor coordination (MC) in children. However, we know very little how BMI in early childhood associates with MC later in childhood. This study investigated associations between BMI in early childhood and
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Physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) are consistently associated with motor coordination (MC) in children. However, we know very little how BMI in early childhood associates with MC later in childhood. This study investigated associations between BMI in early childhood and BMI, PA, and MC in middle childhood. Children aged 5 to 7 years (n = 64, 32 girls) were measured for MC using Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) and for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) using triaxial accelerometers. Prevailing body weight and height were measured, and information on weight and height in early years was based on parental report of child health care report cards. Age-adjusted BMIz scores were calculated on the basis of international growth curve references. Associations and the explained variability of MC were investigated by Pearson correlations and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Age and MVPA were found to be significantly associated with MC at middle childhood, in general. BMIz at middle childhood and at ages 4 and 5 years inversely explained 12% (p < 0.05), 6% (p > 0.05), and 7% (p > 0.05) of the variation in MC in girls after adjusting for covariates, respectively. In boys, BMIz scores did not show any trend of association with MC. This study suggests sex-specific mechanisms in the interplay between BMI and motor development in childhood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Increases in Variation of Barbell Kinematics Are Observed with Increasing Intensity in a Graded Back Squat Test
Sports 2017, 5(3), 51; doi:10.3390/sports5030051
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the current study was two-fold: (1) To examine the variation in velocity and power with increasing intensity in the back squat among subjects; and (2) To explore individual subject characteristics as possible explanations for variations of velocity in the back
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The purpose of the current study was two-fold: (1) To examine the variation in velocity and power with increasing intensity in the back squat among subjects; and (2) To explore individual subject characteristics as possible explanations for variations of velocity in the back squat. Fourteen recreationally trained male subjects with experience in the back squat agreed to participate in the study (age = 25.0 ± 2.6 years, height = 178.9 ± 8.1 cm, body mass = 88.2 ± 15.8 kg). One-repetition maximums (1RM) were performed for each subject on force platforms with four linear position transducers attached to the barbell. The 1RM assessment was immediately preceded by warm-up sets at 65%, 75%, 85%, and 95% of estimated 1RM for 5, 3, 2, and 1 repetitions, respectively. Mean concentric velocity (MCV) and mean power were recorded for each intensity condition and were analyzed using Pearson correlation to determine the relationship between each variable and relative intensity (%1RM). Statistically significant negative relationships existed between %1RM and MCV (r = −0.892) and mean power (r = −0.604). Between-subject coefficient of variation tended to increase as %1RM increased for both MCV and mean power. These results suggest that MCV is superior to mean power as an indicator of relative intensity in the back squat. Additionally, the between-subject variation observed at higher intensities for MCV and mean power support the use of velocity ranges by strength and conditioning coaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Yang-Style Tai Chi on Gait Parameters and Musculoskeletal Flexibility in Healthy Chinese Older Women
Sports 2017, 5(3), 52; doi:10.3390/sports5030052
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of Yang-style Tai chi (TC) on gait parameters and musculoskeletal flexibility in healthy Chinese female adults. Sixty-six female adults aged >65 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (67.9 ±
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of Yang-style Tai chi (TC) on gait parameters and musculoskeletal flexibility in healthy Chinese female adults. Sixty-six female adults aged >65 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (67.9 ± 3.2 years of age) receiving three 90-min simplified 24-form TC sessions for eight weeks, or a control group (67.4 ± 2.9 years of age) who maintained their daily lifestyles. All study participants were instructed to perform a selected pace walking for recording gait parameters (stride length, gait speed, swing cycle time, stance phase, and double support times) at both baseline and after the experiment. Low-limb flexibility and range of motion at specific musculoskeletal regions (hip flexion, hip extension, and plantar flexion, as well as anterior and lateral pelvic tilts, pelvic rotation, and joint range of motion (hip, knee, and ankle)) were also assessed in the present study. Multiple separate 2 × 2 Factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to examine the effects of TC on the abovementioned outcomes between baseline and posttest in the two groups. When compared to those in the control group, older female adults who experienced the 8-week Tai chi intervention demonstrated significant improvements in most of the outcome measures. More specifically, positive changes in the TC group were found, including gait parameter (p < 0.001 for all; stride length (1.12 to 1.24, +8.6%), gait speed (1.06 to 1.21, +13.9%), stance phase (66.3 to 61.8, −5.5%), swing phase (33.7 to 38.4, +10.1%), double support time (0.33 to 0.26, −21.1%)), flexibility-related outcomes (hip flexion (90.0 to 91.9, 22.6%, p < 0.0001), single hip flexor (6.0 to 2.0, −61.5%, p = 0.0386), and plantar flexion (41.6 to 49.7, +17.5%, p < 0.0001)), and range of motion (anterior pelvic tilt (9.5 to 6.2, −34.7%, p < 0.0001), lateral pelvic tilt (6.6 to 8.3, +23.8%, p = 0.0102), pelvic rotation (10.3 to 14.7, 28.2%, p < 0.0001), hip range of motion (29.8 to 32.9, +13.5%, p = 0.001), and ankle range of motion (28.0 to 32.6, +11.1%, p < 0.0001)). The present study supports the notion that the practice of TC has a positive effect on healthy older female adults in improving gait parameters and flexibility, counteracting the normal functional degeneration due to age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Utilisation of Stand up Paddle Boarding in Australia
Sports 2017, 5(3), 53; doi:10.3390/sports5030053
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Stand Up Paddle Boarding (SUP) has grown exponentially in the last few years with unprecedented participation rates globally. Despite some scientific research on physiological and performance variables, minimal information exists regarding participation and utilisation. The purpose of this study was to discover more
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Stand Up Paddle Boarding (SUP) has grown exponentially in the last few years with unprecedented participation rates globally. Despite some scientific research on physiological and performance variables, minimal information exists regarding participation and utilisation. The purpose of this study was to discover more about how and where people participate in the relatively new sport of SUP. An open-source online survey application was administered internationally to active SUP participants to capture information relevant to both demographics and participation. Of a total of 240 responses, 154 (64.2%) were Australian. The average SUP rider was 42.9 ± 11.7 years, mass 80.4 ± 18.7 kg, 1.75 ± 0.10 m tall with a BMI of 26.1 ± 4.9. More males (69.5%) participate in SUP than females with the majority of participants from the eastern seaboard of Australia. Participants most commonly used SUP for fun and fitness, for around 3 h per week, predominantly at the beach with friends, with around half of the respondents reporting a competitive involvement. This is the first study to date to quantify participation of SUP within Australia. Results revealed SUP is a global activity with a high representation within Australia. Key findings from this study reveal the geographical and demographic distribution of SUP use. Consequently, these findings may inform the industry about its target audience. Additionally, information regarding the ‘typical’ SUP rider may serve to further promote and grow the sport. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Athlete Self-Report Measure Use and Associated Psychological Alterations
Sports 2017, 5(3), 54; doi:10.3390/sports5030054
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
The experience of athletes and practitioners has led to the suggestion that use of an athlete self-report measure (ASRM) may increase an athlete’s self-awareness, satisfaction, motivation, and confidence. This study sought to provide empirical evidence for this assertion by evaluating psychological alterations associated
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The experience of athletes and practitioners has led to the suggestion that use of an athlete self-report measure (ASRM) may increase an athlete’s self-awareness, satisfaction, motivation, and confidence. This study sought to provide empirical evidence for this assertion by evaluating psychological alterations associated with ASRM use across a diverse athlete population. Athletes (n = 335) had access to an ASRM for 16 weeks and completed an online survey at baseline, and weeks 4, 8, and 16. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between ASRM compliance and outcome measures. Compared to baseline, confidence and extrinsic motivation were most likely increased at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Satisfaction and intrinsic motivation were most likely decreased at week 4, but no different to baseline values at weeks 8 and 16. Novice athletes and those who were instructed to use an ASRM (rather than using one autonomously) were less responsive to ASRM use. This study provides preliminary evidence for ASRM to prompt initial dissatisfaction and decreased intrinsic motivation which, along with increased confidence and extrinsic motivation, may provide the necessary stimulus to improve performance-related behaviors. Novice and less autonomous athletes may benefit from support to develop motivation, knowledge, and skills to use the information gleaned from an ASRM effectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Sport Participation and Chronic Diseases among Men in the USA: An Examination of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Sports 2017, 5(3), 56; doi:10.3390/sports5030056
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Sport participation has been associated with lower rates of chronic diseases when compared to other forms of physical activity (PA) among women. However, we do not know if this relationship holds true for men. The purpose of this study was to examine the
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Sport participation has been associated with lower rates of chronic diseases when compared to other forms of physical activity (PA) among women. However, we do not know if this relationship holds true for men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport participation and men’s health and chronic diseases in the USA. This study was a secondary data analysis of the 2015 national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Participants were questioned extensively about their PA behaviors. Seventy-six different activities were identified and these activities were categorized as sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, or household tasks based upon previously identified categories. Logistic regression was utilized to calculate odds and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases based on physical activity category. When compared to men who participated in sport, men in the other PA categories had significantly higher odds for all of the chronic diseases except asthma. After controlling for demographic variables, significant odds remain except for stroke. Higher odds for chronic diseases in the other PA categories indicates that men in these group have a higher risk for chronic diseases than men in the sport category. Because of the potential health improvements related to sports participation, it is important to maintain and increase sport participation for both adolescents and adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Heart Rate vs. Speed-Based High Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity of Female Soccer Players
Sports 2017, 5(3), 57; doi:10.3390/sports5030057
Received: 13 May 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two types of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs on aerobic and anaerobic capacity of female soccer players. Regional-level female athletes were randomly divided into heart rate-based HIIT (n = 8; age
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two types of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs on aerobic and anaerobic capacity of female soccer players. Regional-level female athletes were randomly divided into heart rate-based HIIT (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.1 year) and speed-based HIIT groups (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.3 year). Athletes trained three days per week for six weeks. Before and after training, each athlete’s performance was assessed directly through the Hoff test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT), and repeated-sprint ability test (RAST); maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), power and fatigue were estimated indirectly. Both experimental groups improved power, fatigue index and VO2max after training (p < 0.05). It was noteworthy that the speed-based group had greater gains in minimal power (effect size (ES): 3.99 vs. 0.75), average power (ES: 2.23 vs. 0.33), and fatigue index (ES: 2.53 vs. 0.17) compared to heart rate-based group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both heart rate-based and speed-based HIIT induced meaningful improvements in power, VO2max, and fatigue index in female soccer players, although the speed-based HIIT group achieved greater gains in power and fatigue index compared to the heart rate-based group. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Are We Compensating for the Lack of Physical Activity in Our Diabetic Patients with Treatment Intensification?
Sports 2017, 5(3), 58; doi:10.3390/sports5030058
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: We studied the association between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and glycemic control, body mass index (BMI), and hypoglycemic incidents in type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 198 diabetic patients (60 with
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Background: We studied the association between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and glycemic control, body mass index (BMI), and hypoglycemic incidents in type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 198 diabetic patients (60 with type 1 diabetes, 138 with type 2 diabetes). LTPA was assessed by a validated 12-month questionnaire. Patients were grouped as sedentary and moderately to vigorously active. Outcome measures were Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), BMI, and hypoglycemic episodes. Results: LTPA effect on the HbA1c reduction was present in diabetes type 1 patients. Patients who were involved in the moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity had a greater decrease in the HbA1c (p = 0.048) than patients with low physical activity (p = 0.085). Level of LTPA was neither associated with increased number of hypoglycemic episodes, nor BMI. After an average of 4 years of diabetes, the number of patients requiring more than one antidiabetic agent increased, although the observed difference did not correlate with LTPA level. Conclusions: LTPA has an influence on the regulation of diabetes type 1, and intensification of medical treatment is compensating for the lack of lifestyle change—especially in type 2 diabetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Longitudinal Change in the Relationship between Fundamental Motor Skills and Perceived Competence: Kindergarten to Grade 2
Sports 2017, 5(3), 59; doi:10.3390/sports5030059
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
As children transition from early to middle childhood, the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of physical competence should strengthen as skills improve and inflated early childhood perceptions decrease. This study examined change in motor skills and perceptions of physical competence and
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As children transition from early to middle childhood, the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of physical competence should strengthen as skills improve and inflated early childhood perceptions decrease. This study examined change in motor skills and perceptions of physical competence and the relationship between those variables from kindergarten to grade 2. Participants were 250 boys and girls (Mean age = 5 years 8 months in kindergarten). Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions were assessed using a pictorial scale of perceived competence. Mixed-design analyses of variance revealed there was a significant increase in object-control skills and perceptions from kindergarten to grade 2, but no change in locomotor skills. In kindergarten, linear regression showed that locomotor skills and object-control skills explained 10% and 9% of the variance, respectively, in perceived competence for girls, and 7% and 11%, respectively, for boys. In grade 2, locomotor skills predicted 11% and object-control skills predicted 19% of the variance in perceptions of physical competence, but only among the boys. Furthermore, the relationship between motor skills and perceptions of physical competence strengthened for boys only from early to middle childhood. However, it seems that forces other than motor skill proficiency influenced girls’ perceptions of their abilities in grade 2. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Do Image-Assisted Mobile Applications Improve Dietary Habits, Knowledge, and Behaviours in Elite Athletes? A Pilot Study
Sports 2017, 5(3), 60; doi:10.3390/sports5030060
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
To date, there has been a paucity of research on optimal ways to educate and promote dietary behavioural change within athletes. Optimising athlete nutrition is fundamental to reaching peak performance and maintaining athlete wellbeing. MealLogger® is a smartphone application that incorporates the
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To date, there has been a paucity of research on optimal ways to educate and promote dietary behavioural change within athletes. Optimising athlete nutrition is fundamental to reaching peak performance and maintaining athlete wellbeing. MealLogger® is a smartphone application that incorporates the use of an image-based food record and social-media functionality to provide in-application personalised feedback to individuals or groups, peer-support, and a platform to deliver nutrition education material. This study measured the feasibility of MealLogger® within New Zealand elite male field hockey players (n = 17) aged 18–20 to increase athlete knowledge and nutrition promoting behaviours. During a six-week intervention, participants were instructed to log images of their meals three days per week and they received individualised dietetic feedback on logged meals. Weekly nutrition-education fact-sheets and videos were delivered through the application. Nutrition knowledge increased moderately from baseline (%Pre 54.7 ± 14.3; %Post 61.1 ± 11.45, p = 0.01). Participants report a highly positive experience of application use (8/10) with 82.3% attempting to make positive changes in dietary behaviours based on in-app education. All participants preferred this method to traditional methods of dietary analysis. Using image-based applications such as MealLogger® is an effective approach to monitor dietary intake and deliver education to optimise the nutritional behaviours of elite athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Efficacy of Carbohydrate Ingestion on CrossFit Exercise Performance
Sports 2017, 5(3), 61; doi:10.3390/sports5030061
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
The efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during high-intensity strength and conditioning type exercise has yield mixed results. However, little is known about shorter duration high-intensity exercise such as CrossFit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance impact of CHO ingestion
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The efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during high-intensity strength and conditioning type exercise has yield mixed results. However, little is known about shorter duration high-intensity exercise such as CrossFit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance impact of CHO ingestion during high-intensity exercise sessions lasting approximately 30 min. Eight healthy males participated in a total of four trials; two familiarizations, a CHO trial, and a similarly flavored, non-caloric placebo (PLA) trial. CrossFit’s “Fight Gone Bad Five” (FGBF) workout of the day was the exercise model which incorporated five rounds of maximal repetition exercises, wall throw, box jump, sumo deadlift high pull, push press, and rowing, followed by one minute of rest. Total repetitions and calories expended were summated from each round to quantify total work (FGBF score). No difference was found for the total work between CHO (321 ± 51) or PLA (314 ± 52) trials (p = 0.38). There were also no main effects (p > 0.05) for treatment comparing exercise performance across rounds. Based on the findings of this study, it does not appear that ingestion of CHO during short duration, high-intensity CrossFit exercise will provide a beneficial performance effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Health Care as a Team Sport?—Studying Athletics to Improve Interprofessional Collaboration
Sports 2017, 5(3), 62; doi:10.3390/sports5030062
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Organizations value teamwork and collaboration as they strive to build culture and attain their goals and objectives. Sports provide a useful and easily accessible means to study teamwork. Interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) has been identified as a means of improving patient and population
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Organizations value teamwork and collaboration as they strive to build culture and attain their goals and objectives. Sports provide a useful and easily accessible means to study teamwork. Interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) has been identified as a means of improving patient and population health outcomes. Principles of teamwork in sports can inform health professionals and organizations regarding possible improvement strategies and barriers in the optimization of IPCP. Twenty-eight delegates from the 2017 All Together Better Health Conference in Oxford, UK participated in a World Café to discuss the how teamwork in sports can inform IPCP in healthcare and sports medicine. These discussions were captured, transcribed and coded using the domains developed by the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) along with extrapersonal or interpersonal loci. Extrapersonal factors regarding structure of leadership, roles and organizational commitment can be positive factors to promote teamwork. However, interpersonal factors affecting communication, values and lack of commitment to collaboration can serve as barriers. Athletic trainers and other sports medicine professionals can serve as valuable members of interprofessional teams and teamwork is essential in the field of sports medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athletic Training)
Open AccessArticle Differences in Vertical Jump Force-Time Characteristics between Stronger and Weaker Adolescent Basketball Players
Sports 2017, 5(3), 63; doi:10.3390/sports5030063
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
The countermovement jump (CMJ) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) are commonly used to compare one’s force capacity during dynamic and isometric assessments, respectively. However, little research has investigated the influence of maximum isometric strength on drop-jump (DJ) performance. Therefore, the purpose of this
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The countermovement jump (CMJ) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) are commonly used to compare one’s force capacity during dynamic and isometric assessments, respectively. However, little research has investigated the influence of maximum isometric strength on drop-jump (DJ) performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore differences in CMJ and DJ force-time characteristics between stronger and weaker adolescent male basketball players. Sixteen adolescent male basketball players performed the IMTP to assess measures of peak force (IMTP PF), whereas CMJ and DJ calculated a range of kinetic and kinematic variables. Peak concentric force (CMJ-PF) in the CMJ was greater for stronger players (d = 1.99). However, no differences in DJ force-time characteristics existed between stronger and weaker players. Future research should be undertaken to investigate the role of maximum strength on DJ force-time characteristics in adolescent male basketball players. Such studies may help direct the creation of athlete training and monitoring programs more effectively to represent accurate player profiling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Strength on Performance in Athletic Tasks)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of a 4-Week, Intensified Training, and Competition Period on Salivary Hormones, Immunoglobulin A, Illness Symptoms, and Mood State in Elite Synchronised Swimmers
Sports 2017, 5(3), 64; doi:10.3390/sports5030064
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 27 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Given the limited research into the physiological and psychological demands of elite synchronised swimming, the aim of this study was to examine 10 elite female synchronised swimmers and analyse the relationship between training load, stress, illness episodes, and salivary biomarkers during a period
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Given the limited research into the physiological and psychological demands of elite synchronised swimming, the aim of this study was to examine 10 elite female synchronised swimmers and analyse the relationship between training load, stress, illness episodes, and salivary biomarkers during a period of training and competition. Saliva samples were collected before (BASE), during an intensified training camp (CAMP), during an international competition period (COMP), and post competition recovery (REC) for analysis of cortisol, testosterone, and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Illness symptoms, Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes (DALDA), and training load were also monitored. Training load significantly increased from BASE during CAMP and COMP (p < 0.01), and SIgA secretion was higher during COMP compared to BASE and CAMP (p < 0.01). There was no change in salivary testosterone; however, salivary cortisol was elevated during COMP compared to BASE (93%, p < 0.05). DALDA ‘a scores’ were correlated with salivary cortisol (r = 0.429, p = 0.0001). The study demonstrates that a short period of intensified training and competition did not have a detrimental effect on mucosal immunity in elite synchronised swimmers; however, swimmers displayed higher cortisol levels during the competition and increased stress symptoms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Between-Leg Mechanical Differences as Measured by the Bulgarian Split-Squat: Exploring Asymmetries and Relationships with Sprint Acceleration
Sports 2017, 5(3), 65; doi:10.3390/sports5030065
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Between-leg strength differences can negatively influence sprint acceleration. The challenge is to find a method to measure this within a unilateral exercise. This study analyzed a five repetition-maximum (5RM) Bulgarian split-squat (BSS) to identify between-leg differences for the dominant and non-dominant legs in
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Between-leg strength differences can negatively influence sprint acceleration. The challenge is to find a method to measure this within a unilateral exercise. This study analyzed a five repetition-maximum (5RM) Bulgarian split-squat (BSS) to identify between-leg differences for the dominant and non-dominant legs in peak and mean power, force, and velocity as measured by a linear position transducer. Between-leg differences in these variables were correlated with 20-m (0–5, 0–10, 0–20 m intervals) sprint velocity. Eight men were assessed in the 5RM BSS and 20-m sprint. T-tests calculated between-leg differences in power, force, and velocity. Spearman’s correlations calculated relationships between the between-leg differences in the mechanical variables with velocity over each interval. When comparing the dominant and non-dominant legs, there were significant (p = 0.002–0.056) differences in 11 of 12 variables. However, percentage differences were low (~0.3–12%). There was one large, non-significant correlation (best repetition mean force between-leg difference and 0–5 m velocity; ρ = −0.810) out of 36 relationships. The BSS can provide a profile of between-leg differences in power, force, and velocity. There were limited relationships between the BSS between-leg differences and 20-m sprint velocities. Smaller between-leg differences in BSS power, force, and velocity could ensure minimal impact on acceleration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Strength on Performance in Athletic Tasks)
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Open AccessArticle The Relationships between Hip and Knee Extensor Cross-Sectional Area, Strength, Power, and Potentiation Characteristics
Sports 2017, 5(3), 66; doi:10.3390/sports5030066
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal strength, power output, and maximum potentiation characteristics. The vastus lateralis and biceps femoris CSA, one repetition maximum (1RM) back squat, 1RM concentric-only half-squat (COHS) strength, static jump
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal strength, power output, and maximum potentiation characteristics. The vastus lateralis and biceps femoris CSA, one repetition maximum (1RM) back squat, 1RM concentric-only half-squat (COHS) strength, static jump power output, and maximum potentiation characteristics of 17 resistance-trained men was assessed during several testing sessions. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between CSA, strength, power output, and maximum potentiation measures. Moderate-to-strong relationships existed between CSA and strength measures (r = 0.462–0.643) as well as power output (r = 0.396–0.683). In addition, moderate-to-strong relationships existed between strength and power output (r = 0.407–0.548), while trivial relationships existed between strength and maximum potentiation (r = −0.013–0.149). Finally, small negative relationships existed between CSA and maximum potentiation measures (r = −0.229–−0.239). The results of the current study provide evidence of the interplay between muscle CSA, strength, power, and potentiation. Vastus lateralis and biceps femoris CSA may positively influence an individual’s back squat and COHS maximal strength and squat jump peak power; however, muscle CSA and absolute strength measures may not contribute to an individual’s potentiation capacity. Practitioners may consider implementing resistance training strategies that improve vastus lateralis and biceps femoris size in order to benefit back squat and COHS strength. Furthermore, implementing squatting variations—both full and partial—may benefit jumping performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Strength on Performance in Athletic Tasks)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Utility of the Supine-to-Stand Test as a Measure of Functional Motor Competence in Children Aged 5–9 Years
Sports 2017, 5(3), 67; doi:10.3390/sports5030067
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
This study examined how supine-to-stand (STS) performance is related to process and product assessment of motor competence (MC) in children. Ninety-one children aged 5–9 years were assessed for process and product MC (10 m running speed and standing long jump) as well as
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This study examined how supine-to-stand (STS) performance is related to process and product assessment of motor competence (MC) in children. Ninety-one children aged 5–9 years were assessed for process and product MC (10 m running speed and standing long jump) as well as process and product measures of STS. Tertiles were created for STS process and STS product scores to create 3 groups reflecting low, medium, and high STS competency. ANCOVA analysis, controlling for age, for process STS, indicated that process MC was significantly higher in children, classified as medium STS (p = 0.048) and high STS (p = 0.011) competence, and that 10 m run speed was slower for low STS compared to medium (p = 0.019) and high STS (p = 0.004). For product STS tertiles, process MC was significantly higher for children in the lowest (fastest) STS tertile compared to those in the medium highest (slowest) tertile (p = 0.01). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Relationships between Isometric Force-Time Characteristics and Dynamic Performance
Sports 2017, 5(3), 68; doi:10.3390/sports5030068
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) force-time characteristics (peak force and time-specific force vales (100–250 ms)) and dynamic performance and compare dynamic performance between stronger and weaker athletes. Forty-three athletes from different sports (rowing,
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The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) force-time characteristics (peak force and time-specific force vales (100–250 ms)) and dynamic performance and compare dynamic performance between stronger and weaker athletes. Forty-three athletes from different sports (rowing, soccer, bicycle motocross, and hockey) performed three trials of the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and IMTP, and performed a one repetition maximum power clean (PC). Reactive strength index modified (RSImod) was also calculated from the CMJ. Statistically significant large correlations between IMTP force-time characteristics and PC (ρ = 0.569–0.674, p < 0.001), and moderate correlations between IMTP force-time characteristics (excluding force at 100 ms) and RSImod (ρ = 0.389–0.449, p = 0.013–0.050) were observed. Only force at 250 ms demonstrated a statistically significant moderate correlation with CMJ height (ρ = 0.346, p = 0.016) and no statistically significant associations were observed between IMTP force-time characteristics and SJ height. Stronger athletes (top 10) demonstrated statistically significantly greater CMJ heights, RSImods, and PCs (p ≤ 0.004, g = 1.32–1.89) compared to weaker (bottom 10) athletes, but no differences in SJ height were observed (p = 0.871, g = 0.06). These findings highlight that the ability to apply rapidly high levels of force in short time intervals is integral for PC, CMJ height, and reactive strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Strength on Performance in Athletic Tasks)
Open AccessArticle Effect of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Performance during the Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test in Trained Youth and Recreationally Active Male Football Players
Sports 2017, 5(3), 69; doi:10.3390/sports5030069
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
It was observed previously that New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract reduced slowing of the maximal 15 m sprint speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. We examined the effect of NZBC extract on the performance of the Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST,
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It was observed previously that New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract reduced slowing of the maximal 15 m sprint speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. We examined the effect of NZBC extract on the performance of the Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST, 6 × 35-m sprints with 10 seconds passive recovery) in trained youth and recreationally active football players. Fifteen recreationally active (University team) (age: 20 ± 1 years, height: 174 ± 19 cm, body mass: 80 ± 13 kg) and nine trained youth players (English professional club) (age: 17 ± 0 years, height: 178 ± 8 cm, body mass: 69 ± 9 kg, mean ± SD) participated in three testing sessions. Prior to the RASTs, participants consumed two capsules of NZBC extract (600 mg∙day−1 CurraNZ®) or placebo (P) for 7 days (double blind, randomised, cross-over design, wash-out at least 14 days). Ability difference between groups was shown by sprint 1 time. In the placebo condition, trained youth players had faster times for sprint 1 (5.00 ± 0.05 s) than recreationally active players (5.42 ± 0.08 s) (p < 0.01). In trained youth players, there was a trend for an effect of NZBC extract (p = 0.10) on the slowing of the sprint 1 time. NZBC extract reduced slowing of the sprint 5 time (P: 0.56 ± 0.22 s; NZBC: 0.35 ± 0.25, p = 0.02) and this was not observed in recreationally active players (P: 0.57 ± 0.48 s; NZBC: 0.56 ± 0.33, p = 0.90). For fatigue index, expressed as a % change in fastest sprint time, there was a strong trend to be lower in both trained youth and recreationally active players combined by NZBC extract (P: −13 ± 7%; NZBC: −11 ± 6%, p = 0.06) with 12 participants (five trained youth) experiencing less fatigue. New Zealand blackcurrant extract seems to benefit repeated sprint performance only in trained football players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparison of Different Minimal Velocity Thresholds to Establish Deadlift One Repetition Maximum
Sports 2017, 5(3), 70; doi:10.3390/sports5030070 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the actual deadlift one repetition maximum (1RM) and the deadlift 1RM predicted from individualised load-velocity profiles. Twelve moderately resistance-trained men participated in three deadlift sessions. During the first, 1RM was assessed; during the second, load-velocity
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The aim of this study was to compare the actual deadlift one repetition maximum (1RM) and the deadlift 1RM predicted from individualised load-velocity profiles. Twelve moderately resistance-trained men participated in three deadlift sessions. During the first, 1RM was assessed; during the second, load-velocity profiles were recorded with six loads (65% to 90% 1RM) using a linear position transducer recording at 1000 Hz; and during the third, minimal velocity thresholds (MVT) were recorded from the velocity of the last repetition during sets to volitional fatigue with 70% and 80% 1RM with a linear position transducer recording at 1000 Hz. Regression was then used to generate individualised load-velocity profiles and the MVT was used as a cut-off value from which to predict deadlift 1RM. In general, velocity reliability was poor to moderate. More importantly, predicted deadlift 1RMs were significantly and meaningfully less than actual deadlift 1RMs (p < 0.05, d = 1.03–1.75). The main practical application that should be taken from the results of this study is that individualized load-velocity profiles should not be used to predict deadlift 1RM. Practitioners should not use this method in combination with the application of MVT obtained from the last repetition of sets to volitional fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Strength on Performance in Athletic Tasks)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Determinants and Reasons for Dropout in Swimming —Systematic Review
Sports 2017, 5(3), 50; doi:10.3390/sports5030050
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
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Abstract
The present research aims to systematically review the determinants and reasons for swimming dropout. The systematic review was conducted through electronic searches on the Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo databases from 2 February to 29 July 2015, using the keywords dropout, withdrawal, motives,
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The present research aims to systematically review the determinants and reasons for swimming dropout. The systematic review was conducted through electronic searches on the Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo databases from 2 February to 29 July 2015, using the keywords dropout, withdrawal, motives, reasons, sport, framework-theories, motivation, swim*, review, attrition and compliance. Fifteen studies were found and six were fully reviewed and its data extracted and analysed. Most studies were undertaken in Canada and in the United States of America (USA), and one study was conducted in Spain. Most participants were female (65.74%), and the main reasons for dropout were ‘conflicts with their trainers’, ‘other things to do’, ‘competence improvements’ failure’, ‘parents, couples or trainers’ pressure’, ‘lack of enjoyment’ and ‘get bored’. This review contributes to the present knowledge on the understanding of dropout in swimming. However, it is necessary to continue researching on this topic, validating measurement instruments and studying the motivational processes related to dropout and persistence. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Acute and Chronic Effects of Isometric Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Variables in Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review
Sports 2017, 5(3), 55; doi:10.3390/sports5030055
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe, through a systematic review, the acute and chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular variables in hypertensive individuals. In this systematic review, we included studies that analyzed whether a single bout or a program
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The aim of this study was to describe, through a systematic review, the acute and chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular variables in hypertensive individuals. In this systematic review, we included studies that analyzed whether a single bout or a program with isometric exercises affect cardiovascular variables in hypertensive adults. The electronic database PubMed/Medline was searched for relevant studies published until May 2017. Of the 2927 studies initially identified, 2916 were excluded based on title and abstract and five on the basis of full-text assessment, leaving six studies remaining. In addition, one further study cited in the references of the included articles was included in this review, totaling seven studies included (five studies on the chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular parameters). None of the acute studies observed post-exercise hypotension. The majority of the chronic studies found decreases in office blood pressure after isometric handgrip training, with training ranging from 6 to 10 weeks, while heart rate variability parameters were improved in one study and did not change in another. Reduction in oxidative stress was observed; however, this variable was only analyzed in one study. In hypertensives, acute responses to isometric handgrip exercise are very limited due to the small number of studies, therefore more research is required. Furthermore, chronic isometric handgrip training reduces blood pressure; however, there is still a gap in the knowledge on the effects of this modality of exercise on other cardiovascular variables—such as endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cardiac autonomic modulation—which should be addressed in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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