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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 19, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Open AccessArticle A Non-Enzymatic Method to Obtain a Fat Tissue Derivative Highly Enriched in Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs) from Human Lipoaspirates: Preliminary Results
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072061 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
Adipose tissue possesses phenotypic gene expression characteristics that are similar to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Nevertheless, the multilineage potential may be inhibited, and cells may not expand adequately to satisfy the requirements of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). An autologous hMSC-enriched fat product
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Adipose tissue possesses phenotypic gene expression characteristics that are similar to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Nevertheless, the multilineage potential may be inhibited, and cells may not expand adequately to satisfy the requirements of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). An autologous hMSC-enriched fat product would fulfil the void from a biomedical and clinical perspective. In this study, we suggest a novel mechanism using a closed system without enzymes, additives or other modifications, which will produce non-expanded, accessible material. This decentralized fat product, unlike unprocessed lipoaspirates, adequately encloses the vascular stroma with adipocytes and stromal stalks along with their vascular channels and lumina. This fat product contained hASCs and fewer hematopoietic elements such as lipoaspirates, which were digested enzymatically according to flow cytometric investigations, and molecular analysis also showed significant hASC uniformity within the cells of the stromal vascular tissue. Moreover, the fat product produced a higher quantity of hASCs similar to hMSCs in isolation with the typical characteristics of an osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineage. Interestingly, these properties were evident in the non-enzymatic derived adipose tissue, as opposed to hASCs in isolation from the enzymatically digested lipoaspirates, suggesting that the aforementioned procedure may be an adequate alternative to regenerate and engineer tissue for the treatment of various medical conditions and promote efficient patient recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessReview Targeting Mitochondrial Ion Channels to Fight Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072060 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, several experimental evidences have underlined a new role of ion channels in cancer development and progression. In particular, mitochondrial ion channels are arising as new oncological targets, since it has been proved that most of them show an altered expression
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In recent years, several experimental evidences have underlined a new role of ion channels in cancer development and progression. In particular, mitochondrial ion channels are arising as new oncological targets, since it has been proved that most of them show an altered expression during tumor development and the pharmacological targeting of some of them have been demonstrated to be able to modulate cancer growth and progression, both in vitro as well as in vivo in pre-clinical mouse models. In this scenario, pharmacology of mitochondrial ion channels would be in the near future a new frontier for the treatment of tumors. In this review, we discuss the new advances in the field, by focusing our attention on the improvements in new drug developments to target mitochondrial ion channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Channel and Ion-Related Signaling)
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Open AccessArticle Tenogenesis of Decellularized Porcine Achilles Tendon Matrix Reseeded with Human Tenocytes in the Nude Mice Xenograft Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2059; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072059 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
Cultivation of autologous human tenocytes in a cell-free xenogenic extracellular tendon matrix (xECM) could present an approach for tendon reconstruction. The aim of this study was to achieve tendon-like tissue formation by implanting decellularized porcine Achilles tendons recellularized with human hamstring tendon-derived tenocytes
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Cultivation of autologous human tenocytes in a cell-free xenogenic extracellular tendon matrix (xECM) could present an approach for tendon reconstruction. The aim of this study was to achieve tendon-like tissue formation by implanting decellularized porcine Achilles tendons recellularized with human hamstring tendon-derived tenocytes into nude mice. The structure of decellularized xECM was histologically monitored before being dynamically reseeded with human tenocytes. After 6–12 weeks in vivo, construct quality was monitored using macroscopical and histological scoring systems, vitality assay and quantitative DNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assays. For comparison to tendon xECM, a synthetic polyglycolic acid (PGA) polymer was implanted in a similar manner. Despite decellularized xECM lost some GAGs and structure, it could be recellularized in vitro with human tenocytes, but the cell distribution remained inhomogeneous, with accumulations at the margins of the constructs. In vivo, the xECM constructs revealed in contrast to the PGA no altered size, no inflammation and encapsulation and a more homogeneous cell distribution. xECM reseeded with tenocytes showed superior histological quality than cell-free implanted constructs and contained surviving human cells. Their DNA content after six and 12 weeks in vivo resembled that of native tendon and xECM recellularized in vitro. Results suggest that reseeded decellularized xECM formed a tendon-like tissue in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Basis of Musculoskeletal Regeneration)
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Open AccessArticle Age-Related Changes in MicroRNA in the Rat Pituitary and Potential Role in GH Regulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072058 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis has recently been recognized as an important factor related to the longevity of many organisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) could also participate in diverse biological processes. However, the role of miRNAs in the decline of
[...] Read more.
The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis has recently been recognized as an important factor related to the longevity of many organisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) could also participate in diverse biological processes. However, the role of miRNAs in the decline of pituitary GH during the growth process remains unclear. To better characterize the effects of miRNAs on the pituitary, we used a miRNA microarray to investigate the miRNA profile in the rat pituitary from postnatal development throughout the growth process. Then, in vitro experiments were conducted to analyze the miRNAs’ potential roles related to GH regulation. Taken together, the microarray results indicated that there were 22 miRNAs differentially expressed during pituitary development. The bioinformatics analysis suggested that the most differentially expressed miRNAs may participate in multiple pathways associated with the pituitary function. Furthermore, the in vitro findings demonstrated that miR-141-3p was involved in GH regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Impatiens Leaf Transcriptomes Reveal Candidate Genes for Resistance to Downy Mildew Caused by Plasmopara obducens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072057 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
Impatiens downy mildew (IDM) is a devastating disease to garden impatiens. A good understanding of IDM resistance in New Guinea impatiens is essential for improving garden impatiens resistance to this disease. The present study was conducted to sequence, assemble, annotate and compare the
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Impatiens downy mildew (IDM) is a devastating disease to garden impatiens. A good understanding of IDM resistance in New Guinea impatiens is essential for improving garden impatiens resistance to this disease. The present study was conducted to sequence, assemble, annotate and compare the leaf transcriptomes of two impatiens cultivars differing in resistance to IDM, reveal sequence polymorphisms and identify candidate genes for IDM resistance. RNA-Seq was performed on cultivars Super Elfin® XP Pink (SEP) and SunPatiens® Compact Royal Magenta (SPR). De novo assembly of obtained sequence reads resulted in 121,497 unigenes with an average length of 1156 nucleotides and N50 length of 1778 nucleotides. Searching the non-redundant protein and non-redundant nucleotide, Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Clusters of Orthologous Groups and Gene Ontology databases, resulted in annotation of 57.7% to 73.6% of the unigenes. Fifteen unigenes were highly similar to disease resistance genes and more abundant in the IDM-resistant cultivar than in the susceptible cultivar. A total of 22,484 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 245,936 and 120,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from SPR and SEP respectively. The assembled transcripts and unigenes, identified disease resistance genes and SSRs and SNPs sites will be a valuable resource for improving impatiens and its IDM resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of TDP2 on the Level of TOP2-DNA Complexes and SUMOylated TOP2-DNA Complexes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072056 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
DNA topoisomerase II (TOP2) activity involves a normally transient double-strand break intermediate in which the enzyme is coupled to DNA via a 5′-phosphotyrosyl bond. However, etoposide and other topoisomerase drugs poison the enzyme by stabilising this enzyme-bridged break, resulting in the accumulation of
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DNA topoisomerase II (TOP2) activity involves a normally transient double-strand break intermediate in which the enzyme is coupled to DNA via a 5′-phosphotyrosyl bond. However, etoposide and other topoisomerase drugs poison the enzyme by stabilising this enzyme-bridged break, resulting in the accumulation of TOP2-DNA covalent complexes with cytotoxic consequences. The phosphotyrosyl diesterase TDP2 appears to be required for efficient repair of this unusual type of DNA damage and can remove 5′-tyrosine adducts from a double-stranded oligonucleotide substrate. Here, we adapt the trapped in agarose DNA immunostaining (TARDIS) assay to investigate the role of TDP2 in the removal of TOP2-DNA complexes in vitro and in cells. We report that TDP2 alone does not remove TOP2-DNA complexes from genomic DNA in vitro and that depletion of TDP2 in cells does not slow the removal of TOP2-DNA complexes. Thus, if TDP2 is involved in repairing TOP2 adducts, there must be one or more prior steps in which the protein-DNA complex is processed before TDP2 removes the remaining 5′ tyrosine DNA adducts. While this is partly achieved through the degradation of TOP2 adducts by the proteasome, a proteasome-independent mechanism has also been described involving the SUMOylation of TOP2 by the ZATT E3 SUMO ligase. The TARDIS assay was also adapted to measure the effect of TDP2 knockdown on levels of SUMOylated TOP2-DNA complexes, which together with levels of double strand breaks were unaffected in K562 cells following etoposide exposure and proteasomal inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Topoisomerases)
Open AccessArticle Poly Organotin Acetates against DNA with Possible Implementation on Human Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072055 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Two known tin-based polymers of formula {[R3Sn(CH3COO)]n} where R = n-Bu– (1) and R = Ph– (2),were evaluated for their in vitro biological properties. The compounds were characterized via their physical properties
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Two known tin-based polymers of formula {[R3Sn(CH3COO)]n} where R = n-Bu– (1) and R = Ph– (2),were evaluated for their in vitro biological properties. The compounds were characterized via their physical properties and FT-IR, 119Sn Mössbauer, and 1H NMR spectroscopic data. The molecular structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-Ray diffraction crystallography. The geometry around the tin(IV) ion is trigonal bi-pyramidal. Variations in O–Sn–O···Sn′ torsion angles lead to zig-zag and helical supramolecular assemblies for 1 and 2, respectively. The in vitro cell viability against human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines: MCF-7 positive to estrogens receptors (ERs) and MDA-MB-231 negative to ERs upon their incubation with 1 and 2 was investigated. Their toxicity has been studied against normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5). Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit 134 and 223-fold respectively stronger antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 than cisplatin. The type of the cell death caused by 1 or 2 was also determined using flow cytometry assay. The binding affinity of 1 and 2 towards the CT-DNA was suspected from the differentiation of the viscosity which occurred in the solution containing increasing amounts of 1 and 2. Changes in fluorescent emission light of Ethidium bromide (EB) in the presence of DNA confirmed the intercalation mode of interactions into DNA of both complexes 1 and 2 which have been ascertained from viscosity measurements. The corresponding apparent binding constants (Kapp) of 1 and 2 towards CT-DNA calculated through fluorescence spectra are 4.9 × 104 (1) and 7.3 × 104 (2) M−1 respectively. Finally, the type of DNA binding interactions with 1 and 2 was confirmed by docking studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview Mechanisms of Tumor Growth Inhibition by Depletion of γ-Glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT): A Novel Molecular Target for Anticancer Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072054 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
γ-Glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT), which is one of the major enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism, is upregulated in a wide range of cancers—glioma, breast, lung, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, urinary bladder, prostate, cervical, ovarian cancers and osteosarcoma—and promotes cancer progression; its depletion leads to the suppression
[...] Read more.
γ-Glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT), which is one of the major enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism, is upregulated in a wide range of cancers—glioma, breast, lung, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, urinary bladder, prostate, cervical, ovarian cancers and osteosarcoma—and promotes cancer progression; its depletion leads to the suppression of proliferation, invasion, and migration of cancer cells. It has been demonstrated that the suppression or inhibition of GGCT has an antitumor effect in cancer-bearing xenograft mice. Based on these observations, GGCT is now recognized as a promising therapeutic target in various cancers. This review summarizes recent advances on the mechanisms of the antitumor activity of GGCT inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Targeting Therapy and Selective Killing 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Engineering Cell Adhesion and Orientation via Ultrafast Laser Fabricated Microstructured Substrates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072053 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Cell responses depend on the stimuli received by the surrounding extracellular environment, which provides the cues required for adhesion, orientation, proliferation, and differentiation at the micro and the nano scales. In this study, discontinuous microcones on silicon (Si) and continuous microgrooves on polyethylene
[...] Read more.
Cell responses depend on the stimuli received by the surrounding extracellular environment, which provides the cues required for adhesion, orientation, proliferation, and differentiation at the micro and the nano scales. In this study, discontinuous microcones on silicon (Si) and continuous microgrooves on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were fabricated via ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation at various fluences, resulting in microstructures with different magnitudes of roughness and varying geometrical characteristics. The topographical models attained were specifically developed to imitate the guidance and alignment of Schwann cells for the oriented axonal regrowth that occurs in nerve regeneration. At the same time, positive replicas of the silicon microstructures were successfully reproduced via soft lithography on the biodegradable polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). The anisotropic continuous (PET) and discontinuous (PLGA replicas) microstructured polymeric substrates were assessed in terms of their influence on Schwann cell responses. It is shown that the micropatterned substrates enable control over cellular adhesion, proliferation, and orientation, and are thus useful to engineer cell alignment in vitro. This property is potentially useful in the fields of neural tissue engineering and for dynamic microenvironment systems that simulate in vivo conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analyses of Pleurotus ostreatus MYB Transcription Factors during Developmental Stages and under Heat Stress Based on de novo Sequenced Genome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072052 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Pleurotus ostreatus is a commercially grown mushroom species in China. However, studies on the mechanisms of the fruiting body development and stress response of P. ostreatus are still at a primary stage. In this study, we report the entire genome sequence of P.
[...] Read more.
Pleurotus ostreatus is a commercially grown mushroom species in China. However, studies on the mechanisms of the fruiting body development and stress response of P. ostreatus are still at a primary stage. In this study, we report the entire genome sequence of P. ostreatus CCMSSC03989. Then, we performed comprehensive genome-wide characterization and expression analysis of the MYB transcription factor family during a series of developmental stages and under the condition of heat stress. A 34.76 Mb genome was obtained through next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Bionano optical mapping approaches. The genome has a scaffold N50 of 1.1 Mb and contains 10.11% repeats, and 10,936 gene models were predicted. A total of 20 MYB genes (PoMYB) were identified across the genome, and the full-length open reading frames were isolated. The PoMYBs were classified into 1 repeat (1R), 2R, and 3R-MYB groups according to their MYB domain repeat numbers, and 3R-MYBs possessed relatively more introns than 1R and 2R-MYBs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the PoMYBs were divided into four groups and showed close relationships with the MYB genes of plants and fungi. RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that PoMYB expression showed stage-specific patterns in reproductive stages and could be induced by heat stress. The P. ostreatus draft genome will promote genome-wide analysis, and our study of PoMYBs will promote further functional analysis of MYB genes in mushrooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Uterine Fibroids—Review of the Literature and Novel Concepts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072051 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
This article provides a detailed review of current knowledge on the role of vitamin D and its receptor in the biology and management of uterine fibroids (UFs). Authors present ideas for future steps in this area. A literature search was conducted in PubMed
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This article provides a detailed review of current knowledge on the role of vitamin D and its receptor in the biology and management of uterine fibroids (UFs). Authors present ideas for future steps in this area. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using the following key words: “uterine fibroid” and “vitamin D”. The results of the available studies, published in English from January 2002 up to April 2018, have been discussed. Vitamin D is a group of steroid compounds with a powerful impact on many parts of the human body. This vitamin is believed to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, inhibit angiogenesis, and stimulate apoptosis. Nowadays, hypovitaminosis D is believed to be a major risk factor in the development of UFs. In many studies vitamin D appears to be a powerful factor against UFs, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell division and a significant reduction in its size, however, the exact role of this compound and its receptor in the pathophysiology of UFs is not fully understood. According to available studies, vitamin D and its analogs seem to be promising, effective, and low-cost compounds in the management of UFs and their clinical symptoms, and the anti-tumor activities of vitamin D play an important role in UF biology. The synergy between vitamin D and selected anti-UF drugs is a very interesting issue which requires further research. Further studies about the biological effect of vitamin D on UF biology are essential. Vitamin D preparations (alone or as a co-drugs) could become new tools in the fight with UFs, with the additional beneficial pleiotropic effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Acting Mitochondria-Targeted Platinum(IV) Prodrugs of Kiteplatin with α-Lipoic Acid in the Axial Positions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072050 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Platinum(II) drugs are activated intracellularly by aquation of the leaving groups and then bind to DNA, forming DNA adducts capable to activate various signal-transduction pathways. Mostly explored in recent years are Pt(IV) complexes which allow the presence of two additional ligands in the
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Platinum(II) drugs are activated intracellularly by aquation of the leaving groups and then bind to DNA, forming DNA adducts capable to activate various signal-transduction pathways. Mostly explored in recent years are Pt(IV) complexes which allow the presence of two additional ligands in the axial positions suitable for the attachment of other cancer-targeting ligands. Here we have extended this strategy by coordinating in the axial positions of kiteplatin ([PtCl2(cis-1,4-DACH)], DACH = Diaminocyclohexane) and its CBDCA (1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylate) analogue the antioxidant α-Lipoic acid (ALA), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). The new compounds (cis,trans,cis-[Pt(CBDCA)(ALA)2(cis-1,4-DACH)], 2, and cis,trans,cis-[PtCl2(ALA)2(cis-1,4-DACH)], 3), after intracellular reduction, release the precursor Pt(II) species and two molecules of ALA. The Pt residue is able to target DNA, while ALA could act on mitochondria as activator of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, thus suppressing anaerobic glycolysis. Compounds 2 and 3 were tested in vitro on a panel of five human cancer cell lines and compared to cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and kiteplatin. They proved to be much more effective than the reference compounds, with complex 3 most effective in 3D spheroid tumor cultures. Notably, treatment of human A431 carcinoma cells with 2 and 3 did not determine increase of cellular ROS (usually correlated to inhibition of mitochondrial PDK) and did not induce a significant depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane or alteration of other morphological mitochondrial parameters. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Aging and Age-related Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072049 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
Open AccessReview Potential for Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing in the Differential Diagnosis of Gynaecological Malignancies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072048 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
In the event of multiple synchronous gynecological lesions, a fundamental piece of information to determine patient management, prognosis, and therapeutic regimen choice is whether the simultaneous malignancies arise independently or as a result of metastatic dissemination. An example of synchronous primary tumors of
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In the event of multiple synchronous gynecological lesions, a fundamental piece of information to determine patient management, prognosis, and therapeutic regimen choice is whether the simultaneous malignancies arise independently or as a result of metastatic dissemination. An example of synchronous primary tumors of the female genital tract most frequently described are ovarian and endometrial cancers. Surgical findings and histopathological examination aimed at resolving this conundrum may be aided by molecular analyses, although they are too often inconclusive. High mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variability and its propensity to accumulate mutations has been proposed by our group as a tool to define clonality. We showed mtDNA sequencing to be informative in synchronous primary ovarian and endometrial cancer, detecting tumor-specific mutations in both lesions, ruling out independence of the two neoplasms, and indicating clonality. Furthermore, we tested this method in another frequent simultaneously detected gynecological lesion type, borderline ovarian cancer and their peritoneal implants, which may be monoclonal extra-ovarian metastases or polyclonal independent masses. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the potential use of mtDNA sequencing in distinguishing independent and metastatic lesions in gynecological cancers, and to compare the efficiency of molecular analyses currently in use with this novel method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Cancer: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetic Comparisons of Multiple Triterpenic Acids from Jujubae Fructus Extract Following Oral Delivery in Normal and Acute Liver Injury Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072047 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Jujubae Fructus, the dried fruit of Ziziphus jujuba, has been used as Chinese medicine and food for centuries. Triterpenic acids have been found to be the major bioactive constituents in Jujubae Fructus responsible for their hepatoprotective activity in previous phytochemical and
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Jujubae Fructus, the dried fruit of Ziziphus jujuba, has been used as Chinese medicine and food for centuries. Triterpenic acids have been found to be the major bioactive constituents in Jujubae Fructus responsible for their hepatoprotective activity in previous phytochemical and biological studies, while few pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted. To reveal the kinetics of the triterpenic acids under the pathological liver injury state, an established ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry method was applied for the simultaneous quantitation of seven triterpenic acids (ceanothic acid, epiceanothic acid, pomonic acid, alphitolic acid, maslinic acid, betulinic acid, and betulonic acid) in plasma samples of normal and acute liver injury rats induced by CCl4. The results showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the pharmacokinetic parameters of seven triterpenic acids between model and normal groups. The AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ of epiceanothic acid (5227 ± 334 μg⋅h/L vs. 1478 ± 255 μg⋅h/L and 6127 ± 423 μg⋅h/L vs. 1482 ± 255 μg⋅h/L, respectively) and pomonic acid (4654 ± 349 μg⋅h/L vs. 1834 ± 225 μg⋅h/L and 4776 ± 322 μg⋅h/L vs. 1859 ± 230 μg⋅h/L, respectively) in model rats were significantly higher than those in normal rats, and the CLz/F of them were significantly decreased (0.28 ± 0.02 L/h/kg vs. 1.36 ± 0.18 L/h/kg and 19.96 ± 1.30 L/h/kg vs. 53.15 ± 5.60 L/h/kg, respectively). In contrast, the above parameters for alphitolic acid, betulinic acid and betulonic acid exhibited the quite different trend. This pharmacokinetic research might provide useful information for the clinical usage of triterpenic acids from Jujubae Fructus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Natural Products for Human Health)
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