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Water, Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Stormwater regulations often require the installation of multiple stormwater control measures [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Signatures of Zooplankton Taxa in Five Small Subalpine Lakes along a Trophic Gradient
Water 2018, 10(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010094
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Interest in Stable Isotopes Analyses (SIA) is increasing in freshwater ecology to better clarify ecosystems’ functioning. By measuring carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures, food sources and organism trophic levels can be tracked, providing quantitative estimates of bi-dimensional niches. In order to describe some
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Interest in Stable Isotopes Analyses (SIA) is increasing in freshwater ecology to better clarify ecosystems’ functioning. By measuring carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures, food sources and organism trophic levels can be tracked, providing quantitative estimates of bi-dimensional niches. In order to describe some general patterns of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures in lakes, we applied SIA to zooplankton community in five subalpine lakes sampled in spring and summer along a trophic gradient (from oligotrophy to hypereutrophy). Within zooplankton taxa, temporal variation in food sources and trophic levels were compared to find out taxon-specific patterns. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures differed among the five lakes, reflecting depth, topography, and trophic status of the lakes. Carbon isotopic signatures varied more considerably in deeper and larger lakes (Mergozzo and Pusiano) than in a shallower and smaller lake (Lake Endine). Nitrogen isotopic signatures were generally more enriched in lakes Pusiano and Moro than in Lake Mergozzo, whereas in summer, they were depleted in all lakes. These observations indicate that zooplankton taxa specific trophic roles differed among lakes and in time. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Gemini Surfactant-Modified Activated Carbon for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium from Water
Water 2018, 10(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010091
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 21 January 2018
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Abstract
Gemini surfactants, with double hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, offer potentially orders of magnitude greater surface activity compared to similar single unit molecules. A cationic Gemini surfactant (Propyl didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide, PDDDAB) and a conventional cationic surfactant (Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide, DTAB) were used to pre-treat and
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Gemini surfactants, with double hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, offer potentially orders of magnitude greater surface activity compared to similar single unit molecules. A cationic Gemini surfactant (Propyl didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide, PDDDAB) and a conventional cationic surfactant (Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide, DTAB) were used to pre-treat and generate activated carbon. The removal efficiency of the surfactant-modified activated carbon through adsorption of chromium(VI) was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the surface changes of surfactant-modified activated carbon. The effect of important parameters such as adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength and contact time were also investigated. The chromium(VI) was adsorbed more significantly on the Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon than on the conventional surfactant-modified activated carbon. The correlation coefficients show the data best fit the Freundlich model, which confirms the monolayer adsorption of chromium(VI) onto Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon. From this assessment, the surfactant-modified (especially Gemini surfactant-modified) activated carbon in this study showed promise for practical applications to treat water pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Water)
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Open AccessCommunication Considering a Threshold Energy in Reactive Transport Modeling of Microbially Mediated Redox Reactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer
Water 2018, 10(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010090
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide driven by organic matter oxidation is the primary mechanism accepted for As mobilization in several alluvial aquifers. These processes are often mediated by microorganisms that require a minimum Gibbs energy available to conduct the reaction in order to
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The reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide driven by organic matter oxidation is the primary mechanism accepted for As mobilization in several alluvial aquifers. These processes are often mediated by microorganisms that require a minimum Gibbs energy available to conduct the reaction in order to sustain their life functions. Implementing this threshold energy in reactive transport modeling is rarely used in the existing literature. This work presents a 1D reactive transport modeling of As mobilization by the reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide and subsequent immobilization by co-precipitation in iron sulfides considering a threshold energy for the following terminal electron accepting processes: (a) Fe-oxide reduction, (b) sulfate reduction, and (c) methanogenesis. The model is then extended by implementing a threshold energy on both reaction directions for the redox reaction pairs Fe(III) reduction/Fe(II) oxidation and methanogenesis/methane oxidation. The optimal threshold energy fitted in 4.50, 3.76, and 1.60 kJ/mol e for sulfate reduction, Fe(III) reduction/Fe(II) oxidation, and methanogenesis/methane oxidation, respectively. The use of models implementing bidirectional threshold energy is needed when a redox reaction pair can be transported between domains with different redox potentials. This may often occur in 2D or 3D simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Water)
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Open AccessArticle A Simplified Infiltration Model for Predicting Cumulative Infiltration during Vertical Line Source Irrigation
Water 2018, 10(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010089
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vertical line source irrigation is a water-saving irrigation method for enhancing direct water and nutrient delivery to the root zone, reducing soil evaporation and improving water and nutrient use efficiency. To identify its influencing factors, we performed computer simulations using the HYDRUS-2D software.
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Vertical line source irrigation is a water-saving irrigation method for enhancing direct water and nutrient delivery to the root zone, reducing soil evaporation and improving water and nutrient use efficiency. To identify its influencing factors, we performed computer simulations using the HYDRUS-2D software. The results indicate that for a given soil, the line source seepage area, but not the initial soil water content and buried depth, has a significant effect on the cumulative infiltration. We thus proposed a simplified method, taking into account the seepage area for predicting the cumulative infiltration based on the Philip model. Finally, we evaluated the accuracy of the simplified method using experimental data and found the cumulative infiltrations predicted by the simplified method were in very good agreement with the observed values, showing a low mean average error of 0.028–0.480 L, a root mean square error of 0.043–0.908 L, a percentage bias of 0.321–0.900 and a large Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient close to 1.0 (NSE ≥ 0.995). The results indicate that this simplified infiltration model, for which the only emitter parameter required is the seepage area, could provide a valuable and practical tool for irrigation design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Solute Transport in Vadose Zone)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ecosystem Services Mapping Uncertainty Assessment: A Case Study in the Fitzroy Basin Mining Region
Water 2018, 10(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010088
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Ecosystem services mapping is becoming increasingly popular through the use of various readily available mapping tools, however, uncertainties in assessment outputs are commonly ignored. Uncertainties from different sources have the potential to lower the accuracy of mapping outputs and reduce their reliability for
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Ecosystem services mapping is becoming increasingly popular through the use of various readily available mapping tools, however, uncertainties in assessment outputs are commonly ignored. Uncertainties from different sources have the potential to lower the accuracy of mapping outputs and reduce their reliability for decision-making. Using a case study in an Australian mining region, this paper assessed the impact of uncertainties on the modelling of the hydrological ecosystem service, water provision. Three types of uncertainty were modelled using multiple uncertainty scenarios: (1) spatial data sources; (2) modelling scales (temporal and spatial) and (3) parameterization and model selection. We found that the mapping scales can induce significant changes to the spatial pattern of outputs and annual totals of water provision. In addition, differences in parameterization using differing sources from the literature also led to obvious differences in base flow. However, the impact of each uncertainty associated with differences in spatial data sources were not so great. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of uncertainty assessment and highlight that any conclusions drawn from ecosystem services mapping, such as the impacts of mining, are likely to also be a property of the uncertainty in ecosystem services mapping methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Stewardship in Mining Regions)
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Open AccessArticle An Ameliorative Whale Optimization Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimal Allocation of Water Resources in Handan, China
Water 2018, 10(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010087
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
With the deepening discrepancy between water supply and demand caused by water shortages, alleviating water shortages by optimizing water resource allocation has received extensive attention. How to allocate water resources optimally, rapidly, and effectively has become a challenging problem. Thus, this study employs
[...] Read more.
With the deepening discrepancy between water supply and demand caused by water shortages, alleviating water shortages by optimizing water resource allocation has received extensive attention. How to allocate water resources optimally, rapidly, and effectively has become a challenging problem. Thus, this study employs a meta-heuristic swarm-based algorithm, the whale optimization algorithm (WOA). To overcome drawbacks like relatively low convergence precision and convergence rates, when applying the WOA algorithm to complex optimization problems, logistic mapping is used to initialize swarm location, and inertia weighting is employed to improve the algorithm. The resulting ameliorative whale optimization algorithm (AWOA) shows substantially enhanced convergence rates and precision than the WOA and particle swarm optimization algorithms, demonstrating relatively high reliability and applicability. A water resource allocation optimization model with optimal economic efficiency and least total water shortage volume is established for Handan, China, and solved by the AWOA. The allocation results better reflect actual water usage in Handan. In 2030, the p = 50% total water shortage is forecast as 404.34 × 106 m3 or 14.8%. The shortage is mainly in the primary agricultural sector. The allocation results provide a reference for regional water resources management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sedimentary Record of Cladoceran Functionality under Eutrophication and Re-Oligotrophication in Lake Maggiore, Northern Italy
Water 2018, 10(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010086
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
We examined fossil Cladocera (Crustacea) communities and their functional assemblages in a ~60-year sediment record from Lake Maggiore, northern Italy. Our main objective was to document the response of aquatic community functioning to environmental stress during eutrophication (1960–1985) and recovery (post-1985), and to
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We examined fossil Cladocera (Crustacea) communities and their functional assemblages in a ~60-year sediment record from Lake Maggiore, northern Italy. Our main objective was to document the response of aquatic community functioning to environmental stress during eutrophication (1960–1985) and recovery (post-1985), and to identify environmental controls on cladoceran functionality. Of the functional groups, large filter feeders and oval epibenthos thrived prior to eutrophication (reference conditions pre-1960) and globular epibenthos and small filter feeders increased during eutrophication and as the lake recovered. Multivariate analyses suggested that bottom-up controls (i.e., total phosphorus) were important for shaping functional assemblages but taxonomic community changes were likely related to top-down control by predators, particularly the predaceous cladoceran Bythotrephes longimanus. Functional diversity (FD) was higher and Daphnia ephippia length (DEL) larger during the reference and early eutrophication periods and decreased during eutrophication and recovery. Both FD (high) and DEL (large) were distinct during reference period, but were similar (FD low, DEL small) between the eutrophication and recovery periods. The functional attributes and the assemblages did not recover post-eutrophication, suggesting that the system exhibited a clear shift to low FD and dominance of small filterers. Cladoceran functionality appears to be related to fundamental ecosystem functions, such as productivity, and may thus provide insights for long-term changes in ecological resilience. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Computation of Underground Inundation in Multiple Layers Using the Adaptive Transfer Method
Water 2018, 10(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010085
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Extreme rainfall causes surface runoff to flow towards lowlands and subterranean facilities, such as subway stations and buildings with underground spaces in densely packed urban areas. These facilities and areas are therefore vulnerable to catastrophic submergence. However, flood modeling of underground space has
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Extreme rainfall causes surface runoff to flow towards lowlands and subterranean facilities, such as subway stations and buildings with underground spaces in densely packed urban areas. These facilities and areas are therefore vulnerable to catastrophic submergence. However, flood modeling of underground space has not yet been adequately studied because there are difficulties in reproducing the associated multiple horizontal layers connected with staircases or elevators. This study proposes a convenient approach to simulate underground inundation when two layers are connected. The main facet of this approach is to compute the flow flux passing through staircases in an upper layer and to transfer the equivalent quantity to a lower layer. This is defined as the ‘adaptive transfer method’. This method overcomes the limitations of 2D modeling by introducing layers connecting concepts to prevent large variations in mesh sizes caused by complicated underlying obstacles or local details. Consequently, this study aims to contribute to the numerical analysis of flow in inundated underground spaces with multiple floors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrochemical Characteristics and Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Natural Water System: A Case Study in Kangding County, Southwestern China
Water 2018, 10(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010080
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (14291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The utilization for water resource has been of great concern to human life. To assess the natural water system in Kangding County, the integrated methods of hydrochemical analysis, multivariate statistics and geochemical modelling were conducted on surface water, groundwater, and thermal water samples.
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The utilization for water resource has been of great concern to human life. To assess the natural water system in Kangding County, the integrated methods of hydrochemical analysis, multivariate statistics and geochemical modelling were conducted on surface water, groundwater, and thermal water samples. Surface water and groundwater were dominated by Ca-HCO3 type, while thermal water belonged to Ca-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types. The analyzing results concluded the driving factors that affect hydrochemical components. Following the results of the combined assessments, hydrochemical process was controlled by the dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals with slight influence from anthropogenic activity. The mixing model of groundwater and thermal water was calculated using silica-enthalpy method, yielding cold-water fraction of 0.56–0.79 and an estimated reservoir temperature of 130–199 °C, respectively. δD and δ18O isotopes suggested that surface water, groundwater and thermal springs were of meteoric origin. Thermal water should have deep circulation through the Xianshuihe fault zone, while groundwater flows through secondary fractures where it recharges with thermal water. Those analytical results were used to construct a hydrological conceptual model, providing a better understanding of the natural water system in Kangding County. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Investigation: Geologic Controls on Groundwater Flow)
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Open AccessArticle Inverse Modeling of Soil Hydraulic Parameters Based on a Hybrid of Vector-Evaluated Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization
Water 2018, 10(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010084
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 25 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
The accurate estimation of soil hydraulic parameters (θs, α, n, and Ks) of the van Genuchten–Mualem model has attracted considerable attention. In this study, we proposed a new two-step inversion method, which first estimated the hydraulic
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The accurate estimation of soil hydraulic parameters (θs, α, n, and Ks) of the van Genuchten–Mualem model has attracted considerable attention. In this study, we proposed a new two-step inversion method, which first estimated the hydraulic parameter θs using objective function by the final water content, and subsequently estimated the soil hydraulic parameters α, n, and Ks, using a vector-evaluated genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization (VEGA-PSO) method based on objective functions by cumulative infiltration and infiltration rate. The parameters were inversely estimated for four types of soils (sand, loam, silt, and clay) under an in silico experiment simulating the tension disc infiltration at three initial water content levels. The results indicated that the method is excellent and robust. Because the objective function had multilocal minima in a tiny range near the true values, inverse estimation of the hydraulic parameters was difficult; however, the estimated soil water retention curves and hydraulic conductivity curves were nearly identical to the true curves. In addition, the proposed method was able to estimate the hydraulic parameters accurately despite substantial measurement errors in initial water content, final water content, and cumulative infiltration, proving that the method was feasible and practical for field application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Solute Transport in Vadose Zone)
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Open AccessArticle Using a Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network to Predict Nutrient Removal in Tidal Flow Constructed Wetlands
Water 2018, 10(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010083
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
Nutrient removal in tidal flow constructed wetlands (TF-CW) is a complex series of nonlinear multi-parameter interactions. We simulated three tidal flow systems and a continuous vertical flow system filled with synthetic wastewater and compared the influent and effluent concentrations to examine (1) nutrient
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Nutrient removal in tidal flow constructed wetlands (TF-CW) is a complex series of nonlinear multi-parameter interactions. We simulated three tidal flow systems and a continuous vertical flow system filled with synthetic wastewater and compared the influent and effluent concentrations to examine (1) nutrient removal in artificial TF-CWs, and (2) the ability of a backpropagation (BP) artificial neural network to predict nutrient removal. The nutrient removal rates were higher under tidal flow when the idle/reaction time was two, and reached 90 ± 3%, 99 ± 1%, and 58 ± 13% for total nitrogen (TN), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), and total phosphorus (TP), respectively. The main influences on nutrient removal for each scenario were identified by redundancy analysis and were input into the model to train and verify the pollutant effluent concentrations. Comparison of the actual and model-predicted effluent concentrations showed that the model predictions were good. The predicted and actual values were correlated and the margin of error was small. The BP neural network fitted best to TP, with an R2 of 0.90. The R2 values of TN, NH4+-N, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) were 0.67, 0.73, and 0.69, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioassessment of a Drinking Water Reservoir Using Plankton: High Throughput Sequencing vs. Traditional Morphological Method
Water 2018, 10(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010082
Received: 25 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
Drinking water safety is increasingly perceived as one of the top global environmental issues. Plankton has been commonly used as a bioindicator for water quality in lakes and reservoirs. Recently, DNA sequencing technology has been applied to bioassessment. In this study, we compared
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Drinking water safety is increasingly perceived as one of the top global environmental issues. Plankton has been commonly used as a bioindicator for water quality in lakes and reservoirs. Recently, DNA sequencing technology has been applied to bioassessment. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of the 16S and 18S rRNA high throughput sequencing method (HTS) and the traditional optical microscopy method (TOM) in the bioassessment of drinking water quality. Five stations reflecting different habitats and hydrological conditions in Danjiangkou Reservoir, one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in Asia, were sampled May 2016. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that plankton assemblages varied among the stations and the spatial patterns revealed by the two methods were consistent. The correlation between TOM and HTS in a symmetric Procrustes analysis was 0.61, revealing overall good concordance between the two methods. Procrustes analysis also showed that site-specific differences between the two methods varied among the stations. Station Heijizui (H), a site heavily influenced by two tributaries, had the largest difference while station Qushou (Q), a confluence site close to the outlet dam, had the smallest difference between the two methods. Our results show that DNA sequencing has the potential to provide consistent identification of taxa, and reliable bioassessment in a long-term biomonitoring and assessment program for drinking water reservoirs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Methodological Framework for Analysing Cascading Effects from Flood Events: The Case of Sukhumvit Area, Bangkok, Thailand
Water 2018, 10(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010081
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
Impacts from floods in urban areas can be diverse and wide ranging. These can include the loss of human life, infrastructure and property damages, as well as other kinds of nuisance and inconvenience to urban life. Hence, the ability to identify and quantify
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Impacts from floods in urban areas can be diverse and wide ranging. These can include the loss of human life, infrastructure and property damages, as well as other kinds of nuisance and inconvenience to urban life. Hence, the ability to identify and quantify wider ranging effects from floods is of the utmost importance to urban flood managers and infrastructure operators. The present work provides a contribution in this direction and describes a methodological framework for analysing cascading effects from floods that has been applied for the Sukhumvit area in Bangkok (Thailand). It demonstrates that the effects from floods can be much broader in their reach and magnitude than the sole impacts incurred from direct and immediate losses. In Sukhumvit, these include loss of critical services, assets and goods, traffic congestion and delays in transportation, loss of business and income, disturbances and discomfort to the residents, and all these can be traced with the careful analysis of cascading effects. The present work explored the use of different visualization options to present the findings. These include a casual loop diagram, a HAZUR resilience map, a tree diagram and GIS maps. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantification of Groundwater Recharge from an Ephemeral Stream into a Mountainous Karst Aquifer
Water 2018, 10(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010079
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
Sustainable groundwater production from karst aquifers is primarily dictated by its recharge rate. Therefore, it is essential to accurately quantify annual groundwater recharge in order to limit overexploitation and to evaluate artificial methods for groundwater enrichment. Infiltration during erratic flood events in karst
[...] Read more.
Sustainable groundwater production from karst aquifers is primarily dictated by its recharge rate. Therefore, it is essential to accurately quantify annual groundwater recharge in order to limit overexploitation and to evaluate artificial methods for groundwater enrichment. Infiltration during erratic flood events in karst basins may substantially contribute to aquifer recharge. However, the complicated nature of karst systems, which are characterized in part by multiple springs, sinkholes, and losing/gaining streams, impede accurate quantification of the actual contribution of flood waters to groundwater recharge. In this study, we aim to quantify the proportion of groundwater recharge accrued during runoff events in a karst aquifer. The role of karst conduits on flash flood infiltration was examined during four flood and controlled runoff events in the Soreq creek near Jerusalem, Israel. We distinguished between direct infiltration, percolation through karst conduits, and diffuse infiltration—the latter of which is most affected by evapotranspiration. A water balance was calculated for the 2014/15 hydrological year using the Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). Simulations show that 6.8 to 19.2% of the annual recharge volume was added to the aquifer from infiltration of runoff losses along the creek through the karst system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle How Does Changing Ice-Out Affect Arctic versus Boreal Lakes? A Comparison Using Two Years with Ice-Out that Differed by More Than Three Weeks
Water 2018, 10(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010078
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
The timing of lake ice-out has advanced substantially in many regions of the Northern Hemisphere, however the effects of ice-out timing on lake properties and how they vary regionally remain unclear. Using data from two inter-annual monitoring datasets for a set of three
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The timing of lake ice-out has advanced substantially in many regions of the Northern Hemisphere, however the effects of ice-out timing on lake properties and how they vary regionally remain unclear. Using data from two inter-annual monitoring datasets for a set of three Arctic lakes and one boreal lake, we compared physical, chemical and phytoplankton metrics from two years in which ice-out timing differed by at least three weeks. Our results revealed regional differences in lake responses during early compared to late ice-out years. With earlier ice-out, Arctic lakes had deeper mixing depths and the boreal lake had a shallower mixing depth, suggesting differing patterns in the influence of the timing of ice-out on the length of spring turnover. Differences in nutrient concentrations and dissolved organic carbon between regions and ice-out years were likely driven by changes in precipitation and permafrost thaw. Algal biomass was similar across ice-out years, while cell densities of key Cyclotella sensu lato taxa were strongly linked to thermal structure changes in the Arctic lakes. Our research provides evidence that Arctic and boreal regions differ in lake response in early and late ice-out years, however ultimately a combination of important climate factors such as solar insolation, air temperature, precipitation, and, in the Arctic, permafrost thaw, are key drivers of the observed responses. Full article
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