E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. José Alberto Herrera-Melián

Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Edif CCBB, 35017, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: contamination; wastewater treatment; advanced oxidation technologies; ponds; constructed wetlands; environmental management
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. José Alejandro Ortega Méndez

Department of Chemistry, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, 35017, Spain
E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the great challenges facing humanity is the availability of water in sufficient quantity and quality to meet needs. In addition, such availability must be environmentally and economically sustainable. Continued population growth, pollution, and climate change make it even more difficult to achieve this challenge.

Thus, if the goal is to develop and implement sustainable, environmental, and economic methods to provide water with the necessary quality for all people, it will be imperative to make use of all tools available. There are many measures of different natures that must be considered and include, not only technological, but also educational and political ones. Some of them are:

  1. Water demand control: Implementation of saving systems/devices in homes, agriculture, industries, new industrial production methods with reduced water consumption, control of water leaks in distribution systems, etc.

  2. Water production: Desalinization and desalination methods, rain and fog harvest, potabilization, etc.

  3. Wastewater treatment and reuse: Grey water segregation, wastewater treatment methods such as membrane methods and advanced oxidation techniques, natural treatment systems such as ponds and constructed wetlands, evaluation of benefits and threats of using treated wastewater in agriculture, sludge reuse alternatives, etc.

The objective of this Special Issue is to give an idea of the state-of-the-art of development and implementation of the different technological, educational, and political methods, and initiatives aimed at achieving sustainable water management around the world.

Prof. Dr. José Alberto Herrera-Melián
Prof. Dr. José Alejandro Ortega Méndez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water saving devices
  • rain harvest
  • wastewater segregation
  • grey water treatment
  • alternative wastewater treatment
  • treated wastewater reuse

Published Papers (15 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-15
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Effective Removal of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Nano Illite/Smectite Clay: Isotherm, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Modeling of Adsorption
Water 2018, 10(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020210
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Illite-smectite clay is a new mixed mineral of illite and montmorillonite. The ability of nano illite/smectite clay to remove Pb(II) from slightly polluted aqueous solutions has been investigated. The effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), nano illite/smectite clay dosage, and
[...] Read more.
Illite-smectite clay is a new mixed mineral of illite and montmorillonite. The ability of nano illite/smectite clay to remove Pb(II) from slightly polluted aqueous solutions has been investigated. The effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), nano illite/smectite clay dosage, and temperature on the adsorption process were studied. The nano illite/smectite clay was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that Pb(II) was adsorbed efficiently by nano illite/smectite clay in aqueous solution. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model best described the kinetic of the adsorption, and the adsorption capacity of nano illite/smectite (I-Sm) clay was found to be 256.41 μg·g−1 for Pb(II). The adsorption patterns followed the Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) changes, indicated that the present adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in the temperature range of 298–333 K. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Treatment of Dairy Wastewater by Oxygen Injection: Occurrence and Removal Efficiency of a Benzotriazole Based Anticorrosive
Water 2018, 10(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020155
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Benzotriazole is used as corrosion inhibitor in many industrial sectors, such as the dairy industry. Due to its widespread use in various applications and everyday consumer products, this chemical easily reaches the aquatic environment, where it may have deleterious effects. In fact, benzotriazole
[...] Read more.
Benzotriazole is used as corrosion inhibitor in many industrial sectors, such as the dairy industry. Due to its widespread use in various applications and everyday consumer products, this chemical easily reaches the aquatic environment, where it may have deleterious effects. In fact, benzotriazole has been included among the so-called emerging contaminants. In this work, the occurrence and fate of a benzotriazole based anticorrosive (BTA-A) during wastewater treatment in a dairy industry has been assessed. At this dairy, a new system for wastewater treatment based on the injection of pure oxygen was recently started. This system has been proved to be efficient, economic and able to stably operate under a wide range of chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids inputs. Then, after detecting the presence of BTA-A in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant, it was aimed to optimize oxygen injection for the removal of this anticorrosive together with the regulated parameters. The performance of the system was evaluated at a real scale during a month period, during which the mean removal performance of the oxygen injection based treatment was 91%, 90% and 99% for chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and BTA-A, respectively. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle High-Strength Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse with Onsite Passive Methods
Water 2018, 10(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020099
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 25 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the preliminary monitoring results of an onsite pilot wastewater treatment plant consisting of a septic tank, an anaerobic up-flow filter, and a horizontal subsurface flow wetland system planted with Agapanthus africanus. The system was designed to treat heavily polluted
[...] Read more.
This paper describes the preliminary monitoring results of an onsite pilot wastewater treatment plant consisting of a septic tank, an anaerobic up-flow filter, and a horizontal subsurface flow wetland system planted with Agapanthus africanus. The system was designed to treat heavily polluted domestic wastewater produced in a research and development (R&D) center, reaching additional goals of zero energy consumption and eliminating the use of chemical additives. First water quality data shows that organic load in the treated sewage were removed achieving more than 95% efficiency. Nutrients were removed by almost 50%, and fecal and total coliform counts decreased by 99.96%. The results were compared to official Mexican regulations for wastewater discharged into lakes and reservoirs complied with all of them except for nutrients. In this pilot project, the resulting treated wastewater was directly reused for watering the green areas of the R&D center. The result was that the excess of nutrients improved the quality of the grass, avoiding the use of synthetic fertilizers, and created a wetland habitat for small wildlife species living in the area. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of Substrate, Feeding Mode and Number of Stages on the Performance of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Systems
Water 2018, 10(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010039
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (1137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A hybrid constructed wetland mesocosm has been used for the treatment of raw urban wastewater. The first stage was a mulch-based, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF). The HF achieved good removals of COD (61%; 54 g/m2·day) and Total Suspended Solids
[...] Read more.
A hybrid constructed wetland mesocosm has been used for the treatment of raw urban wastewater. The first stage was a mulch-based, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF). The HF achieved good removals of COD (61%; 54 g/m2·day) and Total Suspended Solids (84%; 29 g/m2·day). The second stage was composed of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF) that were employed to study the effect of substrate (gravel vs. mulch), feeding mode (continuous vs. intermittent) and the number of stages (1 vs. 2) on performance. High hydraulic and organic surface loadings (513–583 L/m2·day and 103–118 g/m2·day of COD) were applied to the reactors. The mulch was more efficient than gravel for all the parameters analyzed. The continuous feeding allowed a 3 to 6-fold reduction of the surface area required. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Water Use and Conservation on a Free-Stall Dairy Farm
Water 2017, 9(12), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120977
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
PDF Full-text (1384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Livestock watering can represent as much as 20% of total agricultural water use in areas with intensive dairy farming. Due to an increased emphasis on water conservation for the agricultural sector, it is important to understand the current patterns of on-farm water use.
[...] Read more.
Livestock watering can represent as much as 20% of total agricultural water use in areas with intensive dairy farming. Due to an increased emphasis on water conservation for the agricultural sector, it is important to understand the current patterns of on-farm water use. This study utilized in situ water meters to measure the year-round on-farm pumped water (i.e., blue water) on a ~419 lactating cow confined dairy operation in Eastern Ontario, Canada. The average total water use for the farm was 90,253 ± 15,203 L day−1 and 33,032 m3 annually. Water use was divided into nutritional water (68%), parlour cleaning and operation (14%), milk pre-cooling (15%), barn cleaning, misters and other uses (3%). There was a positive correlation between total monthly water consumption (i.e., nutritional water) and average monthly temperature for lactating cows, heifers, and calves (R2 = 0.69, 0.84, and 0.85, respectively). The blue water footprint scaled by milk production was 6.19 L kg−1 milk or 6.41 L kg−1 fat-and-protein corrected milk (FPCM) including contributions from all animal groups and 5.34 L kg−1 milk (5.54 L kg−1 FPCM) when excluding the water consumption of non-lactating animals. By applying theoretical water conservation scenarios we show that a combination of strategies (air temperature reduction, complete recycling of milk-cooling water, and modified cow preparation protocol) could achieve a savings of 6229 m3 annually, a ~19% reduction in the total annual water use. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Spanish Agriculture and Water: Educational Implications of Water Culture and Consumption from the Farmers’ Perspective
Water 2017, 9(12), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120964
Received: 14 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The responsible management and consumption of water is a challenge that involves all segments of society. Having access to sufficient quality and quantity of water is not only a technological issue, but requires that the adopted measures and programmes take into account the
[...] Read more.
The responsible management and consumption of water is a challenge that involves all segments of society. Having access to sufficient quality and quantity of water is not only a technological issue, but requires that the adopted measures and programmes take into account the dimensions of society and education. Spanish agriculture, as in other areas of the world, is a major consumer of water and more so than other sectors, including household consumption. Within the field of environmental education, this study covered the water culture and consumption of Andalusian farmers, based on their own perceptions. For this purpose, a questionnaire was created and validated, and included a sample of 1030 farmers selected with pseudorandom number sampling. An analysis of the data showed relevant results with respect to the values and notions supporting the justification for farmer behaviours, both from a cognitive-representative viewpoint and from an affective-expressive stance, as well as assertions made by the irrigators about other key sectors concerning the responsible management of water usage and water consumption. The findings of this study may assist in the design of environmental education programmes addressing this sector, which could also include other similar populations. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Lignin Biodegradation in Pulp-and-Paper Mill Wastewater by Selected White Rot Fungi
Water 2017, 9(12), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120935
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
PDF Full-text (1466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An investigation has been carried out to explore the lignin-degrading ability of white rot fungi, as B. adusta and P. crysosporium, grown in different media containing (i) glucose and mineral salts; (ii) a dairy residue; (iii) a dairy residue and mineral salts.
[...] Read more.
An investigation has been carried out to explore the lignin-degrading ability of white rot fungi, as B. adusta and P. crysosporium, grown in different media containing (i) glucose and mineral salts; (ii) a dairy residue; (iii) a dairy residue and mineral salts. Both fungi were then used as inoculum to treat synthetic and industrial pulp-and-paper mill wastewater. On synthetic wastewater, up to 97% and 74% of lignin degradation by B. adusta and P. crysosporium, respectively, have been reached. On industrial wastewater, both fungal strains were able to accomplish 100% delignification in 8–10 days, independent from pH control, with a significant reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) of the solution. Results have confirmed the great biotechnological potential of both B. adusta and P. crysosporium for complete lignin removal in industrial wastewater, and can open the way to next industrial applications on large scale. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Impact of Combined Sewer Overflow on Wastewater Treatment and Microbiological Quality of Rivers for Recreation
Water 2017, 9(11), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110906
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
PDF Full-text (635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Within the framework of a one-year study the treatment capacity of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated, with regard to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and to their influence on the recipient. The logarithmic reduction rates for fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli
[...] Read more.
Within the framework of a one-year study the treatment capacity of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated, with regard to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and to their influence on the recipient. The logarithmic reduction rates for fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli (EC) and intestinal enterococci (IE) were 2.84, 2.90 and 2.93. In the investigated period of time, the tested treatment plant released 4.3% of the total annual load flow volume as combined sewer overflow (CSO), that is, when the influent into the combined sewer exceeds the capacity of the treatment plant and coarsely cleaned wastewater arrives at the recipient. This CSO discharge increased the number of FIB significantly by 1.2 × 102 MPN/100 mL for EC, and by 1.8 × 101 MPN/100 mL for IE. For the Styrian part of the Mur River (1.6 million inhabitants), a calculation of FIB of all sewage treatment plants estimating the same ratio of CSO (4.3%) and a given mean flow rate (QM) results in a significant increase of the FIB load in the recipient: 3.8 × 103 MPN/100 mL for EC and 5.8 × 102 MPN/100 mL for IE. On the basis of these values the standards of water quality for recreational purposes cannot be met. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Decomposition Analysis of Water Treatment Technology Patents
Water 2017, 9(11), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110860
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Water treatment technology development supports a steady, safe water supply. This study examines trends in water treatment technology innovations, using 227,365 patent granted data published from 1993 to 2016 as an indicator of changing research and development (R&D) priorities. To clarify changes in
[...] Read more.
Water treatment technology development supports a steady, safe water supply. This study examines trends in water treatment technology innovations, using 227,365 patent granted data published from 1993 to 2016 as an indicator of changing research and development (R&D) priorities. To clarify changes in R&D priorities, we used a decomposition analysis framework that classified water treatment technologies into five types: conventional treatment (117,974 patents, 51.9%), biological treatment (40,300 patents, 17.7%), multistage treatment (45,732 patents, 20.1%), sludge treatment (15,237 patents, 6.7%), and other treatments (8122 patents, 3.6%). The results showed that the number of water treatment technology patents granted increased more than 700% from 1993 to 2016; in particular, the number of multistage water treatment patents granted rapidly grew. The main driver of this growth was expansion in the R&D activity scale and an increase in the priority of multistage water treatment technology in China. Additionally, the trends and priority changes in water treatment technology inventions varied by country and technology groups, which implied that an international policy framework for water treatment technology development should recognize that R&D priorities need to reflect the diverse characteristics of countries and technologies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Removing Organic Matter and Nutrients from Swine Wastewater after Anaerobic–Aerobic Treatment
Water 2017, 9(10), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100726
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
PDF Full-text (969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anaerobic digesters generate effluent containing about 3000 mg L−1 of organic matter in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD). This effluent must be treated before being reused or discharged into the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency
[...] Read more.
Anaerobic digesters generate effluent containing about 3000 mg L−1 of organic matter in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD). This effluent must be treated before being reused or discharged into the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a trickling filter packed with red volcanic rock for the treatment of anaerobic digester effluent with COD concentrations of around 3000 mg L−1. The trickling filter consisted of an aluminum cylinder, 2 mm thick, 3 m high, and 1 m in diameter. To evaluate the efficiency of the treatment system, there were three experimental runs, each lasting 20 days (d). The predictor variable was the initial COD concentration, which ranged from 2002 to 3074 mg L−1. The hydraulic retention time was 9 h. The influent flow was 2.2 L min−1, which amounts to a hydraulic load of 4033 m3 m−2 day−1 and an organic load of 0.006342 to 0.009738 kg m−3 day−1 of COD. Independent of the initial concentration, COD removal efficiency was very high, varying from 90 to 96%. Final effluents met all the maximum permissible limits to be used as irrigation water, as well as for its release into natural or artificial water reservoirs, stored for agricultural crop irrigation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Adsorption Capacity of a Volcanic Rock—Used in ConstructedWetlands—For Carbamazepine Removal, and Its Modification with Biofilm Growth
Water 2017, 9(9), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090721
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the aim was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a volcanic rock commonly used in Mexico as filter medium in constructed wetlands (locally named tezontle) for carbamazepine (CBZ) adsorption, as well as to analyze the change in its capacity
[...] Read more.
In this study, the aim was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a volcanic rock commonly used in Mexico as filter medium in constructed wetlands (locally named tezontle) for carbamazepine (CBZ) adsorption, as well as to analyze the change in its capacity with biofilm growth. Adsorption essays were carried out under batch conditions by evaluating two particle sizes of tezontle, two values of the solution pH, and two temperatures; from these essays, optimal conditions for carbamazepine adsorption were obtained. The optimal conditions (pH 8, 25 °C and 0.85–2.0 mm particle-size) were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of tezontle with biofilm, which was promoted through tezontle exposition to wastewater in glass columns, for six months. The maximum adsorption capacity of clean tezontle was 3.48 µg/g; while for the tezontle with biofilm, the minimum value was 1.75 µg/g (after the second week) and the maximum, was 3.3 µg/g (after six months) with a clear tendency of increasing over time. The adsorption kinetic was fitted to a pseudo-second model for both tezontle without biofilm and with biofilm, thus indicating a chemisorption process. On clean tezontle, both acid active sites (AAS) and basic active sites (BAS) were found in 0.087 and 0.147 meq/g, respectively. The increase in the adsorption capacity of tezontle with biofilm, along the time was correlated with a higher concentration of BAS, presumably from a greater development of biofilm. The presence of biofilm onto tezontle surface was confirmed through FTIR and FE-SEM. These results confirm the essential role of filter media for pharmaceutical removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sulfide Precipitation in Wastewater at Short Timescales
Water 2017, 9(9), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090670
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Abatement of sulfides in sewer systems using iron salts is a widely used strategy. When dosing at the end of a pumping main, the reaction kinetics of sulfide precipitation becomes important. Traditionally the reaction has been assumed to be rapid or even instantaneous.
[...] Read more.
Abatement of sulfides in sewer systems using iron salts is a widely used strategy. When dosing at the end of a pumping main, the reaction kinetics of sulfide precipitation becomes important. Traditionally the reaction has been assumed to be rapid or even instantaneous. This work shows that this is not the case for sulfide precipitation by ferric iron. Instead, the reaction time was found to be on a timescale where it must be considered when performing end-of-pipe treatment. For real wastewaters at pH 7, a stoichiometric ratio around 14 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1 was obtained after 1.5 s, while the ratio dropped to about 5 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1 after 30 s. Equilibrium calculations yielded a theoretic ratio of 2 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1, indicating that the process had not equilibrated within the span of the experiment. Correspondingly, the highest sulfide conversion only reached 60%. These findings differed significantly from what has been demonstrated in previous studies and what is attained from theoretical equilibrium conditions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Carbamazepine as a Possible Anthropogenic Marker in Water: Occurrences, Toxicological Effects, Regulations and Removal by Wastewater Treatment Technologies
Water 2018, 10(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020107
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 21 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbamazepine (CBZ), a pharmaceutical compound, has been proposed as an anthropogenic marker to assess water quality due to its persistence in conventional treatment plants and widespread presence in water bodies. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on sources and occurrences of CBZ
[...] Read more.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), a pharmaceutical compound, has been proposed as an anthropogenic marker to assess water quality due to its persistence in conventional treatment plants and widespread presence in water bodies. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on sources and occurrences of CBZ in water bodies, as well as toxicological effects and regulations of the drug. Given the documented side effects of CBZ on the human body when taken medicinally, its careful monitoring in water is recommended. CBZ residues in drinking water may provide a pathway to embryos and infants via intrauterine exposure or breast-feeding, which may cause congenital malformations and/or neurodevelopmental problems over long term exposure. An in-depth technical assessment of the conventional and advanced treatment technologies revealed the inadequacy of the standalone technologies. Compared to conventional activated sludge and membrane bioreactor processes, effective removal of CBZ can be achieved by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. However, recent studies have revealed that harsh chemical cleaning, as required to mitigate membrane fouling, can often reduce the long-term removal efficiency. Furthermore, despite the efficient performance of activated carbon adsorption and advanced oxidation processes, a few challenges such as cost of chemicals and regeneration of activated carbon need to be carefully considered. The limitations of the individual technologies point to the advantages of combined and hybrid systems, namely, membrane bioreactor coupled with nanofiltration, adsorption or advanced oxidation process. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Zeolite-Anammox Treatment Process for Nitrogen Removal from Wastewater—A Review
Water 2017, 9(11), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110901
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water quality in San Francisco Bay has been adversely affected by nitrogen loading from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging around the periphery of the Bay. While there is documented use of zeolites and anammox bacteria in removing ammonia and possibly nitrate during wastewater
[...] Read more.
Water quality in San Francisco Bay has been adversely affected by nitrogen loading from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging around the periphery of the Bay. While there is documented use of zeolites and anammox bacteria in removing ammonia and possibly nitrate during wastewater treatment, there is little information available about the combined process. Though relatively large, zeolite beds have a finite ammonium adsorption potential and require periodic re-generation depending on the wastewater nitrogen loading. Use of anammox bacteria reactors for wastewater treatment have shown that ammonium (and to some degree, nitrate) can be successfully removed from the wastewater, but the reactors require careful attention to loading rates and internal redox conditions. Generally, their application has been limited to treatment of high-ammonia strength wastewater at relatively warm temperatures. Moreover, few studies are available describing commercial or full-scale application of these reactors. We briefly review the literature considering use of zeolites or anammox bacteria in wastewater treatment to set the stage for description of an integrated zeolite-anammox process used to remove both ammonium and nitrate without substrate regeneration from mainstream WWTP effluent or anaerobic digester filtrate at ambient temperatures. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCase Report Assessing Risks at a Former Chemical Facility, Nanjing City, China: An Early Test of the New Remediation Guidelines for Waste Sites in China
Water 2017, 9(9), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090657
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
PDF Full-text (2130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
China has recognized the need to investigate and remediate former manufacturing facilities and return the land they occupy to a new, productive use. As a result, national guidelines entitled “Technical guidelines for Risk assessment of contaminated sites” were issued in 2014 to guide
[...] Read more.
China has recognized the need to investigate and remediate former manufacturing facilities and return the land they occupy to a new, productive use. As a result, national guidelines entitled “Technical guidelines for Risk assessment of contaminated sites” were issued in 2014 to guide site investigations, risk assessments, and remedial actions to reduce or mitigate potential exposures of people and ecological receptors to contaminants. This study was pursued to gain experience with the new guidelines at a small, former chemical manufacturing facility in Nanjing City, China. A series of investigations were undertaken to determine the locations and levels of contaminants in soils and groundwater, develop a conceptual site model, and prepare an initial estimate of risks to humans and ecological receptors. Groundwater results revealed several contaminants that were greater than the Dutch Intervention Levels, yet, surprisingly, few, if any, contaminants were found in multiple samplings of soil. Despite the limited investigations of soil and groundwater, data were sufficient to prepare initial risk evaluations for humans, both for systemic toxins and potentially carcinogenic chemicals. The site and nearby area contain industrial facilities and residential neighborhoods; hence, there were too few ecological receptors to warrant an ecological risk assessment. The new guidelines for site investigations and risk assessments proved sufficient for the purposes of this small site; however, more complex sites may require much greater levels of effort and more detailed guidelines for investigations, risk assessments, and remedial actions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top