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Special Issue "Selected Papers from 16 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC 2016)"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rodolfo Araneo

Department of Astronautical, Electrical and Energetic Engineering University of Rome La Sapienza Via Eudossiana 18 – 00184, Rome, Italy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

EEEIC 2016 is the 16th annual conference, making it  one of Europe’s largest, longest-running, professional networking and educational event of its kind. EEEIC is an annual energy and environment conference held in 2016 in Florence, Italy, where the delegates make presentations and discuss various issues, including clean and renewable energy solutions for the protection of our environment.

Submissions related to any of the following topics are welcomed:

1. Renewable energy sources and storages
  • Solar energy
  • Photovoltaic cell technology
  • Hydro and wind energy
  • Biomass and biofuels
  • Energy management and storage
  • High-performance cogeneration
2. Power systems and smart grids
  • Power quality
  • Microgrids
  • Design, control and management
  • Protection
  • RAM (reliability, availability, maintainability)
  • Management of distribution grids
  • ICT for power systems
  • Power line communications
3. Materials
  • Nanotechnology for renewable energy
  • Novel materials for energy harvesting
4. Environmental phenomena and pollution
  • EM spectrum management
  • Power quality and harmonics
5. Power electronics and components
  • Electrical generators
  • Converters for renewable energies
  • Converters for storage
  • Low-frequency EMC
6. Regulation and electricity markets
  • Regulatory issues and delivery standards
  • Dispatching in power systems
  • Generation and transmission expansion
  • Dispersed generation and distribution system
7. Smart buildings
  • Home and building automation
  • Lighting systems and components
  • Metering systems
  • Sensors
  • Nearly zero energy buildings
  • Demand side management
  • Supervisory systems
8. Mobility
  • Sustainable transport systems
  • Electrical vehicles
  • Automotive
9. Maintenance, operation and safety
  • Designing for Safety
  • Grounding
  • Lightning
  • Hazard – Electric shock, arc flash, fire and explosion
  • Maintenance and operation of electric power systems
  • Work practices and procedures
  • Electrical safety training
10. Measurements
  • Environmental measurements
  • Electrical measurements
  • Advanced instrumentation and data acquisition systems
  • Intelligent distributed systems and remote control
  • Signal and image processing
  • EMC measurements
11. Circuits, sensors and actuators
  • Circuits and systems theory and application
  • Electromagnetic compatibility and application
  • Nonlinear systems
  • Signal processing and identification
  • Sensors and actuators for energy conservation
  • Smart circuits
  • Systems modeling

Thank you very much!

Prof. Dr. Rodolfo Arane
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 700 CHF (Swiss Francs, 50% discount).

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Methodology for Determination of the Number of Equipment Malfunctions Due to Voltage Sags
Energies 2017, 10(3), 401; doi:10.3390/en10030401
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
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Abstract
This article deals with the assessment of the reliability of sensitive equipment due to voltage sags. The most frequent problems of power quality are voltage sags. Equipment that cannot withstand short-term voltage sag is defined as sensitive device. Sensitivity of such equipment can
[...] Read more.
This article deals with the assessment of the reliability of sensitive equipment due to voltage sags. The most frequent problems of power quality are voltage sags. Equipment that cannot withstand short-term voltage sag is defined as sensitive device. Sensitivity of such equipment can be described by the voltage–tolerance curves. A device (generator) to generate voltage sags (also interruptions) with duration at least 1 ms has been designed and developed for this purpose. Equipment sensitive to voltage sags was tested using this generator. Overall, five types of sensitive equipment were tested: personal computers, fluorescent lamps, drives with speed control, programmable logic controllers, and contactors. The measured sensitivity curves of these devices have been used to determine the number of trips (failures) due to voltage sags. Two probabilistic methods (general probability method and cumulative probability method) to determine probability of equipment failure occurrence are used. These methods were applied to real node in the distribution system with its actual performance of voltage sags/swells. The calculations also contain different levels of sensitivity of the sensitive equipment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions
Energies 2017, 10(3), 386; doi:10.3390/en10030386
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
PDF Full-text (635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs) can
[...] Read more.
Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs) can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode), whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lithium-ion Battery Electrothermal Model, Parameter Estimation, and Simulation Environment
Energies 2017, 10(3), 375; doi:10.3390/en10030375
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
The market for lithium-ion batteries is growing exponentially. The performance of battery cells is growing due to improving production technology, but market request is growing even more rapidly. Modeling and characterization of single cells and an efficient simulation environment is fundamental for the
[...] Read more.
The market for lithium-ion batteries is growing exponentially. The performance of battery cells is growing due to improving production technology, but market request is growing even more rapidly. Modeling and characterization of single cells and an efficient simulation environment is fundamental for the development of an efficient battery management system. The present work is devoted to defining a novel lumped electrothermal circuit of a single battery cell, the extraction procedure of the parameters of the single cell from experiments, and a simulation environment in SystemC-WMS for the simulation of a battery pack. The electrothermal model of the cell was validated against experimental measurements obtained in a climatic chamber. The model is then used to simulate a 48-cell battery, allowing statistical variations among parameters. The different behaviors of the cells in terms of state of charge, current, voltage, or heat flow rate can be observed in the results of the simulation environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of BMSs on the Characterization and Modeling of Series and Parallel Li-Ion Packs
Energies 2017, 10(3), 273; doi:10.3390/en10030273
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
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Abstract
This work analyzes the effects of a BMS (battery management system) on the characterization and modeling of series and parallel connections of Li-ion cell packs. The Li-ion pack studied consists of four series modules connected in parallel. This pack has been characterized by
[...] Read more.
This work analyzes the effects of a BMS (battery management system) on the characterization and modeling of series and parallel connections of Li-ion cell packs. The Li-ion pack studied consists of four series modules connected in parallel. This pack has been characterized by means of charge, discharge and frequency tests. As a result of these tests, series and parallel influence on battery parameters have been determined. A model considering the effects of a BMS is established and compared with a model based on a single-cell approach. Experimental validations show that the single cell based approach gives poor results in comparison with a model that considers BMS effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization Models for Islanded Micro-Grids: A Comparative Analysis between Linear Programming and Mixed Integer Programming
Energies 2017, 10(2), 241; doi:10.3390/en10020241
Received: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a comparison of optimization methods applied to islanded micro-grids including renewable energy sources, diesel generators and battery energy storage systems. In particular, a comparative analysis between an optimization model based on linear programming and a model based on mixed integer
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparison of optimization methods applied to islanded micro-grids including renewable energy sources, diesel generators and battery energy storage systems. In particular, a comparative analysis between an optimization model based on linear programming and a model based on mixed integer programming has been carried out. The general formulation of these models has been presented and applied to a real case study micro-grid installed in Somalia. The case study is an islanded micro-grid supplying the city of Garowe by means of a hybrid power plant, consisting of diesel generators, photovoltaic systems and batteries. In both models the optimization is based on load demand and renewable energy production forecast. The optimized control of the battery state of charge, of the spinning reserve and diesel generators allows harvesting as much renewable power as possible or to minimize the use of fossil fuels in energy production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Equivalence of Primary Control Strategies for AC and DC Microgrids
Energies 2017, 10(1), 91; doi:10.3390/en10010091
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract
Microgrid frequency and voltage regulation is a challenging task, as classical generators with rotational inertia are usually replaced by converter-interfaced systems that inherently do not provide any inertial response. The aim of this paper is to analyse and compare autonomous primary control techniques
[...] Read more.
Microgrid frequency and voltage regulation is a challenging task, as classical generators with rotational inertia are usually replaced by converter-interfaced systems that inherently do not provide any inertial response. The aim of this paper is to analyse and compare autonomous primary control techniques for alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) microgrids that improve this transient behaviour. In this context, a virtual synchronous machine (VSM) technique is investigated for AC microgrids, and its behaviour for different values of emulated inertia and droop slopes is tested. Regarding DC microgrids, a virtual-impedance-based algorithm inspired by the operation concept of VSMs is proposed. The results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can be configured to have an analogous behaviour to VSM techniques by varying the control parameters of the integrated virtual-impedances. This means that the steady-state and transient behaviour of converters employing these strategies can be configured independently. As shown in the simulations, this is an interesting feature that could be, for instance, employed for the integration of different dynamic generation or storage systems, such as batteries or supercapacitors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Energy Audit Activity Focused on the Lighting Systems in Historical Buildings
Energies 2016, 9(12), 998; doi:10.3390/en9120998
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 5 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 27 November 2016
PDF Full-text (2832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The energy audit for a building is a procedure designed mainly to obtain adequate knowledge of the energy consumption profile, identify, and quantify opportunities for energy savings by a cost-benefit analysis and report, clearly and comprehensively, about the obtained results. If the audit
[...] Read more.
The energy audit for a building is a procedure designed mainly to obtain adequate knowledge of the energy consumption profile, identify, and quantify opportunities for energy savings by a cost-benefit analysis and report, clearly and comprehensively, about the obtained results. If the audit is referred to a building with a significant historical and artistic value, a compatibility evaluation of the energy saving interventions with the architectural features should also be developed. In this paper, analysing the case study of a historical building used as public offices in Pisa (Italy), the authors describe how it is possible to conduct an energy audit activity (especially dedicated to the lighting system) and they show how, for this type of buildings, it is possible to obtain significant energy savings with a refurbishment of the lighting system. A total number of seven interventions on indoor and outdoor lighting sub-systems were analysed in the paper. They are characterised by absolute compatibility with the historical and artistic value of the building and they show short payback times, variable between 4 and 34 months, allowing a reduction of the electrical energy consumption for the artificial indoor and outdoor lighting variable from 1.1 MWh/year to 39.0 MWh/year. The followed methodology and the evaluation results described in the paper, although based on a case study, can be extended to numerous historical buildings used as public offices, a recurring situation in the centres of Italian historical cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation the Influence of Different Salts on the Degradation of Organic Dyes Using Non-Thermal Plasma
Energies 2016, 9(11), 874; doi:10.3390/en9110874
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 16 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
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Abstract
In dye decolorization tests a non-thermal plasma (NTP) corona discharge generated by a high voltage pin-to-ground plate displayed 82% color removal within 11 min. Total color removal was accomplished after 28 min. Different salts such as KCl, NaCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3
[...] Read more.
In dye decolorization tests a non-thermal plasma (NTP) corona discharge generated by a high voltage pin-to-ground plate displayed 82% color removal within 11 min. Total color removal was accomplished after 28 min. Different salts such as KCl, NaCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3 were utilized to check the influence of conductivity changes on the dye decolorization process. Higher dye solution conductivity improved the color removal efficiency. The discharge energy and degradation efficiency were computed for diverse concentrations for NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3, whereby it was noticed that the salts generally have a small impact on the level of dye decolorization using corona discharge. In addition, the essential reactive species involved in the oxidation of organic dye compounds such as ozone (O3) generated in treated water and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were investigated and the energetic species that produced the non-thermal plasma at the optimum operation time were determined. Energy yields for decolorization and Electrical Energy per Order (EE/O) were calculated for different concentrations of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3. This work may help in designing plasma systems appropriate for treatment of industrial wastewaters polluted by dyes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sensitivity-Based Model of Low Voltage Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources
Energies 2016, 9(10), 801; doi:10.3390/en9100801
Received: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 4 October 2016
PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A key issue in Low Voltage(LV) distribution systems is to identify strategies for the optimal management and control in the presence of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). To reduce the number of variables to be monitored and controlled, virtual levels of aggregation, called Virtual
[...] Read more.
A key issue in Low Voltage(LV) distribution systems is to identify strategies for the optimal management and control in the presence of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). To reduce the number of variables to be monitored and controlled, virtual levels of aggregation, called Virtual Microgrids (VMs), are introduced and identified by using new models of the distribution system. To this aim, this paper, revisiting and improving the approach outlined in a conference paper, presents a sensitivity-based model of an LV distribution system, supplied by a Medium/Low Voltage (MV/LV) substation and composed by several feeders, which is suitable for the optimal management and control of the grid and for VM definition. The main features of the proposed method are: it evaluates the sensitivity coefficients in a closed form; it provides an overview of the sensitivity of the network to the variations of each DER connected to the grid; and it presents a limited computational burden. A comparison of the proposed method with both the exact load flow solutions and a perturb-and-observe method is discussed in a case study. Finally, the method is used to evaluate the impact of the DERs on the nodal voltages of the network. Full article
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