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Metals, Volume 8, Issue 3 (March 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Shot peening is a surface treatment commonly used to improve the fatigue behaviour of mechanical [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Online Surface Defect Identification of Cold Rolled Strips Based on Local Binary Pattern and Extreme Learning Machine
Metals 2018, 8(3), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030197
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
In the production of cold-rolled strip, the strip surface may suffer from various defects which need to be detected and identified using an online inspection system. The system is equipped with high-speed and high-resolution cameras to acquire images from the moving strip surface.
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In the production of cold-rolled strip, the strip surface may suffer from various defects which need to be detected and identified using an online inspection system. The system is equipped with high-speed and high-resolution cameras to acquire images from the moving strip surface. Features are then extracted from the images and are used as inputs of a pre-trained classifier to identify the type of defect. New types of defect often appear in production. At this point the pre-trained classifier needs to be quickly retrained and deployed in seconds to meet the requirement of the online identification of all defects in the environment of a continuous production line. Therefore, the method for extracting the image features and the training for the classification model should be automated and fast enough, normally within seconds. This paper presents our findings in investigating the computational and classification performance of various feature extraction methods and classification models for the strip surface defect identification. The methods include Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) and Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The classifiers we have assessed include Back Propagation (BP) neural network, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM). By comparing various combinations of different feature extraction and classification methods, our experiments show that the hybrid method of LBP for feature extraction and ELM for defect classification results in less training and identification time with higher classification accuracy, which satisfied online real-time identification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Martensitic Transformation and Plastic Deformation of TiCuNiZr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites
Metals 2018, 8(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030196
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of TiCuNiZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMGs) composites were systematically investigated in order to optimize both the strength and the ductility of BMGs. By tailoring the glass-forming compositions, TiCuNiZr-based BMG composites with different volume fractions
[...] Read more.
In this study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of TiCuNiZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMGs) composites were systematically investigated in order to optimize both the strength and the ductility of BMGs. By tailoring the glass-forming compositions, TiCuNiZr-based BMG composites with different volume fractions of B2 (Ti,Zr)(Cu,Ni) crystals precipitating in the glassy matrix exhibit not only macroscopic ductility but also high strength as well as work-hardening, which is due to the formation of multiple shear bands and martensitic transformation during deformation. Optimized mechanical properties can be achieved when the crystalline volume fraction is at least higher than 44 vol. %, which is attributed to the sizeable difference between Young’s moduli of the B2 (Ti,Zr)(Cu,Ni) crystals and the glassy matrix, and the precipitation of Ti2Cu intermetallic compounds at the B2 crystal boundaries. Our study provides a complementary understanding of how to tailor mechanical properties of TiCu-based BMG composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Glasses: Pathways to Viable Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Stress Corrosion Cracking Behaviour of Dissimilar Welding of AISI 310S Austenitic Stainless Steel to 2304 Duplex Stainless Steel
Metals 2018, 8(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030195
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The influence of the weld metal chemistry on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of dissimilar weldments between 310S austenitic stainless steel and 2304 duplex steels was investigated by constant load tests and microstructural examination. Two filler metals (E309L and E2209) were used
[...] Read more.
The influence of the weld metal chemistry on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of dissimilar weldments between 310S austenitic stainless steel and 2304 duplex steels was investigated by constant load tests and microstructural examination. Two filler metals (E309L and E2209) were used to produce fusion zones of different chemical compositions. The SCC results showed that the heat affected zone (HAZ) on the 2304 base metal side of the weldments was the most susceptible region to SCC for both filler metals tested. The SCC results also showed that the weldments with 2209 duplex steel filler metal presented the best SCC resistance when compared to the weldments with E309L filler metal. The lower SCC resistance of the dissimilar joint with 309L austenitic steel filler metal may be attributed to (1) the presence of brittle chi/sigma phase in the HAZ on the 2304 base metal, which produced SC cracks in this region and (2) the presence of a semi-continuous delta-ferrite network in the fusion zone which favored the nucleation and propagation of SC cracks from the fusion zone to HAZ of the 2304 stainless steel. Thus, the SC cracks from the fusion zone associated with the SC cracks of 2304 HAZ decreased considerably the time-of-fracture on this region, where the fracture occurred. Although the dissimilar weldment with E2209 filler metal also presented SC cracks in the HAZ on the 2304 side, it did not present the delta ferrite network in the fusion zone due to its chemical composition. Fractography analyses showed that the mixed fracture mode was predominant for both filler metals used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Trace Be and Sc Additions on the Mechanical Properties of A357 Alloys
Metals 2018, 8(3), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030194
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
The effect of the addition of Be and Sc on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A357 alloy were systematically investigated. The results show that the addition of small amounts of Be and Sc could change the acicular structure of iron-bearing intermetallic compounds
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The effect of the addition of Be and Sc on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A357 alloy were systematically investigated. The results show that the addition of small amounts of Be and Sc could change the acicular structure of iron-bearing intermetallic compounds to harmless compact Al-Fe-Si and Sc-Fe iron-bearing intermetallic compounds. Compact iron-bearing intermetallic compounds could improve fluidity, causing a reduction in interdendritic shrinkage during solidification. The addition of 0.05 wt % Be enhanced the quality index of the A357 alloy by 11% and increased the notch-yield ratio of fracture toughness by 4.5%. In contrast, the addition of 0.05 wt % Sc increased the quality index and the notch to yield ratio of fracture toughness up to 17% and 9%, respectively. Therefore, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the A357 alloy could be improved by substituting Be with Sc. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Workability on the Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Modified 9Cr-2W Steel for Fuel Cladding by Cold Drawing Process and Intermediate Heat Treatment Condition
Metals 2018, 8(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030193
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 18 March 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the cold drawing workability of two kinds of modified 9Cr-2W steel containing different contents of boron and nitrogen depending on the temperature and time of normalizing and tempering treatments. Using ring compression tests at room temperature, the effect
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In this study, we evaluated the cold drawing workability of two kinds of modified 9Cr-2W steel containing different contents of boron and nitrogen depending on the temperature and time of normalizing and tempering treatments. Using ring compression tests at room temperature, the effect of intermediate heat treatment condition on workability was investigated. It was found that the prior austenite grain size can be changed by the austenite transformation and that the grain size increases with increasing temperature during normalizing heat treatment. Alloy B and Alloy N showed different patterns after normalizing heat treatment. Alloy N had higher stress than Alloy B, and the reduction in alloy N increased while the reduction in alloy B decreased. Alloy B showed a larger number of initially formed cracks and a larger average crack length than Alloy N. Crack length and number increased proportionally in Alloy B as the stress increased. Alloy B had lower crack resistance than Alloy N due to boron segregation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Speed Finish Turning of Inconel 718 Using PCBN Tools under Dry Conditions
Metals 2018, 8(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030192
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
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Abstract
Inconel 718 is a superalloy, considered one of the least machinable materials. Tools must withstand a high level of temperatures and pressures in a very localized area, the abrasiveness of the hard carbides contained in the Inconel 718 microstructure and the adhesion tendency
[...] Read more.
Inconel 718 is a superalloy, considered one of the least machinable materials. Tools must withstand a high level of temperatures and pressures in a very localized area, the abrasiveness of the hard carbides contained in the Inconel 718 microstructure and the adhesion tendency during its machining. Mechanical properties along with the low thermal conductivity become an important issue for the tool wear. The finishing operations for Inconel 718 are usually performed after solution heat treatment and age hardening of the material to give the superalloy a higher level of hardness. Carbide tools, cutting fluid (at normal or high pressures) and low cutting speed are the main recommendations for finish turning of Inconel 718. However, dry machining is preferable to the use of cutting fluids, because of its lower environmental impact and cost. Previous research has concluded that the elimination of cutting fluid in these processes is feasible when using hard carbide tools. Recent development of new PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) grades for cutting tools with higher tenacity has allowed the application of these tool grades in the finishing operations of Inconel 718. This work studies the performance of commercial PCBN tools from four different tool manufacturers as well as an additional grade with equivalent performance during finish turning of Inconel 718 under dry conditions. Wear tests were carried out with different cutting conditions, determining the evolution of machining forces, surface roughness and tool wear. It is concluded that it is not industrially viable the high-speed finishing of Inconel 718 in a dry environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machining and Finishing of Nickel and Titanium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties of ARMCO® Iron after Large and Severe Plastic Deformation—Application Potential for Precursors to Ultrafine Grained Microstructures
Metals 2018, 8(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030191
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
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Abstract
Ultrafine grained (UFG) metals processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) are well known for their outstanding mechanical properties, yet, current applications are very limited mostly due to the elaborate processing. The present work investigates the microstructures and mechanical properties of precursors to UFG
[...] Read more.
Ultrafine grained (UFG) metals processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) are well known for their outstanding mechanical properties, yet, current applications are very limited mostly due to the elaborate processing. The present work investigates the microstructures and mechanical properties of precursors to UFG microstructures that evolve at strains below the levels required for UFG microstructures, which implies less processing effort. ARMCO® iron is subjected to a single pass of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), cold rolling, as well as a combination of both processes and compared to strain–free samples and a UFG reference condition subjected to five ECAP passes. All conditions are characterized regarding their microstructures and mechanical properties using electron backscatter diffraction, tensile tests, and rotating bending fatigue test. The precursor states show intermediate properties in between those of the strain-free and the UFG reference condition. Compared to the processing effort, the difference in properties between precursors and UFG reference is relatively small. Especially a combination of a single ECAP pass followed by cold rolling is a good compromise in terms of processing effort and mechanical properties with an endurance limit being less than 10% lower as compared to the UFG reference condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Properties of Bulk Nanostructured Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Energetic Approach to Predict the Effect of Shot Peening-Based Surface Treatments
Metals 2018, 8(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030190
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
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Abstract
Almen intensity and surface coverage are well-known to be the defining parameters of shot peening-based surface treatments. These parameters are directly affected by material properties, the extension of the contact zone, the geometry of the impact pair, as well as the impact rate
[...] Read more.
Almen intensity and surface coverage are well-known to be the defining parameters of shot peening-based surface treatments. These parameters are directly affected by material properties, the extension of the contact zone, the geometry of the impact pair, as well as the impact rate and velocity. Such intricate relationships have resulted in often dissimilar predictions of shot peening effects even while using an identical combination of Almen intensity and surface coverage. With the fast pace introduction of new generation impact-based surface treatments, there is a need to find a more widespread parameter that would facilitate the direct comparison of all different treatments and relate the main process parameters to the resultant mechanical characteristics. Herein, we propose to use an energy-based parameter to describe the peening process in a more widespread approach, which collectively incorporates the effects of the Almen intensity and surface coverage, as well as the diameter, material, and velocity of the impact media. A set of finite element analyses was developed to demonstrate the correlation of the peening process effects with this energetic approach. Comparisons with the experimental data served as proof of concept, confirming that the proposed method could provide a quite good estimation of the effect of peening parameters on the treated material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinetic Surface Treatments)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Heating Mode on Sinterability of YSZ+CeO2 Ceramics
Metals 2018, 8(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030189
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
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Abstract
In the current research work, a comparative study on densification and microstructural evolution of CeO2 particle reinforced 8 mol % yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) sintered ceramics has been carried out. The ceramic compacts were fabricated via microwave and conventional sintering methods. The
[...] Read more.
In the current research work, a comparative study on densification and microstructural evolution of CeO2 particle reinforced 8 mol % yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) sintered ceramics has been carried out. The ceramic compacts were fabricated via microwave and conventional sintering methods. The sintering conditions that were used for microwave and conventional methods are 1400 °C for 20 min and 1400 °C for 5 h, respectively. The sintered samples were characterized for densification, microstructural behavior, and hardness. Microwave sintering method of sintering resulted in high sintered densities as compared to the conventional counter parts. Microwave sintered samples exhibited finer grains as compared to conventionally sintered specimens. The grain size of the 8YSZ+CeO2 sintered ceramics was found to decrease with CeO2 addition. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed no phase change because of CeO2 addition. The Vickers hardness was found to increase with increasing amount of CeO2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Porosity on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistances of PM-Fabricated Porous Ti-10Mo Alloy
Metals 2018, 8(3), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030188
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
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Abstract
Porous binary Ti-10Mo alloys were prepared using non-spherical titanium, molybdenum powders by the powder metallurgy (PM) space holder technique. Based on the three-dimensional analysis of porosity characteristics, a detailed assessment of the effects of porosity on mechanical properties and corrosion resistances in phosphate-buffered
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Porous binary Ti-10Mo alloys were prepared using non-spherical titanium, molybdenum powders by the powder metallurgy (PM) space holder technique. Based on the three-dimensional analysis of porosity characteristics, a detailed assessment of the effects of porosity on mechanical properties and corrosion resistances in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was carried out. For comparison, PM-fabricated CP-Ti with 50.5% porosity sintered at 1200 °C for 2 h and dense Ti-10Mo alloy sintered at 1450 °C for 2 h (relative density is 97.2% and porosity is 2.8%) were studied simultaneously. The results show that with the space-holder volume contents rising from 63 to 79%, the open porosity and average pore size (d50) increase remarkably, while the pore size distribution (d10d90) tends to be stable at about 100 μm. The average pore sizes (d50) of porous Ti-10Mo alloy can be controlled in the range of 70–380 μm. The PM-fabricated porous Ti-10Mo alloy can achieve a wide range of mechanical properties, with yield compression strength of 248.2–76.9 MPa, and elastic modulus of 6.4–1.7 GPa. In addition, the yield compression strength and the elastic modulus meet the linear regression and exponential formula, respectively. With the porosity of Ti-10Mo alloy increasing from 2.8 to 66.9%, the corrosion rate rises exponentially from 1.6 g/m2·day to 17.1 g/m2·day. In comparison to CP Ti with nearly the same porosity, Ti-10Mo alloy shows significantly higher corrosion resistance. As a result, the relationships between porosity and mechanical properties, corrosion resistances of Ti-10Mo alloys were established, which can be used as a design reference in material selection for orthopedic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Synthesis and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Microstructural Evolution of a Low Alloy Steel by Different Shot Peening Treatments
Metals 2018, 8(3), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030187
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
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Abstract
Recent studies have shown that severe shot peening can be categorized as a severe plastic deformation surface treatment that is able to strongly modify the microstructure of the surface layer of materials, by both increasing the dislocation density and introducing a large number
[...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that severe shot peening can be categorized as a severe plastic deformation surface treatment that is able to strongly modify the microstructure of the surface layer of materials, by both increasing the dislocation density and introducing a large number of defects that define new grain boundaries and form ultrafine structure. In this work, conventional shot peening and severe shot peening treatments were applied to 39NiCrMo3 steel samples. The samples were characterized in terms of microstructure, surface roughness, microhardness, residual stresses, and surface work-hardening as a function of surface coverage. Particular attention was focused on the analysis of the microstructure to assess the evolution of grain size from the surface to the inner material to capture the gradient microstructure. Severe shot peening proved to cause a more remarkable improvement of the general mechanical characteristics compared to conventional shot peening; more significant improvement was associated with the microstructural alteration induced by the treatment. Our datas provide a detailed verification of the relationship between shot peening treatment parameters and the microstructure evolution from the treated surface to the core material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinetic Surface Treatments)
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Open AccessArticle Flow Behavior Characteristics and Processing Map of Fe-6.5wt. %Si Alloys during Hot Compression
Metals 2018, 8(3), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030186
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
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Abstract
The flow behavior of Fe-6.5wt. %Si alloys during hot compression was investigated at temperatures 650–950 °C and strain rates 0.01–10 s−1. The results showed that the flow stress depended distinctly on the deformation temperatures and strain rates. The flow stress and
[...] Read more.
The flow behavior of Fe-6.5wt. %Si alloys during hot compression was investigated at temperatures 650–950 °C and strain rates 0.01–10 s−1. The results showed that the flow stress depended distinctly on the deformation temperatures and strain rates. The flow stress and work hardening rate increased with the decrease of temperature and the increase of strain rate. The activation energy under all the deformation conditions was calculated to be 410 kJ/mol. The constitutive equation with hyperbolic sine function and Zener–Hollomon parameter was developed. The peak stress, critical stress, and steady-state stress could be represented as σ = A + Bln(Z/A). Dynamic recrystallization occurred under the deformation conditions where the values of Z were lower than 1020. Processing maps were established to optimize the processing parameters. The power dissipation efficiency decreased in the high temperature and low strain rate region, increased in the high temperature and high strain rate region, and remained unchanged in other regions with the increase of true strain. Furthermore, the unstable area expanded. The true strain of 0.7 was the optimum reduction according to the processing map. Based on the analysis of surface quality, microstructures, and ordered structures, the optimized processing parameters for the Fe-6.5wt. %Si alloys were the temperature and strain rate of higher than 900 °C and 0.01–10 s−1, respectively, or 800–900 °C and lower than 0.4 s−1, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Microstructure and Chip Formation When Machining Ti-6Al-4V
Metals 2018, 8(3), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030185
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
Microstructure and chip formation were evaluated during the step shoulder down-milling of Ti-6Al-4V using a water-miscible vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. Experiments were conducted using the Cut-list fluid supply system previous developed by the authors and a conventional cutting fluid supply system. A thin
[...] Read more.
Microstructure and chip formation were evaluated during the step shoulder down-milling of Ti-6Al-4V using a water-miscible vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. Experiments were conducted using the Cut-list fluid supply system previous developed by the authors and a conventional cutting fluid supply system. A thin plastically deformed layer below the machined surface was observed during the metallurgical investigation of the surfaces produced using both systems. Despite noticeable reductions in cutting fluid consumption achieved by Cut-list, no significant disparity was found in microstructural damage. The microstructure of the machined surfaces was strongly affected by cutting speed and fluid flow rate with a discontinuous serrated chip being the principal type. However, increases in cutting fluid flow rate associated with increased cutting speed significantly changed chip morphology where average distance between chip segments increased with cutting speed. Cut-list produced smaller saw-tooth height and larger segmented width, while the transition from aperiodic to periodic serrated chip formation was governed by cutting speed and feed rate. Chip segmentation frequency and shear angle were also sensitive to cutting speed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Hot Extrusion Process without Sintering by Applying MWCNTs/Al6061 Composites
Metals 2018, 8(3), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030184
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
For carbon nanotube (CNT)/Al composites, compaction forming is conducted for densification processing, and then sintering and secondary processes are conducted. This general process has problems such as the complexity of the processing procedures, and high manufacturing costs. This study presents a hot extrusion
[...] Read more.
For carbon nanotube (CNT)/Al composites, compaction forming is conducted for densification processing, and then sintering and secondary processes are conducted. This general process has problems such as the complexity of the processing procedures, and high manufacturing costs. This study presents a hot extrusion process without sintering for fabrication of CNTs/Al6061 composites. Before hot extrusion, preforms are fabricated by the compaction process for the mixture of Al6061 power and CNTs. Several hot extrusion experiments were performed under six types of CNT content; three extrusion ratios and three extrusion temperatures. The formability increased as the extrusion temperature increased for low CNT content. At 620 °C, the forming of all materials except for 10 vol % CNTs/Al6061 was possible at extrusion ratios R = 4, R = 8, and R = 16. As CNT content increases, extrusion pressure almost linearly increases. As the extrusion ratio increases, the extrusion pressure increases. The amount of CNT content increases as Vickers hardness increases. The Vicker’s hardness of 1 vol % CNTs/Al6061 billet is about 100 HV while that of 10 vol % CNTs/Al6061 billet is about 230 HV. There are no significant differences of compression stress according to extrusion ratio as observed in terms of pure Al6061, 1 vol % CNT/Al6061, and 3 vol % CNTs/Al6061. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Testing of Powder Metallurgy Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Modelling of Microstructure Evolution in Friction Stir Welding (FSW)
Metals 2018, 8(3), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030183
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
This work studies the metallurgical and microstructural aspects of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) in terms of grain size and microhardness. The modelling is based on the combination of an apropos kinematic framework for the local simulation of FSW processes and a material particle
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This work studies the metallurgical and microstructural aspects of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) in terms of grain size and microhardness. The modelling is based on the combination of an apropos kinematic framework for the local simulation of FSW processes and a material particle tracing technique for tracking the material flow during the weld. The resulting grain size and microhardness values are validated with experimental observations from an identical processed sample. A Sheppard-Wright constitutive relation is adopted to describe the mechanical behavior of AZ31 Mg alloy considered in this work. The strain rate and temperature histories obtained from the numerical model are stored on the tracers. The relationship among the grain size, microhardness, strain rate, and temperature is obtained using Zener-Hollomon parameter and Hall-Petch relationship. A linear description relates the logarithm of average grain size to the logarithm of Zener-Hollomon parameter. The relationship between microhardness and average grain size stands away from the linear trend. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Combined Hybrid 3-D/2-D Model for Flow and Solidification Prediction during Slab Continuous Casting
Metals 2018, 8(3), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030182
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
A combined hybrid 3-D/2-D simulation model was developed to investigate the flow and solidification phenomena in turbulent flow and laminar flow regions during slab continuous casting (CC). The 3-D coupling model and 2-D slicing model were applied to the turbulent flow and laminar
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A combined hybrid 3-D/2-D simulation model was developed to investigate the flow and solidification phenomena in turbulent flow and laminar flow regions during slab continuous casting (CC). The 3-D coupling model and 2-D slicing model were applied to the turbulent flow and laminar flow regions, respectively. In the simulation model, the uneven distribution of cooling water in the width direction of the strand was taken into account according to the nozzle collocation of secondary cooling zones. The results from the 3-D turbulent flow region show that the impact effect of the molten steel jet on the formation of a solidification shell is significant. The impact point is 457 mm below the meniscus, and the plug flow is formed 2442 mm below the meniscus. In the laminar flow region, grid independence tests indicate that the grids with a cell size of 10 × 10 mm2 are sufficient in simulations to attain the precise temperature distribution and solidification profile. The liquid core of the strand is not entirely uniform, and the solidification profile agrees well with the integrated distribution of cooling water in secondary cooling zones. The final solidification points are at a position of 400–500 mm in the width direction and are 17.66 m away from the meniscus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Casting)
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Open AccessReview Microstructure and Properties of Semi-Solid Aluminum Alloys: A Literature Review
Metals 2018, 8(3), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030181
Received: 4 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
Semi-solid processing of aluminum alloys is a well-known manufacturing technique able to combine high production rates with parts quality, resulting in high performance and reasonable component costs. The advantages offered by semi-solid processing are due to the shear thinning behavior of the thixotropic
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Semi-solid processing of aluminum alloys is a well-known manufacturing technique able to combine high production rates with parts quality, resulting in high performance and reasonable component costs. The advantages offered by semi-solid processing are due to the shear thinning behavior of the thixotropic slurries during the mold filling. This is related to the microstructure of these slurries consisting of solid, nondendritic, near-globular primary particles surrounded by a liquid matrix. This paper presents a review on the formation of this nondendritic microstructure, reports on the different proposed mechanisms that might be responsible, and illustrates the relationship between microstructure and properties, in particular, tensility, fatigue, wear, and corrosion resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semi-solid Processing of Alloys and Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Failure Analysis of PHILOS Plate Construct Used for Pantalar Arthrodesis Paper I—Analysis of the Plate
Metals 2018, 8(3), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030180
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
The failure of a proximal humerus internal locking system (PHILOS) used in a pantalar arthrodesis was investigated in this paper. PHILOS constructs are hybrids using locking and non-locking screws. Both the plate and the screws used in the fusion were obtained for analysis.
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The failure of a proximal humerus internal locking system (PHILOS) used in a pantalar arthrodesis was investigated in this paper. PHILOS constructs are hybrids using locking and non-locking screws. Both the plate and the screws used in the fusion were obtained for analysis. However, only the plate failure analysis is reported in this paper. The implant had failed in several pieces. Optical and scanning electron microscopic analyses were performed to characterize the failure mode(s) and fracture surface. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the plate were determined and compared to controlling specifications to manufacture the devices. We found that equivalent tensile strength exceeded at the locations of high stress, axial, and angular displacement and matched the specification at the regions of lower stress/displacement. Such a region-wise change in mechanical properties with in vivo utilization has not been reported in the literature. Evidence of inclusions was qualitatively determined for the stainless steel 316L plate failing the specifications. Pitting corrosion, scratches, discoloration and debris were present on the plate. Fracture surface showed (1) multi-site corrosion damage within the screw holes forming a 45° maximum shear force line for crack-linking, and (2) crack propagation perpendicular to the crack forming origin that may have formed due to the presence of inclusions. Fracture features such as beach marks and striations indicating that corrosion may have initiated the crack(s), which grew by fatigue over a period of time. In conclusion, the most likely mechanism of failure for the device was due to corrosion fatigue and lack of bony in-growth on the screws that may have caused loosening of the device causing deformity and pre-mature failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis of Biometals)
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Open AccessArticle A Correlation between the Ultimate Shear Stress and the Thickness Affected by Intermetallic Compounds in Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy–Stainless Steel Joints
Metals 2018, 8(3), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030179
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
In this work, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was applied to join a stainless steel 316L and an aluminum alloy 5083. Ranges of rotation and translation speeds of the tool were used to obtain welding samples with different heat input coefficients. Depending on the
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In this work, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was applied to join a stainless steel 316L and an aluminum alloy 5083. Ranges of rotation and translation speeds of the tool were used to obtain welding samples with different heat input coefficients. Depending on the process parameters, the heat generated by FSW creates thin layers of Al-rich InterMetallic Compound (IMC) mainly composed of FeAl3, identified by energy dispersive spectrometry. Traces of Fe2Al5 were also depicted in some samples by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Monotonous tensile tests performed on the weld joint show the existence of a maximum mechanical resistance for a judicious choice of rotation and translation speeds. It can be linked to an affected zone of average thickness of 15 µm which encompass the presence of IMC and the chaotic mixing caused by plastic deformation in this area. A thickness of less than 15 µm is not sufficient to ensure a good mechanical resistance of the joint. For a thickness higher than 15 µm, IMC layers become more brittle and less adhesive due to high residual stresses which induces numerous cracks after cooling. This leads to a progressive decrease of the ultimate shear stress supported by the bond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Stir Welding and Processing in Alloy Manufacturing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effect of Carbon Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of NbC-Ni Based Cermets
Metals 2018, 8(3), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030178
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to correlate the overall carbon content in NbC-Ni, NbC-Ni-VC and NbC-Ni-Mo starting powders with the resulting microstructure, hardness, and fracture toughness of Ni-bonded NbC cermets. A series of NbC-Ni, NbC-Ni-VC and NbC-Ni-Mo cermets with different carbon content
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The aim of this work was to correlate the overall carbon content in NbC-Ni, NbC-Ni-VC and NbC-Ni-Mo starting powders with the resulting microstructure, hardness, and fracture toughness of Ni-bonded NbC cermets. A series of NbC-Ni, NbC-Ni-VC and NbC-Ni-Mo cermets with different carbon content were prepared by conventional liquid phase sintering for 1 h at 1420 °C in vacuum. Microstructural analysis of the fully densified cermets was performed by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) to assess the effect of carbon and VC or Mo additions on the NbC grain growth and morphology. A decreased carbon content in the starting powder mixtures resulted in increased dissolution of Nb, V, and Mo in the Ni binder and a decreased C/Nb ratio in the NbC based carbide phase. The Vickers hardness (HV30) and Palmqvist indentation toughness were found to decrease significantly with an increasing carbon content in the Mo-free cermets, whereas an antagonistic correlation between hardness and toughness was obtained as a function of the Mo-content in Mo-modified NbC cermets. To obtain optimized mechanical properties, methods to control the total carbon content of NbC-Ni mixtures were proposed and the prepared cermets were investigated in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cermets and Hardmetals)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Waste Recycling of Spent CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 Catalysts
Metals 2018, 8(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030177
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
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Abstract
CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 catalysts are designed for low-temperature conversion in the process of hydrogen and ammonia synthesis gas production. This paper presents the results of research into the recovery of copper and zinc from spent catalysts using pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods. Under
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CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 catalysts are designed for low-temperature conversion in the process of hydrogen and ammonia synthesis gas production. This paper presents the results of research into the recovery of copper and zinc from spent catalysts using pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods. Under reducing conditions, at high temperature, having appropriately selected the composition of the slag, more than 66% of the copper can be extracted in metallic form, and about 70% of zinc in the form of ZnO from this material. Hydrometallurgical processing of the catalysts was carried out using two leaching solutions: alkaline and acidic. Almost 62% of the zinc contained in the catalysts was leached to the alkaline solution, and about 98% of the copper was leached to the acidic solution. After the hydrometallurgical treatment of the catalysts, an insoluble residue was also obtained in the form of pure ZnAl2O4. This compound can be reused to produce catalysts, or it can be processed under reducing conditions at high temperature to recover zinc. The recovery of zinc and copper from such a material is consistent with the policy of sustainable development, and helps to reduce the environmental load of stored wastes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Agglomeration Behavior of Non-Metallic Particles on the Surface of Ca-Treated High-Carbon Liquid Steel: An In Situ Investigation
Metals 2018, 8(3), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030176
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
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Abstract
The agglomeration behavior of non-metallic inclusion is a critical phenomenon that needs to be controlled as it has a direct relationship with the performance of produced steel. Although the agglomerates can be potential points for serious defects in every grade of steel, they
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The agglomeration behavior of non-metallic inclusion is a critical phenomenon that needs to be controlled as it has a direct relationship with the performance of produced steel. Although the agglomerates can be potential points for serious defects in every grade of steel, they are likely to be more serious in high-carbon steel due to the low ductility of these grades of steels as well as their usage in severe conditions. Confocal scanning laser microscopes (CSLM) have been used by different researchers to investigate the agglomeration behavior of non-metallic particles at the interface of liquid steel and Ar gas, in situ. In recent decades, the agglomeration of Al2O3 particle in and on the surface of low-carbon steel has been widely investigated. However, there are very few studies focussing on non-Al2O3 inclusions which are included in a Ca-treated high-carbon steel. In this study, the agglomeration behaviors of sulfide/sulfide and sulfide/oxide particles on the surface of liquid high-carbon steel have been investigated in detail using CSLM. Agglomerations on the liquid surface are governed by capillary forces similar to the Al2O3 particle but this study demonstrates that agglomeration forces among non-Al2O3 particles on the surface of re-melted high-carbon samples are lower than pure-Al2O3 on the surface of low-carbon steel. Despite this, they show similar or longer acting lengths than pure-Al2O3. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development and Characterisation of Aluminium Matrix Nanocomposites AlSi10Mg/MgAl2O4 by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Metals 2018, 8(3), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030175
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
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Abstract
Recently, additive manufacturing techniques have been gaining attention for the fabrication of parts from aluminium alloys to composites. In this work, the processing of an AlSi10Mg based composite reinforced with 0.5% in weight of MgAl2O4 nanoparticles through laser powder bed
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Recently, additive manufacturing techniques have been gaining attention for the fabrication of parts from aluminium alloys to composites. In this work, the processing of an AlSi10Mg based composite reinforced with 0.5% in weight of MgAl2O4 nanoparticles through laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process is presented. After an initial investigation about the effect of process parameters on the densification levels, the LPBF materials were analysed in terms of microstructure, thermo-mechanical and mechanical properties. The presence of MgAl2O4 nanoparticles involves an increment of the volumetric energy density delivered to the materials, in order to fabricate samples with high densification levels similar to the AlSi10Mg samples. However, the application of different building parameters results in modifying the size of the cellular structures influencing the mechanical properties and therefore, limiting the strengthening effect of the reinforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production and Properties of Light Metal Matrix Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle Scaling Law in Laser-Induced Shock Effects of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy
Metals 2018, 8(3), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030174
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
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Abstract
The shock effects in laser shock processing of NiTi shape memory alloy were studied by dimensional analysis and finite element simulation. The essential dimensionless parameters controlling the residual stress distribution and plastically affected depth were found to be dimensionless pressure duration and peak
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The shock effects in laser shock processing of NiTi shape memory alloy were studied by dimensional analysis and finite element simulation. The essential dimensionless parameters controlling the residual stress distribution and plastically affected depth were found to be dimensionless pressure duration and peak pressure. By adopting the constitutive model considering the martensitic transformation and plasticity of deformation induced martensite, the influence of dimensionless parameters on the shock effects of shape memory alloy was studied numerically. The numerical results reveal the scaling law of shock effects on those dimensionless parameters quantitatively and the relationship between the plastically affected depth and peak pressure was validated with experimental results. A window of the optimal processing parameters could be obtained based on this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Short-Cut Method to Assess a Gross Available Energy in a Medium-Load Screw Friction Press
Metals 2018, 8(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030173
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
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Abstract
The present study proposed a rapid method, based on a previous universal compression tests, to estimate the required load capacity to cold forge different specimen quantity in a screw press. Accordingly, experimental and theoretical approach are performed to check new adjustable drive motor
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The present study proposed a rapid method, based on a previous universal compression tests, to estimate the required load capacity to cold forge different specimen quantity in a screw press. Accordingly, experimental and theoretical approach are performed to check new adjustable drive motor of the modified forging machine to achieve a gross available energy to deform the specimens preventing damage of the forging machine. During the forging experiments, two screw friction presses (as-received and modified) are used to validate the theoretical approach. The modified press exhibits an increase of 51% of gross energy and 11% of maximum load capacity compare to the as-received press. This method is used to improve the effective of the forging process avoiding excessive loads that could promote machine failure. Therefore, a low-cost and easy to implement methodology is proposed to determine the energy and load capacity of a screw friction press to forge different specimen quantities with symmetry pattern configurations. Full article
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Open AccessReview An Overview of Key Challenges in the Fabrication of Metal Matrix Nanocomposites Reinforced by Graphene Nanoplatelets
Metals 2018, 8(3), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030172
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
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Abstract
This article provides an overview of research efforts with an emphasis on the fabrication of metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) reinforced by graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). Particular attention is devoted to finding the challenges in the production of MMNCs through the powder metallurgy techniques. The
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This article provides an overview of research efforts with an emphasis on the fabrication of metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) reinforced by graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). Particular attention is devoted to finding the challenges in the production of MMNCs through the powder metallurgy techniques. The main technical challenges can be listed as: (I) reinforcement selection; (II) dispersion of reinforcement within the matrix; (III) reactivity between the reinforcement and matrix; (IV) interfacial bonding; (V) preferred orientation of reinforcement. It is found that some of these difficulties can be attributed to the nature of the materials involved, while the others are related to the preparation routes. It is reported that the challenges related to the process can often be addressed by changing the production process or by using post-processing techniques. More challenging issues instead are related to the composition of the matrix and reinforcement, their reactivity and the dispersion of reinforcement. These topics still bring significant challenges to the materials scientists, and it would be worth mentioning that the fabrication of MMNCs with a uniform dispersion of reinforcement, strong interfacial bonding, without detrimental reactions and improved isotropic properties is still a puzzling issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing of Metal Matrix Composites)
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Open AccessReview Distinct Fracture Patterns in Construction Steels for Reinforced Concrete under Quasistatic Loading— A Review
Metals 2018, 8(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030171
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 4 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
Steel is one of the most widely used materials in construction. Nucleation growth and coalescence theory is usually employed to explain the fracture process in ductile materials, such as many metals. The typical cup–cone fracture pattern has been extensively studied in the past,
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Steel is one of the most widely used materials in construction. Nucleation growth and coalescence theory is usually employed to explain the fracture process in ductile materials, such as many metals. The typical cup–cone fracture pattern has been extensively studied in the past, giving rise to numerical models able to reproduce this pattern. Nevertheless, some steels, such as the eutectoid steel used for manufacturing prestressing wires, does not show this specific shape but a flat surface with a dark region in the centre of the fracture area. Recent studies have deepened the knowledge on these distinct fracture patterns, shedding light on some aspects that help to understand how damage begins and propagates in each case. The numerical modelling of both fracture patterns have also been discussed and reproduced with different approaches. This work reviews the main recent advances in the knowledge on this subject, particularly focusing on the experimental work carried out by the authors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microstructural Characteristics and m23c6 Precipitate Behavior of the Course-Grained Heat-Affected Zone of T23 Steel without Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Metals 2018, 8(3), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030170
Received: 10 December 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
The microstructural characteristics of a simulated heat-affected zone (HAZ) in SA213-T23 (2.25Cr-1.6W steel) used for boiler tubes employed in thermal power plants were investigated using nital, alkaline sodium picrate, and Murakami’s etchants. In order to investigate the microstructure formation process of the HAZ
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The microstructural characteristics of a simulated heat-affected zone (HAZ) in SA213-T23 (2.25Cr-1.6W steel) used for boiler tubes employed in thermal power plants were investigated using nital, alkaline sodium picrate, and Murakami’s etchants. In order to investigate the microstructure formation process of the HAZ in the welding process, simulated HAZ specimens were fabricated at intervals of 100 °C for peak temperatures between 950 and 1350 °C, and the microstructural features and precipitate behavior at various peak temperatures were observed. The alkaline-sodium-picrate-etched microstructures exhibited a black dot or band, which was not observed in the natal-etched microstructure. As the temperature increased from 950 to 1350 °C, the black dot and band became wider and thicker. Experimental analyses using an electron probe micro-analyzer, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy revealed the appearance of austenite in the black dot region at a peak temperature of 950 °C; its amount increased up to a peak temperature of 1050 °C and thereafter decreased as the peak temperature further increased. The amount of M23C6 decreased with an increase in peak temperature. Based on these results, we investigated the behaviors of austenite and M23C6 as functions of the peak temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science, Characterization and Technology of Joining and Welding)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Steel Subjected to the Thermomechanical Control Process with Respect to Weldability
Metals 2018, 8(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030169
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
The study is concerned with the assessment of the weldability of steel S700MC subjected to the thermomechanical control process (TMCP) and precipitation hardening and characterised by a high yield point. Appropriate mechanical and plastic properties of steel S700MC were obtained using the thermomechanical
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The study is concerned with the assessment of the weldability of steel S700MC subjected to the thermomechanical control process (TMCP) and precipitation hardening and characterised by a high yield point. Appropriate mechanical and plastic properties of steel S700MC were obtained using the thermomechanical control process through precipitation, solution, and strain hardening as well as by using grain-refinement-related processes. Constituents responsible for the hardening of steel S700MC include Ti, Nb, N, and C. The hardening is primarily affected by (Ti,Nb)(C,N)-type dispersive precipitates sized from several nanometres to between ten and twenty nanometres. The welding process considerably differs from TMCP conditions, leading to the reduction of plastic properties both in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and in the weld area. This study demonstrates that in cases of TMCP steels, where the effect of precipitation hardening is obtained through titanium and niobium hardening phases, the carbon equivalent and phase transformation γ–α cannot constitute the basis of weldability assessment. The properties of welded joints made from the above-named group of steels are primarily affected by the stability of hardening phases, changes in their dispersion, and ageing processes. The most inferior properties were identified in the high-temperature and coarse-grained HAZ area, where the nucleation of hardening phases in the matrix and their uncontrolled reprecipitation in the fine-dispersive form lead to a sharp decrease in toughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle Precipitation and Grain Size Effects on the Tensile Strain-Hardening Exponents of an API X80 Steel Pipe after High-Frequency Hot-Induction Bending
Metals 2018, 8(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030168
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
This study discusses the use of the Morrison model to estimate the strain-hardening exponent (n) in the presence of precipitation hardening for an API X80 steel pipe. As the grain size becomes larger, high values of n are expected according to
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This study discusses the use of the Morrison model to estimate the strain-hardening exponent (n) in the presence of precipitation hardening for an API X80 steel pipe. As the grain size becomes larger, high values of n are expected according to the Morrison equation. However, the grain size alone is not sufficient to explain the changes of the strain-hardening exponent (n) after hot-induction bending. The vanadium in the ferritic solid solution has an important influence on the decrease of the precipitation hardening, and consequently on the increase of the values of n, despite the refinement of the grain size and high dislocation densities. Therefore, the effects of grain boundaries on the capability to uniformly distribute deformations within the plastic regime become negligible, which limits the application of the Morrison model to estimate the values of n. Full article
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