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Special Issue "Energy Production Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ali Elkamel

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy and environmental engineering systems; air pollution modeling, simulation and control; sustainable development, planning and scheduling of process operations; dynamic modeling and optimization; combinatorial optimization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the grand challenges of this century is to supply energy to a growing population in an environmentally and economically sustainable way. Since no single technology can meet this ultimate energy challenge of the future on its own, a systems approach has been shown to be able to provide insight and data on how viable an energy production pathway can be. A diverse number of energy sources can be taken into account including biomass, hydroelectric, wind, solar, natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy. The scope of this Special Issue reflects these challenges, and aims to present solutions that effectively account for sustainability and lower greenhouse gas emissions, while meeting growing energy demands. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Decision frameworks that are based upon bottom-up views of industrial activities and top-down views of energy and other product demands
  • Multi-period modeling frameworks that account for predictable trends and interactions
  • Energy storage systems, energy management, and energy harvesting
  • Long-term planning problems for the development of integrated system and which implicitly incorporate economic and sustainability considerations
  • Interactions of energy supply networks at various scales
  • Energy supply networks and electrified transportation networks
  • Energy systems environmental impacts
  • Renewable energy integration
  • Modeling tools for energy systems
  • Solution methodologies that integrate logic-based methods, decomposition techniques, robust optimization, and reformulation strategies

Prof. Dr. Ali Elkamel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Multi-period modeling
  • energy storage
  • energy management
  • energy networks
  • solution methodologies
  • environmental impact
  • systems integration
  • sustainable energy

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Approach for Power System Security Enhancement via Optimal Installation of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Devices
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1305; doi:10.3390/en10091305
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 27 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Increasing demand for electricity has placed heavy stress on power system security. Therefore, this paper focuses on the problem of how to maximize power system static security in terms of branch loading and voltage level under normal operation and even the most critical
[...] Read more.
Increasing demand for electricity has placed heavy stress on power system security. Therefore, this paper focuses on the problem of how to maximize power system static security in terms of branch loading and voltage level under normal operation and even the most critical single line contingency conditions. This paper proposes a hybrid approach to find out the optimal locations and settings of two classical types of flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices, namely thyristor-controlled series compensators (TCSCs) and static var compensators (SVCs) for solving this problem. Our proposed approach requires a two-step strategy. Firstly, the min cut algorithm (MCA) and tangent vector technique (TVT) are applied to determine the proper candidate locations of TCSC and SVC respectively so as to reduce the search scope for a solution to the problem, and then the cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is employed to solve this problem by simultaneously optimizing the locations and settings for TCSC and SVC installation. The proposed hybrid approach has been verified on the IEEE 6-bus and modified IEEE 14-bus test systems. The results indicate that CSA outperforms particle swarm optimization (PSO), proving its effectiveness and potential, and they also show that our proposed hybrid approach can find the best locations and settings for TCSC and SVC devices as an effective way for enhancing power system static security by removing or alleviating the overloads and voltage violations under normal operation and even the most critical single line contingency conditions. Using this hybrid approach, the search space for solution to the problem becomes limited hence the computational burden will be decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessArticle An Optimization Framework for Investment Evaluation of Complex Renewable Energy Systems
Energies 2017, 10(7), 1062; doi:10.3390/en10071062
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Enhancing the role of renewable energies in existing power systems is one of the most crucial challenges that society faces today. However, the high variability of their generation potential and the temporal disparity between the demand and the generation potential represent technological and
[...] Read more.
Enhancing the role of renewable energies in existing power systems is one of the most crucial challenges that society faces today. However, the high variability of their generation potential and the temporal disparity between the demand and the generation potential represent technological and operational gaps that burden the massive incorporation of renewable sources into power systems. Energy storage technologies are an alternative to tackle this gap; nonetheless, their incorporation within large-scale power grids calls for decision-making tools that ensure an appropriate design and sizing of power systems that exploit the benefits of incorporating storage facilities along with renewable generation power. In this paper, we present an optimization framework for aiding the evaluation of the strategic design of complex renewable power systems. The developed tool relies on an optimization problem, the generation, transmission, storage energy location and sizing problem, which allows one to compute economically-attractive investment plans given by the location and sizing of generation and storage energy systems, along with the corresponding layout of transmission lines. Results on a real case study (located in the central region of Chile), characterized by carefully-curated data, show the potential of the developed tool for aiding long-term investment planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of GHG Emission Reduction in South Korea Using a CO2 Transportation Network Optimization Model
Energies 2017, 10(7), 1027; doi:10.3390/en10071027
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (956 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Korea’s national carbon capture and storage (CCS) master plan aims to commercialize CCS projects by 2030. Furthermore, the Korean government is forced to reduce emissions from various sectors, including industries and power generation, by 219 million tons by 2030. This study analyzes a
[...] Read more.
Korea’s national carbon capture and storage (CCS) master plan aims to commercialize CCS projects by 2030. Furthermore, the Korean government is forced to reduce emissions from various sectors, including industries and power generation, by 219 million tons by 2030. This study analyzes a few scenarios of Korean CCS projects with a CO2 pipeline transportation network optimization model for minimizing the total facility cost and pipeline cost. Our scenarios are based on the “2030 basic roadmap for reducing greenhouse gases” established by the government. The results for each scenario demonstrate that the effective design and implementation of CO2 pipeline network enables the lowering of CO2 units cost. These suggest that CO2 transportation networks, which connect the capture and sequestration parts, will be more important in the future and can be used to substitute and supplement the emission reduction target in case the execution of other reduction options faces uncertainty. Our mathematical model and scenario designs will be helpful for various countries which plan to introduce CCS technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Design of a H Robust Controller with μ-Analysis for Steam Turbine Power Generation Applications
Energies 2017, 10(7), 1026; doi:10.3390/en10071026
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
Concentrated Solar Power plants are complex systems subjected to quite sensitive variations of the steam production profile and external disturbances, thus advanced control techniques that ensure system stability and suitable performance criteria are required. In this work, a multi-objective H robust controller
[...] Read more.
Concentrated Solar Power plants are complex systems subjected to quite sensitive variations of the steam production profile and external disturbances, thus advanced control techniques that ensure system stability and suitable performance criteria are required. In this work, a multi-objective H robust controller is designed and applied to the power control of a Concentered Solar Power plant composed by two turbines, a gear and a generator. In order to provide robust performance and stability in presence of disturbances, not modeled plant dynamics and plant-parameter variations, the advanced features of the μ-analysis are exploited. A high order controller is obtained from the process of synthesis that makes the implementation of the controller difficult and computational more demanding for a Programmable Logic Controller. Therefore, the controller order is reduced through the Balanced Truncation method and then discretized. The obtained robust control is compared to the current Proportional Integral Derivative-based governing system in order to evaluate its performance, considering unperturbed as well as perturbed scenarios, taking into account variations of steam conditions, sensor measurement delays and power losses. The simulations results show that the proposed controller achieves better robustness and performance compared to the existing Proportional Integral Derivative controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Stochastic Programming Approach for the Planning and Operation of a Power to Gas Energy Hub with Multiple Energy Recovery Pathways
Energies 2017, 10(7), 868; doi:10.3390/en10070868
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a need for energy storage to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of energy distribution with the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources. Among the various energy storage technologies being developed, ‘power-to-gas’ is one such concept which has gained interest due to
[...] Read more.
There is a need for energy storage to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of energy distribution with the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources. Among the various energy storage technologies being developed, ‘power-to-gas’ is one such concept which has gained interest due to its ability to provide long term energy storage and recover the energy stored through different energy recovery pathways. Incorporation of such systems within the energy infrastructure requires analysis of the key factors influencing the operation of electrolyzers and hydrogen storage. This study focusses on assessing the benefits power-to-gas energy storage while accounting for uncertainty in the following three key parameters that could influence the operation of the energy system: (1) hourly electricity price; (2) the number of fuel cell vehicles serviced; and (3) the amount of hydrogen refueled. An hourly time index is adopted to analyze how the energy hub should operate under uncertainty. The results show that there is a potential economic benefit for the power-to-gas system if it is modeled using the two-stage stochastic programming approach in comparison to a deterministic optimization study. The power-to-gas system also offers environmental benefits both from the perspective of the producer and end user of hydrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Overview of Real-Time Simulation as a Supporting Effort to Smart-Grid Attainment
Energies 2017, 10(6), 817; doi:10.3390/en10060817
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
The smart-grid approach undergoes many difficulties regarding the strategy that will enable its actual implementation. In this paper, an overview of real-time simulation technologies and their applicability to the smart-grid approach are presented as enabling steps toward the smart-grid’s actual implementation. The objective
[...] Read more.
The smart-grid approach undergoes many difficulties regarding the strategy that will enable its actual implementation. In this paper, an overview of real-time simulation technologies and their applicability to the smart-grid approach are presented as enabling steps toward the smart-grid’s actual implementation. The objective of this work is to contribute with an introductory text for interested readers of real-time systems in the context of modern electric needs and trends. In addition, a comprehensive review of current applications of real-time simulation in electric systems is provided, together with the basis to understand real-time simulation and the topologies and hardware used to implement it. Furthermore, an overview of the evolution of real-time simulators in the industrial and academic background and its current challenges are introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle DC Thermal Plasma Design and Utilization for the Low Density Polyethylene to Diesel Oil Pyrolysis Reaction
Energies 2017, 10(6), 784; doi:10.3390/en10060784
Received: 25 December 2016 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The exponential increase of plastic production produces 100 million tonnes of waste plastics annually which could be converted into hydrocarbon fuels in a thermal cracking process called pyrolysis. In this research work, a direct current (DC) thermal plasma circuit is designed and used
[...] Read more.
The exponential increase of plastic production produces 100 million tonnes of waste plastics annually which could be converted into hydrocarbon fuels in a thermal cracking process called pyrolysis. In this research work, a direct current (DC) thermal plasma circuit is designed and used for conversion of low density polyethylene (LDPE) into diesel oil in a laboratory scale pyrolysis reactor. The experimental setup uses a 270 W DC thermal plasma at operating temperatures in the range of 625 °C to 860 °C for a low density polyethylene (LDPE) pyrolysis reaction at pressure = −0.95, temperature = 550 °C with τ = 30 min at a constant heating rate of 7.8 °C/min. The experimental setup consists of a vacuum pump, closed system vessel, direct current (DC) plasma circuit, and a k-type thermocouple placed a few millimeters from the reactant sample. The hydrocarbon products are condensed to diesel oil and analyzed using flame ionization detector (FID) gas chromatography. The analysis shows 87.5% diesel oil, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (Surr), benzene, ethylbenzene and traces of toluene and xylene. The direct current (DC) thermal plasma achieves 56.9 wt. % of diesel range oil (DRO), 37.8 wt. % gaseous products and minimal tar production. The direct current (DC) thermal plasma shows reliability, better temperature control, and high thermal performance as well as the ability to work for long operation periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Generalized Energy Flow Analysis Considering Electricity Gas and Heat Subsystems in Local-Area Energy Systems Integration
Energies 2017, 10(4), 514; doi:10.3390/en10040514
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To alleviate environmental pollution and improve the efficient use of energy, energy systems integration (ESI)—covering electric power systems, heat systems and natural gas systems—has become an important trend in energy utilization. The traditional power flow calculation method, with the object as the power
[...] Read more.
To alleviate environmental pollution and improve the efficient use of energy, energy systems integration (ESI)—covering electric power systems, heat systems and natural gas systems—has become an important trend in energy utilization. The traditional power flow calculation method, with the object as the power system, will prove difficult in meeting the requirements of the coupled energy flow analysis. This paper proposes a generalized energy flow (GEF) analysis method which is suitable for an ESI containing electricity, heat and gas subsystems. First, the models of electricity, heat, and natural gas networks in the ESI are established. In view of the complexity of the conventional method to solve the gas network including the compressor, an improved practical equivalent method was adopted based on different control modes. On this basis, a hybrid method combining homotopy and the Newton-Raphson algorithm was executed to compute the nonlinear equations of GEF, and the Jacobi matrix reflecting the coupling relationship of multi-energy was derived considering the grid connected mode and island modes of the power system in the ESI. Finally, the validity of the proposed method in multi-energy flow calculation and the analysis of interacting characteristics was verified using practical cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Stand-Alone Power System Based on Solar Power/Batteries for Global System for Mobile Communications Base Stations
Energies 2017, 10(3), 392; doi:10.3390/en10030392
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for
[...] Read more.
Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for photovoltaics are making cellular base stations (BSs; a key source of energy consumption in cellular networks) powered by solar energy sources a long-term promising solution for the mobile cellular network industry. This paper addresses issues of deployment and operation of two solar-powered global system for mobile communications (GSM) BSs that are being deployed at present (GSM BS 2/2/2 and GSM BS 4/4/4). The study is based on the characteristics of South Korean solar radiation exposure. The optimum criteria as well as economic and technical feasibility for various BSs are analyzed using a hybrid optimization model for electric renewables. In addition, initial capital, replacement, operations, maintenance, and total net present costs for various solar-powered BSs are discussed. Furthermore, the economic feasibility of the proposed solar system is compared with conventional energy sources in urban and remote areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Shale Gas Supply Chain Network under Market Uncertainties
Energies 2017, 10(2), 246; doi:10.3390/en10020246
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 18 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing demand of energy has turned the shale gas and shale oil into one of the most promising sources of energy in the United States. In this article, a model is proposed to address the long-term planning problem of the shale gas
[...] Read more.
The increasing demand of energy has turned the shale gas and shale oil into one of the most promising sources of energy in the United States. In this article, a model is proposed to address the long-term planning problem of the shale gas supply chain under uncertain conditions. A two-stage stochastic programming model is proposed to describe and optimize the shale gas supply chain network. Inherent uncertainty in final products’ prices, such as natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL), is treated through the utilization of a scenario-based method. A binomial option pricing model is utilized to approximate the stochastic process through the generation of scenario trees. The aim of the proposed model is to generate an appropriate and realistic supply chain network configuration as well as scheduling of different operations throughout the planning horizon of a shale gas development project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Wearable Biomechanical Energy Harvesting Technologies
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1483; doi:10.3390/en10101483
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
Energy harvesting has been attracting attention as a technology that is capable of replacing or supplementing a battery with the development of various mobile electronics. In environments where stable electrical supply is not possible, energy harvesting technology can guarantee an increased leisure and
[...] Read more.
Energy harvesting has been attracting attention as a technology that is capable of replacing or supplementing a battery with the development of various mobile electronics. In environments where stable electrical supply is not possible, energy harvesting technology can guarantee an increased leisure and safety for human beings. Harvesting with several watts of power is essential for directly driving or efficiently charging mobile electronic devices such as laptops or cell phones. In this study, we reviewed energy harvesting technologies that harvest biomechanical energy from human motion such as foot strike, joint motion, and upper limb motion. They are classified based on the typical principle of kinetic energy harvesting: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and electromagnetic energy harvesting. We focused on the wearing position of high-power wearable biomechanical energy harvesters (WBEHs) generating watt-level power. In addition, the features and future trends of the watt-level WBEHs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Transition of Future Energy System Infrastructure; through Power-to-Gas Pathways
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1089; doi:10.3390/en10081089
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1957 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Power-to-gas is a promising option for storing interment renewables, nuclear baseload power, and distributed energy and it is a novel concept for the transition to increased renewable content of current fuels with an ultimate goal of transition to a sustainable low-carbon future energy
[...] Read more.
Power-to-gas is a promising option for storing interment renewables, nuclear baseload power, and distributed energy and it is a novel concept for the transition to increased renewable content of current fuels with an ultimate goal of transition to a sustainable low-carbon future energy system that interconnects power, transportation sectors and thermal energy demand all together. The aim of this paper is to introduce different Power-to-gas “pathways”, including Power to Hydrogen, Power to Natural Gas End-users, Power to Renewable Content in Petroleum Fuel, Power to Power, Seasonal Energy Storage to Electricity, Power to Zero Emission Transportation, Power to Seasonal Storage for Transportation, Power to Micro grid, Power to Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) to Pipeline (“Methanation”), and Power to Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) to Seasonal Storage. In order to compare the different pathways, the review of key technologies of Power-to-gas systems are studied and the qualitative efficiency and benefits of each pathway is investigated from the technical points of view. Moreover, different Power-to-gas pathways are discussed as an energy policy option that can be implemented to transition towards a lower carbon economy for Ontario’s energy systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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Open AccessReview Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review
Energies 2017, 10(2), 179; doi:10.3390/en10020179
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 1 February 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study
[...] Read more.
This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
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