Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Buildings, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) The concept of urban resilience essentially focuses on change instead of resistance over an [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-38
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Utilization of Waste Water from a Concrete Plant in the Production of Cement Composites
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040120
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
PDF Full-text (2962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study dealing with the utilization of sludge water from a concrete plant as a partial replacement for mixing water in the production of cement composites. The replacement of mixing water with sludge water from a concrete
[...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a study dealing with the utilization of sludge water from a concrete plant as a partial replacement for mixing water in the production of cement composites. The replacement of mixing water with sludge water from a concrete plant was carried out in the amounts of 20% and 50%. The following tests were carried out in order to determine the effect of the replacement of mixing water with sludge water from a concrete plant on the physical and mechanical properties of the cement composites: cement mortar consistency, beginning and end of setting, strength characteristics (compressive strength and flexural strength), and thermal properties. The measured values of the strength characteristics of the test specimens after 28 days of age confirm the possibility of replacing mixing water with sludge water from a concrete plant without significantly reducing the compressive and flexural strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Integrated Behavioural Model towards Evaluating and Influencing Energy Behaviour—The Role of Motivation in Behaviour Demand Response
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040119
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
PDF Full-text (4589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The change in the actual use of buildings by its occupants is receiving more and more attention. Over the lifecycle of a building the occupants and therefore the demands towards the buildings often change a lot. To match these altering conditions, particularly in
[...] Read more.
The change in the actual use of buildings by its occupants is receiving more and more attention. Over the lifecycle of a building the occupants and therefore the demands towards the buildings often change a lot. To match these altering conditions, particularly in the context of the demand for energy efficiency, purely technical approaches usually cannot solve the problem on their own or are not financially viable. It is therefore essential to take the behaviour of the end user into account and ask the fundamental question: “How is it possible to influence people’s behaviour towards a more pro-environmental outcome, and also in the long-term?” To approach this question we will present a model-driven approach for dynamically involving building occupants into the energy optimisation process. To do so we will further develop an integrated behavioural model based on established behavioural theories, having a closer look how motivational variables can be integrated into the process. This should lead to novel approaches for behaviour demand response, enabling additional demand shifting and shedding through targeted real-time engagement with energy prosumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Sustainable Places 2017 (SP2017) Conference)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Design Oriented Model for the Assessment of T-Shaped Beam-Column Joints in Reinforced Concrete Frames
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040118
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 10 December 2017
PDF Full-text (2315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Beam-column joints represent very important elements of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In fact, beams and columns, at the boundary, generate internal forces acting on concrete core and on reinforcement bars with a very high gradient. To fully understand the seismic performances and the
[...] Read more.
Beam-column joints represent very important elements of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In fact, beams and columns, at the boundary, generate internal forces acting on concrete core and on reinforcement bars with a very high gradient. To fully understand the seismic performances and the failure modes of T-shaped beam-column joints (external corner-positioned) in RC structures, a simplified analytical model of joint behaviour is proposed and theoretical simulations have been performed. The model is based on the solution of a system of equilibrium equations of cracked joint portions designed to evaluate internal stresses at different values of column shear forces. The main aim of the proposed model is to identify the strength hierarchy. Limit values of different internal stresses allow us to detect the occurrence of different failure modes (namely the failure of the cracked joint, the bond failure of passing through bars, and the flexural/shear failures of columns or beams) associated with column shear forces; the smaller one represents the capacity of the joint. The present work, focusing on T-shaped joints, could represent a useful tool for designers to quantify the performance of new structures or of existing ones. In fact, such a tool allows us to push an initial undesired failure mode to a more appropriate one to be evaluated. Finally, some experimental results of tests available in literature are reported, analysed, and compared to the predictions of the proposed model (by means of a worked example) and of some international codes. The outcomes confirm that failure modes and corresponding joint capacities require an analytical model, like the proposed one, to be accurately predicted. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Patients’ Perspectives on the Design of Hospital Outpatient Areas
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040117
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a growing interest among healthcare managers and designers in moving towards a ‘patient-centred’ design of health and care facilities by integrating patient perceptions and expectations of the physical environment where care takes place. Increased interests in physical environments can mostly be
[...] Read more.
There is a growing interest among healthcare managers and designers in moving towards a ‘patient-centred’ design of health and care facilities by integrating patient perceptions and expectations of the physical environment where care takes place. Increased interests in physical environments can mostly be attributed to our improved understanding of their role in patients’ health outcomes and staff productivity. There is a gap in the literature on users’ perspectives on physical settings in the context of healthcare. Moreover, the connection of care services with the design of the facility is often overlooked partly due to the lack of evidence. This research was aimed at filling the gap by exploring outpatients’ perspectives on design factors related to the areas frequented by them, e.g., hospital waiting areas. A 16-item questionnaire was conducted among randomly selected outpatients in two hospitals in Qingdao, China, with a response rate of 84.3%. Five principal factors were identified: sensory; lighting and thermal; facilities; spatial; and seating design, which agreed with the literature. Non-parametric tests were applied to assess variances in constructed principal dimensions concerning demographic variables. Female outpatients were found to be more perceptive of the ‘sensory design’ factors than males. The number of previous visits to the hospital was found to be associated with ‘spatial’ and ‘seating design’ factors, while respondents’ age had an association with ‘sensory’ and ‘seating design’ factors. Respondents ranked ‘noise’ and ‘air freshness’ and ‘cleanliness’ as highly important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Green Building)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Experimental Tests on a Dowel-Type Timber Connection and Validation of Numerical Models
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040116
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines the dynamic behaviour of timber framed buildings under wind and dynamic loads, focusing on the role of connections being experimentally tested. The main aim of this manuscript is to analyze the in-service dynamic behaviour of a semi-rigid moment-resisting dowel-type connection
[...] Read more.
This paper examines the dynamic behaviour of timber framed buildings under wind and dynamic loads, focusing on the role of connections being experimentally tested. The main aim of this manuscript is to analyze the in-service dynamic behaviour of a semi-rigid moment-resisting dowel-type connection between timber beam and column. For this purpose, two laboratory tests have been performed, the first on a connection and another one on a portal frame. The results are used to validate a numerical model of the simple portal frame, analyzed in OpenSees. The obtained relationships are also discussed and compared with Eurocode rules. The main result is that the joint stiffness is calculated through the Eurocode (EC) formulation underestimates the experimental one. A mutual agreement is obtained between the numerical model, validated from the experimental stiffness value for the connections, and the experimental results on the portal frame. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Systematic Method to Analyze Force Majeure in Construction Claims
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040115
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
PDF Full-text (2167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In construction delay claims, force majeure is normally recognized as an excusable risk that entitles contractors only to time extensions, but neither of the contracting parties is entitled to monetary compensation to recover delay damages. However, there are instances where contractors are entitled
[...] Read more.
In construction delay claims, force majeure is normally recognized as an excusable risk that entitles contractors only to time extensions, but neither of the contracting parties is entitled to monetary compensation to recover delay damages. However, there are instances where contractors are entitled to both time and cost compensations, as evidenced by some court cases relating to force majeure claims. Such instances involve attributing the occurrence of the force majeure to the effect of other prior delay events that pushed project performance into the period of the force majeure. Existing delay analysis methods are not capable of addressing this issue, as none take the impact of other delays into consideration when analyzing force majeure claims. Stimulated by this gap, this study proposes an improved and sound method for fairly analyzing the responsibility of force majeure delay claims amongst contracting parties. This method was implemented on a case project to help demonstrate its application and also ascertain its practicability. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it has highlighted the situation of force majeure delay that can be compensable, creating more awareness among researchers and industry practitioners. The second is a proposed systematic process to appropriately analyze its responsibility, which equitably addresses claims from such delays with little or no chance of dispute ensuing. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of House Rent Prices and Their Affordability in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040114
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Access to affordable housing has been a long-standing issue for households in most cities. This paper reports on a study of house rent prices in Port Moresby, factors influencing them, and affordability of the prices. Data was obtained from houses that were advertised
[...] Read more.
Access to affordable housing has been a long-standing issue for households in most cities. This paper reports on a study of house rent prices in Port Moresby, factors influencing them, and affordability of the prices. Data was obtained from houses that were advertised for rent in Port Moresby for a period of 13 months and were analysed using the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model. The results show that monthly house rent prices range from 2357 to 34,286 Papua New Guinea Kina (PGK), or 714 to 10,389 U.S. dollars (USD), and the median price was 7286 PGK (2208 USD). Houses located in the central business district had the highest median house rent price, whereas low-income areas had the lowest rent price. By dividing the median house rent price by gross household income, the housing affordability index was 3.4. House rent price was influenced by factors such as number of bedrooms and location. To make house rent prices more affordable for Port Moresby residents, it is necessary to supply more houses for rent relative to demand, especially in low-income areas. Relevant governmental agencies should put more effort toward unlocking more customarily-owned land for housing development and toward facilitating the private sector to construct more low-cost houses for rent, which are affordable for low to middle income households. This has the potential of improving Port Moresby residents’ access to affordable houses for rent. The findings could assist urban development managers and planners in allocating resources for housing by considering housing demand, supply, and house rent prices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real Estate Economics, Management and Investments)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Human-Centered Approach to Enhance Urban Resilience, Implications and Application to Improve Outdoor Comfort in Dense Urban Spaces
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040113
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
PDF Full-text (13180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concept of resilience in urban design and decision-making is principally focused on change instead of resistance over an adaptive process. For cities, this concept in a broader scale means how to withstand unforeseen events that will fundamentally amend the city’s wellbeing, rather
[...] Read more.
The concept of resilience in urban design and decision-making is principally focused on change instead of resistance over an adaptive process. For cities, this concept in a broader scale means how to withstand unforeseen events that will fundamentally amend the city’s wellbeing, rather than being stabilized and protected. The same concept is applicable for outdoor comfort as an adaptive approach to compensate extreme heat waves and health risk conditions. This chapter presents methods, tools, and applications to enhance urban resilience at a micro scale looking for correlations between environmental factors and human behavior in terms of outdoor comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions and their Relation to Urban Resilience)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle The Perceived Benefits of Apps by Construction Professionals in New Zealand
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040111
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The construction sector is a key driver of economic growth in New Zealand; however, its productivity is still considered to be low. Prior research has suggested that information and communication technology (ICT) can help enhance efficiency and productivity. However, there is little research
[...] Read more.
The construction sector is a key driver of economic growth in New Zealand; however, its productivity is still considered to be low. Prior research has suggested that information and communication technology (ICT) can help enhance efficiency and productivity. However, there is little research on the use of mobile technologies by New Zealand construction workforce. This paper reports findings of an exploratory study with the objective of examining the perceived benefits regarding uptake of apps in New Zealand construction sector. Using self-administered questionnaire survey, feedback was received from the major construction trade and professional organisations in New Zealand. Survey data was analyzed using descriptive, one-sample t-test, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling. Results showed that iPhone and Android phone currently dominate the smartphone market in New Zealand construction industry. The top three application areas are site photos, health and safety reporting and timekeeping. The benefits of mobile apps were widely confirmed by the construction professionals. The benefit of “better client relationship management and satisfaction” has substantial correlation with overall productivity improvement and best predictor of the overall productivity improvement. These findings provide a starting point for further research aimed at improving the uptake and full leveraging of mobile technologies to improve the dwindling productivity trend in New Zealand construction industry. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessing the Impact of Urban Improvement on Housing Values: A Hedonic Pricing and Multi-Attribute Analysis Model for the Historic Centre of Venice
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040112
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2990 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Hedonic Pricing Method is one of the principal assessment methods for evaluating services and resources not normally exchanged on the market. However, the method is often unable to account for the great variety of qualities in an urban context and faces scarce
[...] Read more.
The Hedonic Pricing Method is one of the principal assessment methods for evaluating services and resources not normally exchanged on the market. However, the method is often unable to account for the great variety of qualities in an urban context and faces scarce and heterogeneous market data. This paper presents a model for the valuation of benefits generated by environmental and urban improvement investments adopting a mixed hedonic-multi-attribute procedure for modeling a value function of urban real estate values. The peculiarity of the model is that the independent variables are aggregated indicators, which synthetize more detailed characteristics. Using the expertise of real estate agents, all relevant variables influencing real estate values were weighted and synthetized in a set of cardinal indicators. Next, market prices were used to calibrate a hedonic function that transforms the cardinal indicators into real estate values. The valuation model was integrated into a GIS for mapping the housing value, and its variation induced by urban investment. The proposed model pointed out plausible and robust results, in particular, the possibility to use any available information, such as location, position, technical and economic characteristics of buildings, and organize it in a flexible and transparent way, and to keep evident the role of each characteristic through the hierarchical structure of the model. The model was applied to the real estate market of Venice to test the effects of the MOSE project (Electromechanical Experimental Module) for the protection of Venice from high tides. The results of the application showed a relevant increase in real estate values in the center of Venice, especially related to property in ground floor units, of about 1.4 billion €. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real Estate Economics, Management and Investments)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Improving the Impact of Commercial Paint on Indoor Air Quality by Using Highly Porous Fillers
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040110
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current paper, the effect on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) of two commercial acrylic-based paints were compared: one (Paint A) for indoor applications, the other (Paint B) for indoor/outdoor applications. Both were applied on an inert and on a real mortar substrate.
[...] Read more.
In the current paper, the effect on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) of two commercial acrylic-based paints were compared: one (Paint A) for indoor applications, the other (Paint B) for indoor/outdoor applications. Both were applied on an inert and on a real mortar substrate. The possibility of Paint B to passively improve IAQ was also investigated when adding highly porous adsorbent fillers, both as addition or as total replacement of a conventional siliceous one. The obtained results show that all paints have high capacity to inhibit biological growth. Paint A is more breathable and it has a higher moisture buffering capacity. Paint B negatively modifies the beneficial properties of the mortar substrate for IAQ. However, the use of unconventional fillers, especially as addition to the formulation, allows the recovery of the same properties of the substrate or even the enhancement of about 20% of the ability to adsorb volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under the current test conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Suitability of a Parametrically Controlled Louvers for Various Orientations throughout a Year Comparing to an Existing Case
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040109
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
PDF Full-text (5750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, daylighting systems and shading devices are controlled automatically to achieve their optimum benefits. For more comprehensive accuracy, parametric control was recently used to manage complex parameters with more accuracy. Such a system was proposed and investigated in a previous research to provide
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, daylighting systems and shading devices are controlled automatically to achieve their optimum benefits. For more comprehensive accuracy, parametric control was recently used to manage complex parameters with more accuracy. Such a system was proposed and investigated in a previous research to provide steadier and more uniform daylight illuminance during the day and reduce more than 80% of the electricity consumption. This study is examining the daylighting performance by using the parametric system in different orientations and comparing with the conventional ones. Furthermore, the study will evaluate the suitability of the parametric system throughout the year during the working hours in a typical office room. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Design and Daylighting Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Where in Connecticut Is the Best Location for a Split Tax? An Analysis of Land Assessment Equity in Several Cities
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040108
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of local assessors to accurately estimate land values separately from structure values is important when considering a split tax. When the value of land is estimated with less variation, there is greater equity. We examine land ratios in New London, New
[...] Read more.
The ability of local assessors to accurately estimate land values separately from structure values is important when considering a split tax. When the value of land is estimated with less variation, there is greater equity. We examine land ratios in New London, New Haven, and Hartford Connecticut and sub-groupings within these cities for 2006 to 2010. Overall, the land ratios coefficients of dispersion (COD), a measure of horizontal equity, are too large for an equitable split tax. We also look at land assessment equity among sub-groupings of properties near parks, highway exits, airports, Yale University (for New Haven), residential versus commercial properties, land with old versus new properties, and large versus small parcels and ‘expensive’ versus ‘less expensive’ properties (by examining price per square foot). Commercial properties near Hartford’s Brainard Airport are the best candidates for an equitable split tax. We also find that more frequent revaluations are necessary for an equitable split tax. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real Estate Economics, Management and Investments)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Introduction to a Novel and Rapid nZEB Skill-Mapping and Qualification Framework Methodology
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040107
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
PDF Full-text (1177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Successful design and construction processes aiming towards nearly zero energy building (nZEB) standards are a challenge for the whole construction industry in Europe. Realizing nZEB buildings requires innovative design processes, and technologies based on an integrated design approach facilitated by multidisciplinary work teams.
[...] Read more.
Successful design and construction processes aiming towards nearly zero energy building (nZEB) standards are a challenge for the whole construction industry in Europe. Realizing nZEB buildings requires innovative design processes, and technologies based on an integrated design approach facilitated by multidisciplinary work teams. The collaboration between architects, engineers, technical experts and building managers, is essential. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the specific involvement of each profession in order to develop mutual understanding of each others’ disciplines. Additionally, it is vital to provide professionals with the skills needed to achieve optimal nZEB construction and retrofitting in terms of quality, energy efficiency and cost effectiveness. However, this approach is not yet common, as the building sector is still very fragmented. The EU-funded H2020 project PROF/TRAC aims to tackle this issue by developing an Open Training Platform and a methodology for fast and valid co-creation of interdisciplinary qualification schemes for task-based Continuous Professional Development (CPD) for all professions involved. A common methodology for the mapping of skills and qualifications in the form of an Excel tool was developed as a basis, together with a guidance document. This paper presents the skill-mapping methodology, the use of its results to develop national roadmaps, and the BUILD UP Skills advisor app. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Sustainable Places 2017 (SP2017) Conference)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Multi-Directional Seismic Assessment of Historical Masonry Buildings by Means of Macro-Element Modelling: Application to a Building Damaged during the L’Aquila Earthquake (Italy)
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040106
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The experience of the recent earthquakes in Italy caused a shocking impact in terms of loss of human life and damage in buildings. In particular, when it comes to ancient constructions, their cultural and historical value overlaps with the economic and social one.
[...] Read more.
The experience of the recent earthquakes in Italy caused a shocking impact in terms of loss of human life and damage in buildings. In particular, when it comes to ancient constructions, their cultural and historical value overlaps with the economic and social one. Among the historical structures, churches have been the object of several studies which identified the main characteristics of the seismic response and the most probable collapse mechanisms. More rarely, academic studies have been devoted to ancient palaces, since they often exhibit irregular and complicated arrangement of the resisting elements, which makes their response very difficult to predict. In this paper, a palace located in L’Aquila, severely damaged by the seismic event of 2009 is the object of an accurate study. A historical reconstruction of the past strengthening interventions as well as a detailed geometric relief is performed to implement detailed numerical models of the structure. Both global and local models are considered and static nonlinear analyses are performed considering the influence of the input direction on the seismic vulnerability of the building. The damage pattern predicted by the numerical models is compared with that observed after the earthquake. The seismic vulnerability assessments are performed in terms of ultimate peak ground acceleration (PGA) using capacity curves and the Italian code spectrum. The results are compared in terms of ultimate ductility demand evaluated performing nonlinear dynamic analyses considering the actual registered seismic input of L’Aquila earthquake. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top