Special Issue "Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome"

A special issue of Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbial Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Gerard E. Mullin

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine/ 600 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
E-Mail
Phone: +410-502-4270
Guest Editor
Prof. Laura Matarese

Department of Internal Medicine, Brody School of Medicine East Carolina University, 600 Moye Blvd. Vidant MA 342, Mail Stop 734, Greenville, NC 27834
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The gut microbiome is an interactive network of trillions of microbes that synergize to provide epigenetic regulation of the host and impacting a number of crucial physiological functions. Establishment of the gut microbiome is influenced by the mode of birth, breastfeeding, provision of prebiotic foods, antibiotics, host genetics, and more.  Environmental factors cause perturbations in the biodiversity of the gut microbial communities occur throughout the lifecycle, however, the interplay between diet and host genetics determines the outcome: health or disease. Diabetes and obesity are complex chronic diseases that have reduced gut microbial biodiversity that contribute towards their pathophysiologies including insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, increased gut permeability, appetite dysregulation, distorted thermodynamics among other changes.  Bacteria causing weight gain are thought to induce the expression of genes related to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism thereby leading to greater energy harvest from the diet. Intricate fecal transplantation experiments in genetically manipulated mice have exquisitely demonstrated the interaction of genes and environment to produce metabolic outcomes that can either prevent to promote these chronic diseases. Novel therapies for these chronic diseases will be advanced by a deeper understanding of epigenetic modulation of host metabolism by the gut microbiome in health and in obesity and diabetes. 

In this Special Issue, we would like to invite submissions of original research or review articles on any topic related to “Diabetes, Obesity, and the Gut Microbiome”. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Gerard E. Mullin
Prof. Laura Matarese
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Genes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gut Microbiome
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Inflammation
  • Insulin resistance
  • Epigenetics
  • Animal Models
  • Probiotics
  • Prebiotics
  • Fecal transplantation

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Houttuynia cordata Facilitates Metformin on Ameliorating Insulin Resistance Associated with Gut Microbiota Alteration in OLETF Rats
Genes 2017, 8(10), 239; doi:10.3390/genes8100239
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
PDF Full-text (3463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing
[...] Read more.
Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))—the same as metformin alone. Particularly, results of the insulin tolerance test (ITT) showed that combining HCE + metformin dramatically improved insulin sensitivity as compared to metformin treatment alone. Both fecal and serum endotoxin, as well as cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)) were significantly ameliorated by HCE + metformin compared to metformin alone. Meanwhile, the activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) by metformin was distinctly enhanced by HCE. Both of HCE and metformin evidently changed the gut microbiota composition, causing the alteration of bacterial metabolite, like short-chain fatty acids. H. cordata, together with metformin, exerts intensive sensibilization to insulin; the corresponding mechanisms are associated with alleviation of endotoxemia via regulation of gut microbiota, particularly Roseburia, Akkermansia, and Gram-negative bacterium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Effects of Antidiabetic Drugs on Gut Microbiota Composition
Genes 2017, 8(10), 250; doi:10.3390/genes8100250
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species; which mainly belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes; such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA); amino acids; bile acids or vitamins. It
[...] Read more.
Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species; which mainly belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes; such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA); amino acids; bile acids or vitamins. It is becoming clear that gut microbiota is playing a prevalent role in pathologies such as metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes (T2D); inflammatory and bowel diseases. Obesity and related diseases; notably type 2 diabetes, induce gut dysbiosis. In this review; we aim to cover the current knowledge about the effects of antidiabetic drugs on gut microbiota diversity and composition as well as the potential beneficial effects mediated by specific taxa. Metformin is the first-line treatment against T2D. In addition to its glucose-lowering and insulin sensitizing effects, metformin promotes SCFA-producing and mucin-degrading bacteria. Other antidiabetic drugs discussed in this review show positive effects on dysbiosis; but without any consensus specifically regarding the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. Thus, beneficial effects might be mediated by specific taxa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Working Title: Effects of anti-diabetic drugs on gut microbiota
Putative Authors: Sophie A. Montandon1 & François R. Jornayvaz1,*
Affiliations: 1Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Hypertension and Nutrition, Geneva University Hospitals, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
* Correspondence: francois.jornayvaz@hcuge.ch; Tel.: +41-22-372-9302
Abstract: Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species, which mainly belong to the Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), amino acids or vitamins. It is becoming of clear evidence that gut microbiota is playing a prevalent role in pathologies such as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2D), inflammatory and bowel diseases. Obesity and related diseases, notably type 2 diabetes, induce gut dysbiosis. In this review, we aim to cover the current knowledge about the effects of anti-diabetic drugs on gut microbiota diversity and composition as well as the potential beneficial effects mediated by specific taxa. Metformin is the first-line treatment against T2D. In addition to its glucose-lowering and insulin sensitizing effects, metformin promotes SCFA-producing and mucin-degrading bacteria. Other anti-diabetic drugs discussed in this review show positive effects on dysbiosis. Most of them promote SCFA-producing bacteria as well as Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria phyla. There is no consensus about the effects of anti-diabetics on the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Thus, beneficial effects are probably taxon-specific and should not be studied at the phylum level only.
Keywords: Gut microbiota; anti-diabetic drugs; metformin; incretins

Working Title: Microbial regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance
Putative Authors: Silke Crommen1 and Marie-Christine Simon1,2#
Affiliations: 1Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Nutritional Physiology, University of Bonn, Germany
2The Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
# corresponding author
Abstract: Type 2 Diabetes is a combined disease, resulting from a hyperglycemia and peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. Recent data suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in diabetes development, altering metabolic processes including glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Thus type 2 diabetes patients show a microbial dysbiosis, with reduced butyrate producing bacteria and elevated potential pathogens compared to metabolic healthy individuals. Furthermore probiotics are a known tool to modulate the microbiota, having a therapeutic potential. Current literature will be discussed to elucidate the complex interaction of gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and inflammation leading to peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore this review aims to generate a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanism of potential microbial stains, which can be used as probiotics. 

Working Title: Houttuynia cordata Facilitates Metformin on 3 Ameliorating Insulin Resistance Associated with Gut 4 Microbiota Alteration in OLETF Rats
Putative Authors: Jing-Hua Wang1, Shambhunath Bose2, Soo-Kyoung Lim1, Abuzar Ansari1, Young-Won Chin3, Han-Seok Choi4 and Hojun Kim1,
Affiliations: 1Department of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine, Dongguk University, 814 Siksa, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, 8 Republic of Korea; ewccwang@gmail.com, sklim1972@naver.com, abu.zar.0313@outlook.com
2NosQuest, 463-400 USPACE 1A-1103, Daewang Pangyoro 660, Bundanggu, Seongnamsi, Gyeonggi-do 10 13494, South Korea; shambose@yahoo.com
3College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University, Dongguk-lo 32, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea; 12 f2744@dongguk.edu
4Department of endocrinology, Dongguk University, Dongguk-lo 32, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of 14 Korea; hschoi402@dumc.or.kr
* Correspondence: kimklar@gmail.com; Tel.: +82 31 961 9111 17
Abstract: Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western 20 and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the cooperative anti-diabetic effect 21 of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long-Evans 22 Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel 23 electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Treatment with metformin and HCE + metformin 24 combination resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (OGTT) same as metformin 25 alone. Particularly, results of the insulin sensitivity test (ITT) showed that both metformin and HCE 26 + metformin combination treatment more dramatically improved insulin sensitivity as compare to 27 metformin alone. Both of fecal and serum endotoxin and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α & IL-1β) 28 were more prominently ameliorated by HCE + metformin compared to metformin alone. 29 Meanwhile, the activation of AMPK by metformin was distinctly enhanced by HCE. Both of HCE 30 and metformin evidently changed the gut microbiota composition causing the alteration of bacterial 31 metabolite, like short-chain fatty acids. Taken together, Houttuynia cordata together with metformin 32 exerts intensive sensibilization to insulin, the corresponding mechanisms are associated with 33 alleviation of endotoxemia via regulation of gut microbiota, particularly Roseburia, Akkermansia, and 34 gram negative bacterium
Keywords: Houttuynia cordata; insulin sensitivity; OLETF rat; gut microbiota; endotoxin

 

Working Title: Decipher the relationship between obesity and various diseases from network view
Putative Authors: Lei Chen 1,2, YuHang Zhang3, YunHua Zhang4, Tao Huang3, Yu-Dong Cai1*
Affiliations: 1School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, People’s Republic of China;
2College of Information Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, People’s Republic of China;
3Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, People’s Republic of China;
4Anhui province key lab of farmland ecological conversation and pollution prevention, School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, People’s Republic of China.
Abstract:Obesity is rapidly increasing not only in developed countries but also in developing countries and cause huge health problems for massive population all over the world. There are many reports of the associations of obesity and diabetes. But how many other diseases are also associated with obesity and how these diseases are associated with obesity on molecular level? These questions are still largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the relationship between obesity and diseases from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) databases on the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network. The obesity genes and OMIM disease genes were mapped onto the network and the interaction scores between these two gene-sets were calculated based on the protein-protein interactions of individual gene pairs. Our results suggested the nutritional, endocrine and psychiatric diseases are closely associated with obesity on the protein-protein interaction network. Many obesity-disease associations we discovered based on network analysis were confirmed by literatures of clinical observations. What's more, the connections between obesity genes and OMIM disease genes were identified. These results may help understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of obesity-disease co-occurrence and provide useful insights for disease prevention and intervention.

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