Special Issue "BMP Development, Implementation, and Performance"
A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2016)
Dr. Kelly T. Morgan
Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 2685 SR 29N, Immokalee, FL 34142, USA
Interests: irrigation; nitrogen; phosphorus; nutrient transformations; nutrient use efficiency; water quality; crop modeling
Dr. Monica Ozores-Hampton
Water shortages and water-quality problems have been associated world-wide with highly urbanized areas and with intense agricultural, horticultural, and industrial land uses. Most urban consumers are more concerned with water quality than quantity, rating having clean drinking water most important. The application of science based practices to agricultural production is central to environmentally sensitive nutrient and water stewardship. Development, implementation, and performance of best management practices (BMPs) to maintain or improve water quality are critical to the sustainability of current agricultural production systems. Elements of these BMPs include improved soil testing methods, optimizing fertilizer applications (e.g., source, rate, placement, timing, and rate), site-specific irrigation scheduling, and innovative on-site drainage and sediment treatment. Researchers are actively experimenting to determine optimum nutrient and water management practices for specific soil and environmental situations related to production systems. Modelers are utilizing these inputs to simulate biological processes to reduce the potential impact of agriculture on water quality. Extension agents have taught many of these practices in their programs for years but not as a production system. Extension programs utilizing industry support groups to organize commodity specific production education with grower feedback and public information surveys are being developed to bring individual production practices into a coordinated agricultural production system. The goal of this Special Issue is to provide examples of the current best knowledge, to address stakeholder needs, using the right communications tools and strategies, to improve agricultural production system and lower their impact on the environment.
Dr. Kelly T. Morgan
Dr. Monica Ozores-Hampton
Manuscript Submission Information
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- Best management practices
- water quality
- production systems
- soil testing
- nutrient recommendations
- irrigaiton scheduling
- environmental impact
- crop modeling
Author: Mike Aust
Affiliation: Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Tech, 210 Cheatham Hall (0444), Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA; E-Mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Forest stream crossings can provide direct linkages between eroded materials and streams, therefore forestry best management practices (BMPs) have been developed to reduce sediment contributions. Forty-two operational truck road and skid trail stream crossings in the Virginia Piedmont were evaluated using three surrogates of BMP adequacy: 1) potential erosion rates for stream crossing approaches were predicted via the USLE-Forest soil erosion model, 2) adequacy of stream crossing BMPs were evaluated using the Virginia Department of Forestry’s (VDOF) BMP audit questionnaire and 3) BMP ratings were assigned. The third BMP evaluation provided an overall BMP rating (BMP−, BMP-standard, and BMP+) for each crossing. Subsequent to BMP categorization, BMP recommendations were made for enhancing BMPs at crossings with BMP- or BMP standard categories. Potential upgrades were suggested based on the VDOF BMP field guide recommendations for surface cover, water control, road templates, and stream crossing BMPs. Next, costs for the BMP enhancements were estimated using a road and skid trail cost method. The majority of truck road stream crossings were culverts, while skid trail stream crossings were primarily portable bridges. Potential erosion estimates, BMP audit scores, and BMP ratings all indicated that skid crossings have lower BMP implementation than truck road crossings. BMP improvements commonly identified for skid trail and truck crossings included addition of cover and water control structures. Improved BMPs at skid trail crossings were less expensive than for truck road crossings, largely due to the different recommended cover practices (e.g., slash for skid trails vs. gravel for truck roads). Current BMP guidelines provide economical and effective techniques for reducing erosion and BMP enhancements have the potential to reduce erosion rates to similar levels found in undisturbed forests.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Agricultural Best Management Practice Abundance and Location Does Not Influence Stream Ecosystem Function or Water Quality in the Summer Season
Author: Nolan J. T. Pearce 1*, Adam G. Yates 1
Affiliation: 1 Western University & Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Geography 1151 Richmond Street, London ON N6A 5B7 Canada; Emails: firstname.lastname@example.org (Nolan Pearce); email@example.com (Adam Yates)
Abstract: Best management practices (BMPs) are tools commonly used to mitigate negative impacts of agriculture on water quality; however, the relationship between BMPs and aquatic ecological function is unknown. Our research goal was to determine the association between both stream ecosystem metabolism and water quality, and the abundance and location of four different BMPs in agricultural catchments. Dissolved oxygen was measured over a two-week period in mid-June and used to estimate ecosystem metabolism of 13 headwater streams representing a gradient of BMP implementation in Southern Ontario, Canada. Stepwise regression analyses were used to associate stream metabolism and water quality with metrics describing the abundance and location of BMPs within each catchment. Studied streams exhibited rates of metabolism comparable to catchments from other agricultural regions. However, metrics of BMP implementation were not associated with either stream metabolism or water quality. Our results suggest that BMPs in the studied agricultural catchments are not improving water quality or mitigating water quality impacts on stream metabolism during the summer season. We propose that seasonality of catchment hydrology and time lag effects associated with past agricultural land use may be masking the mitigation benefits of BMPs on stream ecosystem conditions during the summer season.
Keywords: agriculture; best management practices; stream metabolism; water quality; stream ecosystems