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Special Issue "Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. José Alberto Herrera-Melián

Department of Chemistry, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, 35017, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: wastewater treatment; constructed wetland; biofilters; ponds; advanced oxidation technologies; wastewater disinfection
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. José Alejandro Ortega Méndez

Department of Chemistry, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, 35017, Spain
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the great challenges facing humanity is the availability of water in sufficient quantity and quality to meet needs. In addition, such availability must be environmentally and economically sustainable. Continued population growth, pollution, and climate change make it even more difficult to achieve this challenge.

Thus, if the goal is to develop and implement sustainable, environmental, and economic methods to provide water with the necessary quality for all people, it will be imperative to make use of all tools available. There are many measures of different natures that must be considered and include, not only technological, but also educational and political ones. Some of them are:

  1. Water demand control: Implementation of saving systems/devices in homes, agriculture, industries, new industrial production methods with reduced water consumption, control of water leaks in distribution systems, etc.
  2. Water production: Desalinization and desalination methods, rain and fog harvest, potabilization, etc.
  3. Wastewater treatment and reuse: Grey water segregation, wastewater treatment methods such as membrane methods and advanced oxidation techniques, natural treatment systems such as ponds and constructed wetlands, evaluation of benefits and threats of using treated wastewater in agriculture, sludge reuse alternatives, etc.

The objective of this Special Issue is to give an idea of the state-of-the-art of development and implementation of the different technological, educational, and political methods, and initiatives aimed at achieving sustainable water management around the world.

Prof. Dr. José Alberto Herrera-Melián
Prof. Dr. José Alejandro Ortega Méndez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

Water saving devices;

rain harvest;

wastewater segregation;

grey water treatment;

alternative wastewater treatment;

treated wastewater reuse

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Removing Organic Matter and Nutrients from Swine Wastewater after Anaerobic–Aerobic Treatment
Water 2017, 9(10), 726; doi:10.3390/w9100726
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
Anaerobic digesters generate effluent containing about 3000 mg L−1 of organic matter in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD). This effluent must be treated before being reused or discharged into the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency
[...] Read more.
Anaerobic digesters generate effluent containing about 3000 mg L−1 of organic matter in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD). This effluent must be treated before being reused or discharged into the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a trickling filter packed with red volcanic rock for the treatment of anaerobic digester effluent with COD concentrations of around 3000 mg L−1. The trickling filter consisted of an aluminum cylinder, 2 mm thick, 3 m high, and 1 m in diameter. To evaluate the efficiency of the treatment system, there were three experimental runs, each lasting 20 days (d). The predictor variable was the initial COD concentration, which ranged from 2002 to 3074 mg L−1. The hydraulic retention time was 9 h. The influent flow was 2.2 L min−1, which amounts to a hydraulic load of 4033 m3 m−2 day−1 and an organic load of 0.006342 to 0.009738 kg m−3 day−1 of COD. Independent of the initial concentration, COD removal efficiency was very high, varying from 90 to 96%. Final effluents met all the maximum permissible limits to be used as irrigation water, as well as for its release into natural or artificial water reservoirs, stored for agricultural crop irrigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle Adsorption Capacity of a Volcanic Rock—Used in ConstructedWetlands—For Carbamazepine Removal, and Its Modification with Biofilm Growth
Water 2017, 9(9), 721; doi:10.3390/w9090721
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the aim was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a volcanic rock commonly used in Mexico as filter medium in constructed wetlands (locally named tezontle) for carbamazepine (CBZ) adsorption, as well as to analyze the change in its capacity
[...] Read more.
In this study, the aim was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a volcanic rock commonly used in Mexico as filter medium in constructed wetlands (locally named tezontle) for carbamazepine (CBZ) adsorption, as well as to analyze the change in its capacity with biofilm growth. Adsorption essays were carried out under batch conditions by evaluating two particle sizes of tezontle, two values of the solution pH, and two temperatures; from these essays, optimal conditions for carbamazepine adsorption were obtained. The optimal conditions (pH 8, 25 °C and 0.85–2.0 mm particle-size) were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of tezontle with biofilm, which was promoted through tezontle exposition to wastewater in glass columns, for six months. The maximum adsorption capacity of clean tezontle was 3.48 µg/g; while for the tezontle with biofilm, the minimum value was 1.75 µg/g (after the second week) and the maximum, was 3.3 µg/g (after six months) with a clear tendency of increasing over time. The adsorption kinetic was fitted to a pseudo-second model for both tezontle without biofilm and with biofilm, thus indicating a chemisorption process. On clean tezontle, both acid active sites (AAS) and basic active sites (BAS) were found in 0.087 and 0.147 meq/g, respectively. The increase in the adsorption capacity of tezontle with biofilm, along the time was correlated with a higher concentration of BAS, presumably from a greater development of biofilm. The presence of biofilm onto tezontle surface was confirmed through FTIR and FE-SEM. These results confirm the essential role of filter media for pharmaceutical removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle Sulfide Precipitation in Wastewater at Short Timescales
Water 2017, 9(9), 670; doi:10.3390/w9090670
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
Abatement of sulfides in sewer systems using iron salts is a widely used strategy. When dosing at the end of a pumping main, the reaction kinetics of sulfide precipitation becomes important. Traditionally the reaction has been assumed to be rapid or even instantaneous.
[...] Read more.
Abatement of sulfides in sewer systems using iron salts is a widely used strategy. When dosing at the end of a pumping main, the reaction kinetics of sulfide precipitation becomes important. Traditionally the reaction has been assumed to be rapid or even instantaneous. This work shows that this is not the case for sulfide precipitation by ferric iron. Instead, the reaction time was found to be on a timescale where it must be considered when performing end-of-pipe treatment. For real wastewaters at pH 7, a stoichiometric ratio around 14 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1 was obtained after 1.5 s, while the ratio dropped to about 5 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1 after 30 s. Equilibrium calculations yielded a theoretic ratio of 2 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1, indicating that the process had not equilibrated within the span of the experiment. Correspondingly, the highest sulfide conversion only reached 60%. These findings differed significantly from what has been demonstrated in previous studies and what is attained from theoretical equilibrium conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Assessing Risks at a Former Chemical Facility, Nanjing City, China: An Early Test of the New Remediation Guidelines for Waste Sites in China
Water 2017, 9(9), 657; doi:10.3390/w9090657
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
PDF Full-text (2130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
China has recognized the need to investigate and remediate former manufacturing facilities and return the land they occupy to a new, productive use. As a result, national guidelines entitled “Technical guidelines for Risk assessment of contaminated sites” were issued in 2014 to guide
[...] Read more.
China has recognized the need to investigate and remediate former manufacturing facilities and return the land they occupy to a new, productive use. As a result, national guidelines entitled “Technical guidelines for Risk assessment of contaminated sites” were issued in 2014 to guide site investigations, risk assessments, and remedial actions to reduce or mitigate potential exposures of people and ecological receptors to contaminants. This study was pursued to gain experience with the new guidelines at a small, former chemical manufacturing facility in Nanjing City, China. A series of investigations were undertaken to determine the locations and levels of contaminants in soils and groundwater, develop a conceptual site model, and prepare an initial estimate of risks to humans and ecological receptors. Groundwater results revealed several contaminants that were greater than the Dutch Intervention Levels, yet, surprisingly, few, if any, contaminants were found in multiple samplings of soil. Despite the limited investigations of soil and groundwater, data were sufficient to prepare initial risk evaluations for humans, both for systemic toxins and potentially carcinogenic chemicals. The site and nearby area contain industrial facilities and residential neighborhoods; hence, there were too few ecological receptors to warrant an ecological risk assessment. The new guidelines for site investigations and risk assessments proved sufficient for the purposes of this small site; however, more complex sites may require much greater levels of effort and more detailed guidelines for investigations, risk assessments, and remedial actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Performance of Flocculation Titanium Salts for Seawater Reverse Osmosis Pre-Treatment
Author: A. Shrestha; M.A.H. Johir; G. Naidu; S. Vigneswaran and J. Kandasamy
Abstract: Membrane founding is one of the biggest issues in seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination which leads to major decline in the flux as well as increase overall operation and maintenance cost. As such suitable pre-treatment is required to reduce membrane fouling. In this regards, this study evaluated the performance of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and titanium sulphate (Ti(SO4)2) as coagulant in actual seawater to remove organic matters and solids. The performance was studied in terms of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), humics rin terms of UV-254 and zeta potential at different coagulant doses and solution pH. The two Ti based coagulants were compared with commonly used ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant in desalination plants. The results showed that at pH of 8.0 (similar to seawater pH), TiCl4 had advantages over FeCl3 and Ti(SO4)2 at the same coagulant dose of 20 mg/L. Under this condition, TiCl4 achieved ~70% DOC and UV-254 removal. This was approximately two times higher than FeCl3 and Ti(SO4)2. Nevertheless, FeCl3 and Ti(SO4)2 showed better turbidity removal. The differences in the performance of the coagulants were associated with the coagulant mechanisms based on the floc zeta potential evaluation. The coagulant mechanisms of Ti-salts could be associated to charge neutralization while FeCl3was inclined towards adsorption mechanism.

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