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Adm. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2016)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Project Risk Management: Challenge Established Practice
Adm. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 21; doi:10.3390/admsci6040021
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Project Risk Management: Challenge Established Practice)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle University Knowledge Transfer Offices and Social Responsibility
Adm. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 20; doi:10.3390/admsci6040020
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Numerous studies and reviews about University Knowledge Transfer Offices (UKTO) have been written, but there are few that focus on Social Responsibility (SR). We present a systematic review of the research on both fields. We consider not only logics from agency theory and
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Numerous studies and reviews about University Knowledge Transfer Offices (UKTO) have been written, but there are few that focus on Social Responsibility (SR). We present a systematic review of the research on both fields. We consider not only logics from agency theory and resource-based view, but also the dynamic approach from institutional theory, as they aim to generate sustainable economic and social value. The evolution of Knowledge Transfer Offices depends on their role as brokers of collaborations among different stakeholders, according to their mission and capacity to confront the innovation gap. We follow the line of SR viewed as a response to the specific demands of large stakeholders. Building upon recent conceptualizations of different theories, we develop an integrative model for understanding the institutional effects of the UKTO on university social responsibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Traditional and Electronic Word-of-Mouth on Destination Image: A Case of Vacation Tourists Visiting Branson, Missouri
Adm. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 12; doi:10.3390/admsci6040012
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
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Abstract
The effects of integrated word-of-mouth (WOM), both traditional and electronic, on tourism products are yet to be fully investigated. The current study aims to assess the effects of and differences between traditional WOM and electronic WOM, between personal WOM and commercial WOM, and
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The effects of integrated word-of-mouth (WOM), both traditional and electronic, on tourism products are yet to be fully investigated. The current study aims to assess the effects of and differences between traditional WOM and electronic WOM, between personal WOM and commercial WOM, and between positive and negative WOM on a destination image. Results of the study indicate that traditional WOM had a greater influence on destination image compared to electronic WOM. Personal traditional WOM had a greater influence on destination image compared to electronic personal WOM and commercial WOM. However, negative WOM exerted less influence on the destination’s image compared to positive WOM while negative electronic WOM had a greater influence on destination image compared to negative traditional WOM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Customer Relationship Management and Recent Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Farmer-Entrepreneurs, Agricultural Innovation, and Explosive Research and Development Cycles
Adm. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 13; doi:10.3390/admsci6040013
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
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Abstract
Private sector research and development (R&D) in food processing has seen a growing share of agricultural R&D. This paper analyzes market and technological links between farmer-entrepreneurs and food processing firms. It is shown that processing sector R&D tends to display explosive cycles. To
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Private sector research and development (R&D) in food processing has seen a growing share of agricultural R&D. This paper analyzes market and technological links between farmer-entrepreneurs and food processing firms. It is shown that processing sector R&D tends to display explosive cycles. To avoid explosive cycles, the processing sector sets the R&D growth path and its target. Dynamic adjustments are related to the shadow price of R&D and farm output price. In equilibrium, the effects of increases in technological innovations (e.g., at the farm level, in public agricultural research, from entrepreneurial talent, in processing sector R&D, and in the price of final goods) on agricultural price and output are positive. The patent race does not affect steady-state agricultural price and output, nor processing sector R&D; it only reduces the opportunity cost of R&D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
Open AccessArticle Challenges in Cost Estimation under Uncertainty—A Case Study of the Decommissioning of Barsebäck Nuclear Power Plant
Adm. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 14; doi:10.3390/admsci6040014
Received: 9 June 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
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Abstract
Cost estimation is an important part of project planning. Over the years different approaches have developed, taking uncertainty into account in the cost estimation processes in order to tackle the dynamic nature of projects. However, when implementing these approaches, some challenges have been
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Cost estimation is an important part of project planning. Over the years different approaches have developed, taking uncertainty into account in the cost estimation processes in order to tackle the dynamic nature of projects. However, when implementing these approaches, some challenges have been revealed. The aim in a cost estimation process is to establish a realistic overview of the total project costs and its uncertainties. Even though tools and methods for taking uncertainty into account are implemented, projects with cost overruns are often seen. In this paper we look into some challenges with the practice in cost estimation processes and identify possible improvements to overcome them. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate better solutions to some of the major weaknesses identified in current cost estimation practice. We use a case study of decommissioning of Barsebäck Nuclear Power Plant to illustrate how to overcome these challenges. First of all, this is an interesting case with challenges related to the project and the cost estimation process, given the complexity in the situation and that very few have experiences related to decommission of nuclear power plants. Second, we applied an approach that is not yet commonly used to develop cost estimates for this kind of projects. The paper concludes that it is possible to improve the results of uncertainty analysis of cost estimates. A well prepared process, with a suitable group of experts that go through a well-structured process, focusing both on risks and opportunities and using a top-down approach can compensate for some of the challenges related to cost estimation under uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Project Risk Management: Challenge Established Practice)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations on Academics’ Entrepreneurial Intention
Adm. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 15; doi:10.3390/admsci6040015
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 24 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract
This work investigates entrepreneurial intentions among academic scientists. Drawing from the literature on entrepreneurial behavior, it contributes to delineate the differences in motivations that are correlated with entrepreneurial intention to those that are considered to be linked to entrepreneurial behaviors. By disentangling the
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This work investigates entrepreneurial intentions among academic scientists. Drawing from the literature on entrepreneurial behavior, it contributes to delineate the differences in motivations that are correlated with entrepreneurial intention to those that are considered to be linked to entrepreneurial behaviors. By disentangling the concept of motivations in its ultimately basic constructs of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, we investigate how these two different types of motivations are related to the formation of entrepreneurial intention at the level of academic scientists. Through a survey conducted at the University of Ferrara—one of the leading universities in Italy in terms of technology transfer and scientific production—findings reveal that while academic entrepreneurial intention seems to be mostly driven by intrinsic motivations, the effect of extrinsic motivations, which are regarded as a main antecedent of entrepreneurial behavior among scientists, are largely mediated by academic positions, work environment and different combinations of these two factors. This work therefore highlights the importance of social norms in the investigation of entrepreneurial intention in academia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Drafting an Effective Ethical Code of Conduct for Professional Societies: A Practical Guide
Adm. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 16; doi:10.3390/admsci6040016
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
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Abstract
Academic, medical, and research communities are struggling to quickly and effectively address unethical conduct within their professional ranks. Without a policy in place, individuals and institutes are subject to convoluted procedures and unnecessary consequences. In addition to policies geared to prevent harassment and
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Academic, medical, and research communities are struggling to quickly and effectively address unethical conduct within their professional ranks. Without a policy in place, individuals and institutes are subject to convoluted procedures and unnecessary consequences. In addition to policies geared to prevent harassment and assault, it is important to protect the ethical basis for research and provide a set of guidelines for how professionals treat each other, students, and trainees. Since drafting a policy of this nature is complex, 10 guidelines are provided as a framework for how to draft, implement, and establish an ethical code of conduct. Further implications for nonprofit societies and professional societies in particular are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Linking HRM Practices and Institutional Setting to Collective Turnover: An Empirical Exploration
Adm. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 18; doi:10.3390/admsci6040018
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
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Abstract
The present study addresses the relationship between human resources management (HRM) practices and employee turnover by taking into account the influence of socioeconomic environment. Data was collected at company level with an international sample of 830 companies from 12 countries (Netherlands, Belgium, United
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The present study addresses the relationship between human resources management (HRM) practices and employee turnover by taking into account the influence of socioeconomic environment. Data was collected at company level with an international sample of 830 companies from 12 countries (Netherlands, Belgium, United Kingdom, Brazil, Switzerland, China, France, Italy, Poland, Germany, South Africa, and Spain). A division into four bundles of human resources (HR) practices is introduced: remunerative, communication, developmental, and well-being practices. The influence of the socioeconomic environment was factored in by including the institutional setting in terms of the level of coordination as a country-level variable. The results showed that collective turnover is related to both a country’s institutional determinants and to company HR practices. Remunerative HR practices may have a negative influence in terms of enhancing turnover, particularly within countries high in coordination. HR well-being practices are the most beneficial practices in terms of reducing employee turnover. Our study adds to our knowledge on the relation between HR practices and turnover from an international perspective. It complements the empirical knowledge on the effectiveness of HRM practices in a cross-national setting and supports the notion that the institutional context should be given more attention when studying HR effectiveness. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle What Is Public Agency Strategic Analysis (PASA) and How Does It Differ from Public Policy Analysis and Firm Strategy Analysis?
Adm. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 19; doi:10.3390/admsci6040019
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
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Abstract
Public agency strategic analysis (PASA) is different from public policy analysis because public agency executives face numerous constraints that those performing “unconstrained” policy analysis do not. It is also different from private sector strategic analysis. But because of similar constraints and realities, some
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Public agency strategic analysis (PASA) is different from public policy analysis because public agency executives face numerous constraints that those performing “unconstrained” policy analysis do not. It is also different from private sector strategic analysis. But because of similar constraints and realities, some generic and private sector strategic analysis techniques can be useful to those carrying out PASA, if appropriately modified. Analysis of the external agency environment (external forces) and internal value creation processes (“value chains”, “modular assembly” processes or “multi-sided intermediation platforms”) are the most important components of PASA. Also, agency executives must focus on feasible alternatives. In sum, PASA must be practical. But public executives need to take seriously public value, and specifically social efficiency, when engaging in PASA. Unless they do so, their strategic analyses will not have normative legitimacy because enhancing public value is not the same as in some versions of public value or in agency “profit maximization”. Although similarly constrained, normatively appropriate public agency strategic analysis is not “giving clients what they want” or “making the public sector business case”. PASA must be both practical and principled. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Investigating the Reliability and Validity of the Leadership Practices Inventory®
Adm. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 17; doi:10.3390/admsci6040017
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 20 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
This review explains the origins of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) as an empirical instrument to measure The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership framework, a major transformational leadership model. The essential psychometric properties of the LPI are investigated using both the LPI normative
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This review explains the origins of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) as an empirical instrument to measure The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership framework, a major transformational leadership model. The essential psychometric properties of the LPI are investigated using both the LPI normative database, with nearly 2.8 million respondents, as well as reviewing pertinent findings of several hundred studies conducted worldwide by scholars utilizing the LPI in their research. Issues of both reliability and validity are considered, with the conclusion that the LPI is quite robust and applicable across a variety of settings and populations. Full article

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