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Water, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2017)

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Cover Story Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Water in 2016
Water 2017, 9(1), 44; doi:10.3390/w9010044
Received: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract The editors of Water would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial Twenty-Five Years of Hydroinformatics
Water 2017, 9(1), 59; doi:10.3390/w9010059
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
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Abstract
Hydroinformatics emerged in 1991 when numerical modelling of water expanded its range from one that was restricted to the modelling of flows to a much wider ranging sociotechnical discipline that supports stakeholders in addressing their water-related problems. However, despite numerous advances in hydroinformatics,
[...] Read more.
Hydroinformatics emerged in 1991 when numerical modelling of water expanded its range from one that was restricted to the modelling of flows to a much wider ranging sociotechnical discipline that supports stakeholders in addressing their water-related problems. However, despite numerous advances in hydroinformatics, the current practical and research effort is still very much technocratic (or techno-centric) which in turn may restrict the potential of hydroinformatics in its scope and its reach. This Special Issue, through the compilation of thirteen papers, illustrates some of the developments and applications in the field of hydroinformatics and marks the twenty-five years of its existence. We hope that this will help to further raise the awareness of the subject and its developments and applications. In the Editorial of this Special Issue, we briefly discuss the origin of hydroinformatics and we introduce the papers that are featuring in this Special Issue. We also give a way forward for future research and application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Willingness-To-Pay for Improving Marine Biodiversity: A Case Study of Lastovo Archipelago Marine Park (Croatia)
Water 2017, 9(1), 2; doi:10.3390/w9010002
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
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Abstract
The sustainable financing of marine protected areas is still an important issue on the conservation agenda even in European countries with strong governance and regulatory frameworks. With the example of the Lastovo Archipelago Marine Park in Croatia, this paper discusses options for funding
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The sustainable financing of marine protected areas is still an important issue on the conservation agenda even in European countries with strong governance and regulatory frameworks. With the example of the Lastovo Archipelago Marine Park in Croatia, this paper discusses options for funding based on visitors’ willingness-to-pay to conserve marine biodiversity. The site is attractive to general tourists coming by ferries and sailors with private boats alike, which is at the same time a challenge and an opportunity for designing an efficient and effective funding scheme. The authors investigate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) of these two groups of visitors for the conservation of characteristic habitats and species based on the visualization of three different scenarios. In the statistical analysis, the authors find a significant WTP that could contribute to the long-term management and financing of the site, taking into account the perceptions and attitudes of the different groups of tourists. All in all, this study provides several conclusions for levying entry fees depending on a segmentation of tourists with respect to their preferences, behavior, socio-economic characteristics, and alternative destinations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment on the Effect of Climate Change on Streamflow in the Source Region of the Yangtze River, China
Water 2017, 9(1), 70; doi:10.3390/w9010070
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
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Abstract
Tuotuo River basin, known as the source region of the Yangtze River, is the key area where the impact of climate change has been observed on many of the hydrological processes of this central region of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we
[...] Read more.
Tuotuo River basin, known as the source region of the Yangtze River, is the key area where the impact of climate change has been observed on many of the hydrological processes of this central region of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we examined six Global Climate Models (GCMs) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. First, the already impacted climate change was analyzed, based on the historical data available and then, the simulation results of the GCMs and RCPs were used for future scenario assessments. Results indicated that the annual mean temperature will likely be increased, ranging from −0.66 °C to 6.68 °C during the three future prediction periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s), while the change in the annual precipitation ranged from −1.18% to 66.14%. Then, a well-known distributed hydrological soil vegetation model (DHSVM) was utilized to evaluate the effects of future climate change on the streamflow dynamics. The seasonal mean streamflows, predicted by the six GCMs and the three RCPs scenarios, were also shown to likely increase, ranging from −0.52% to 22.58%. Watershed managers and regulators can use the findings from this study to better implement their conservation practices in the face of climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Transnational Municipal Networks in Transboundary Water Governance
Water 2017, 9(1), 40; doi:10.3390/w9010040
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 29 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract
The transboundary nature of stressors impacting shared water bodies has been traditionally recognized in agreements between nation states. Several developments have led to new layers of cross border environmental actors, including regional and city level interactions. This proliferation of non-state actors is witnessed
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The transboundary nature of stressors impacting shared water bodies has been traditionally recognized in agreements between nation states. Several developments have led to new layers of cross border environmental actors, including regional and city level interactions. This proliferation of non-state actors is witnessed in two large water bodies, the Baltic Sea and the North American Great Lakes. In both regions, transboundary water governance was led by nation states in agreements to improve heavily contaminated waters, the Helsinki Convention (1974) and the North American Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972), respectively. Whilst there has been much research on transnational regional networks, especially in Europe, there has been less theoretical work done on transnational municipal transboundary water networks due to the delay of recognition of the legitimacy of these local government actors. This paper aims to examine the role of the transnational municipal networks in transboundary water governance by looking at the case studies of the Union of Baltic cities in the Baltic Sea region and the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative in the North American Great Lakes Basin. It does this by assessing the role of these transnational municipal networks in bridging water governance gaps in these regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Water Supply Source Evaluation in Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge Zones: The Mezquital Valley (Mexico) Case Study
Water 2017, 9(1), 4; doi:10.3390/w9010004
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 24 December 2016
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Abstract
The Mezquital Valley (MV) hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this
[...] Read more.
The Mezquital Valley (MV) hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this work, we aim to develop a comprehensive approach, adapted from oil and gas reservoir modeling frameworks, to assess water supply sources located downgradient from unmanaged aquifer recharge zones. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to the Mezquital Valley region. Geological, geoelectrical, petrophysical and hydraulic information is combined into a 3D subsurface model and used to evaluate downgradient supply sources. Although hydrogeochemical variables are yet to be assessed, outcomes suggest that the newly-found groundwater sources may provide a long-term solution for water supply. Piezometric analyses based on 25-year records suggest that the MV is close to steady-state conditions. Thus, unmanaged recharge seems to have been regulating the groundwater balance for the last decades. The transition from unmanaged to managed recharge is expected to provide benefits to the MV inhabitants. It will also be likely to generate new uncertainties in relation to aquifer dynamics and downgradient systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Nonaerated Circulation Water Velocity on Nutrient Release from Aquaculture Pond Sediments
Water 2017, 9(1), 6; doi:10.3390/w9010006
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 24 December 2016
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Abstract
Sustaining good water quality in aquaculture ponds is vital. Without an aerator, the dissolved oxygen in ponds comes primarily from mass transfer at the water-ambient atmosphere interface. As sediment can seriously affect water quality, this study used indoor experiments to examine the nutrient
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Sustaining good water quality in aquaculture ponds is vital. Without an aerator, the dissolved oxygen in ponds comes primarily from mass transfer at the water-ambient atmosphere interface. As sediment can seriously affect water quality, this study used indoor experiments to examine the nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) release mechanisms and fluxes from sediment in aquaculture ponds with moving water but no aeration. The results showed that the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration in the overlying water was inversely proportional to flow velocity and that a higher flow velocity tended to result in a lower concentration in the overlying water, a steeper vertical gradient of concentration within the bed sediments, and a faster release rate from the sediments. The sediment disturbed by flowing water released more nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) into the overlying water and NO2-N could become oxidized into NO3-N. In still water, NO3-N was released gradually and some anaerobic NO3-N was nitrified into NO2-N. Phosphorus release from the sediments was controlled by the adsorption–desorption balance, with the phosphorus concentration in the overlying water dropping gradually to a steady value from its initial maximum. The relationship between NH3-N release flux and flow rate is described by a cubic function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Soil-Vegetation Dynamic Interactions in Changing Climate)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Water Scarcity on the Fenhe River Basin and Mitigation Strategies
Water 2017, 9(1), 30; doi:10.3390/w9010030
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 29 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
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Abstract
This study produced a drought map for the Fenhe River basin covering the period from 150 BC to 2012 using regional historical drought records. Based on meteorological and hydrological features, the characteristics and causes of water scarcity in the Fenhe River basin were
[...] Read more.
This study produced a drought map for the Fenhe River basin covering the period from 150 BC to 2012 using regional historical drought records. Based on meteorological and hydrological features, the characteristics and causes of water scarcity in the Fenhe River basin were examined, along with their impact on the national economy and ecological environment. The effects of water scarcity in the basin on the national economy were determined from agricultural, industrial, and domestic perspectives. The impact on aquatic ecosystems was ascertained through an evolution trend analysis of surface water systems, including rivers, wetlands, and slope ecosystems, and subterranean water systems, including groundwater and karst springs. As a result of these analyses, strategies are presented for coping with water scarcity in this basin, including engineering countermeasures, such as the construction of a water network in Shanxi, and the non-engineering approach of groundwater resource preservation. These comprehensive coping strategies are proposed with the aim of assisting the prevention and control of water scarcity in the arid and semi-arid areas of China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Streamflow Forecasting Based on Relevance Vector Machine Model
Water 2017, 9(1), 9; doi:10.3390/w9010009
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
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Abstract
Long-term streamflow forecasting is crucial to reservoir scheduling and water resources management. However, due to the complexity of internally physical mechanisms in streamflow process and the influence of many random factors, long-term streamflow forecasting is a difficult issue. In the article, we mainly
[...] Read more.
Long-term streamflow forecasting is crucial to reservoir scheduling and water resources management. However, due to the complexity of internally physical mechanisms in streamflow process and the influence of many random factors, long-term streamflow forecasting is a difficult issue. In the article, we mainly investigated the ability of the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model and its applicability for long-term streamflow forecasting. We chose the Dahuofang (DHF) Reservoir in Northern China and the Danjiangkou (DJK) Reservoir in Central China as the study sites, and selected the 500 hpa geopotential height in the northern hemisphere and the sea surface temperatures in the North Pacific as the predictor factors of the RVM model and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) model, and then conducted annual streamflow forecasting. Results indicate that forecasting results in the DHF Reservoir is much better than that in the DJK Reservoir when using SVM, because streamflow process in the latter basin has a magnitude bigger than 1000 m3/s. Comparatively, accurate forecasting results in both the two basins can be gotten using the RVM model, with the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient bigger than 0.7, and they are much better than those gotten from the SVM model. As a result, the RVM model can be an effective approach for long-term streamflow forecasting, and it also has a wide applicability for the streamflow process with a discharge magnitude from dozen to thousand cubic meter per second. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Para Rubber Expansion on Streamflow and Other Water Balance Components of the Nam Loei River Basin, Thailand
Water 2017, 9(1), 1; doi:10.3390/w9010001
Received: 15 October 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
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Abstract
At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and
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At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and grown only in the southern areas of the country. However, due to the Government’s support and promotion as well as economic reasons, the expansion of Para rubber plantations in the northeast has increased rapidly. This support has occurred without accounting for suitable cultivation of Para rubber conditions, particularly in areas with steep slopes and other factors which have significant impacts on hydrology and water quality. This study presents the impacts of Para rubber expansion by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model on the hydrology and water balance of the Nam Loei River Basin, Loei Province. The results showed that the displacement of original local field crops and disturbed forest land by Para rubber production resulted in an overall increase of evapotranspiration (ET) of roughly 3%. The major factors are the rubber canopy and precipitation. Moreover, the water balance results showed an annual reduction of about 3% in the basin average water yield, especially during the dry season. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prospects for Improving Gravity-Fed Surface Irrigation Systems in Mediterranean European Contexts
Water 2017, 9(1), 20; doi:10.3390/w9010020
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
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Abstract
Traditionally, most irrigation practices in Southern Europe have been based on gravity-fed surface irrigation systems. Currently, these systems remain a relevant typology in the European Union (EU) member states of the Mediterranean areas, where it is often the only sustainable method for farmers
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Traditionally, most irrigation practices in Southern Europe have been based on gravity-fed surface irrigation systems. Currently, these systems remain a relevant typology in the European Union (EU) member states of the Mediterranean areas, where it is often the only sustainable method for farmers due to the small size of agricultural holdings, their reduced capacity and readiness to invest and the low ratio between yield profits and irrigation costs. In the last several years, in response to European and national directives, surface irrigation has garnered increasing attention at the political and bureaucratic levels due to frequent criticisms of its postulated low efficiency and high water wastage. However, these systems commonly provide a number of ecosystem services and nature-based solutions that increase the positive externalities in different rural socio-ecological contexts and often have the potential to extend these services and provide solutions that are compatible with economical sustainability. This study aims to discuss the prospects for new practices and for the rehabilitation and modernization of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems in EU Mediterranean areas to enhance water efficiency, thus gaining both economic advantages and environmental benefits. The difficulties, stimuli for improvements and peculiarities of the irrigation water management of four rural environments located in Italy, Spain and Portugal were analyzed and compared to the current state of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems with hypothetical future improvements achievable by innovative technologies and practices. In these different case studies, the current gravity-fed surface irrigation systems have an obsolete regulatory structure; water-use efficiency is not a driving criterion for the management of the conveyance and distribution canal network, and farmers are not yet adequately encouraged to adopt more efficient gravity-fed irrigation practices. A continuous knowledge exchange is thus necessary for the interaction of all irrigation water managers and farmers to improve their eco-efficiency and to preserve and promote their cultural heritage across the entire water supply and delivery chains. We argue that the best way forward will require precisely targeted rehabilitation measures of gravity-fed surface irrigation systems based on the integrated use of decision support services, gate automation, remote and feedback controls and real-time flow optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Water Management in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrologic Simulation of a Winter Wheat–Summer Maize Cropping System in an Irrigation District of the Lower Yellow River Basin, China
Water 2017, 9(1), 7; doi:10.3390/w9010007
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
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Abstract
Conflicts between water supply and water demand are intensifying in irrigation districts along the Lower Yellow River due to climate change and human activities. To ensure both adequate food supply and water resource sustainability in China, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)
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Conflicts between water supply and water demand are intensifying in irrigation districts along the Lower Yellow River due to climate change and human activities. To ensure both adequate food supply and water resource sustainability in China, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate the water balance and water use of agro-ecosystems in an irrigation district of the lower Yellow River Basin, China. Simulated average annual irrigation requirements decreased from 1969 to 2010. Irrigation requirements during the winter wheat season decreased owing to reduced reference evapotranspiration and increased precipitation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) increased with increasing irrigation volume, and differences among irrigation scenarios were mainly due to ET of winter wheat. Water deficit typically occurred during winter wheat seasons with less precipitation. Field seepage and surface runoff tended to occur in years with high precipitation, particularly during the summer maize season under full irrigation and scheduled irrigation scenarios. Frequent and heavy irrigation did not always lead to high water use efficiency. To cope with limited water resources in this region, it is necessary to properly irrigate crops based on soil water content and take full advantage of precipitation and surface runoff during the summer maize season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Categorical Forecast of Precipitation Anomaly Using the Standardized Precipitation Index SPI
Water 2017, 9(1), 8; doi:10.3390/w9010008
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
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Abstract
In the paper, the verification of forecasts of precipitation conditions measured by the standardized precipitation index (SPI) is presented. For the verification of categorical forecasts, a contingency table was used. Standard verification measures were used for the SPI value forecast. The
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In the paper, the verification of forecasts of precipitation conditions measured by the standardized precipitation index (SPI) is presented. For the verification of categorical forecasts, a contingency table was used. Standard verification measures were used for the SPI value forecast. The 30-day SPI, moved every 10 days by 10 days, was calculated in 2013–2015 from April to September on the basis of precipitation data from 35 meteorological stations in Poland. Predictions of the 30-day SPI were created in which precipitation was forecasted for the next 10 days (the SPI 10-day forecast) and 20 days (the SPI 20-day forecast). For both the 10 and 20 days, the forecasts were skewed towards drier categories at the expense of wet categories. There was a good agreement between observed and 10-day forecast categories of precipitation. Less agreement is obtained for 20-day forecasts—these forecasts evidently “over-dry” the assessment of precipitation anomalies. The 10-day SPI value forecast accuracy is very good or good depending on the performance measure, whereas accuracy of the 20-day forecast is unsatisfactory. Both for the SPI categorical and the SPI value forecast, the 10-day SPI forecast is trustworthy and the 20-day forecast should be accepted with reservation and used with caution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Humic Acid on the Transport and Deposition of Colloidal Silica under Different Hydrogeochemical Conditions
Water 2017, 9(1), 10; doi:10.3390/w9010010
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
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Abstract
The transport and deposition of colloids in aquifers plays an important role in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes. Here, the processes of colloidal silica transport and deposition were studied by displacing groundwater with recharge water. The results showed that significant amounts of colloidal
[...] Read more.
The transport and deposition of colloids in aquifers plays an important role in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes. Here, the processes of colloidal silica transport and deposition were studied by displacing groundwater with recharge water. The results showed that significant amounts of colloidal silica transport occurred when native groundwater was displaced by HA solution. Solution contains varying conditions of ionic strength and ion valence. The presence of humic acid could affect the zeta potential and size of the colloidal silica, which led to obvious colloidal silica aggregation in the divalent ion solution. Humic acid increased colloidal silica transport by formation of non-adsorbing aqueous phase silica–HA complexes. The experimental and modeling results showed good agreement, indicating that the essential physics were accurately captured by the model. The deposition rates were less than 10−8 s−1 in deionized water and monovalent ion solution. Moreover, the addition of Ca2+ and increase of IS resulted in the deposition rates increasing by five orders of magnitude to 10−4 s−1. In all experiments, the deposition rates decreased in the presence of humic acid. Overall, the promotion of humic acid in colloidal silica was strongly associated with changes in water quality, indicating that they should receive greater attention during MAR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Building a Foundation for Knowledge Co-Creation in Collaborative Water Governance: Dimensions of Stakeholder Networks Facilitated through Bridging Organizations
Water 2017, 9(1), 60; doi:10.3390/w9010060
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract
The sustainable governance of water resources relies on processes of multi-stakeholder collaborations and interactions that facilitate the sharing and integration of diverse sources and types of knowledge. In this context, it is essential to fully recognize the importance of fostering and enhancing critical
[...] Read more.
The sustainable governance of water resources relies on processes of multi-stakeholder collaborations and interactions that facilitate the sharing and integration of diverse sources and types of knowledge. In this context, it is essential to fully recognize the importance of fostering and enhancing critical connections within and between networks of relationships between different government and non-government agencies, as well as the dynamics that are in support of the development of new knowledge and practices. In Quebec, a network of watershed organizations (WOs) has been put in place to serve as bridging organizations (BOs) for stakeholder groups in their watershed territories. Using the WOs as a case study, this research aims to contribute to a greater understanding of how stakeholder groups can be effectively connected to support knowledge co-creation through networked relationships facilitated by BOs. In line with this overall research aim, the following research objectives are proposed: (1) to assess the quality of the knowledge that is developed and shared through the WOs and their stakeholder networks; (2) to determine the characteristics of stakeholders participating in the WOs’ networks that either hinder or support collaborations and knowledge co-creation; (3) to describe the collaborative processes and mechanisms through which the WOs facilitate stakeholder interactions and knowledge co-creation; and (4) to assess the quality of the relationships and interactions between stakeholders participating in the WOs’ collaborative networks. A comprehensive literature review is provided of collaborative network dimensions that are in support of knowledge co-creation that forms the foundation of a research framework to assess knowledge co-creation processes that are facilitated through BOs and their collaborative networks. Documented experiences have been gathered through face-to-face semi-structured interviews, as well as a Quebec-wide survey distributed to all WOs and their staff. A total of 41 interviews were conducted, of which nine interviews were with staff members of six selected WOs. Stakeholder perspectives were captured through 33 interviews with diverse stakeholders from three of the six selected WOs. Additionally, interviews were also conducted with five decision makers at the Quebec provincial government level. The findings of this study point to some key challenges and constraints for the effective facilitation of collaboration and knowledge co-creation through the Quebec WOs and their stakeholder networks. Through diverse collaborative mechanisms, most WOs have, to an extent, succeeded in creating opportunities for learning through a renewed sense making of different practices (and related identities) through the development of their watershed master plans, as well as through the facilitation of new communicative connections and translation efforts between diverse stakeholder groups. Key challenges to their effectiveness have been relating to a limited capacity and resources, limited territory-wide impacts, as well as limited perceived legitimacy that hindered the WOs as BOs in their ability to facilitate effective knowledge co-creation. Areas for further research to overcome these challenges are in developing a greater understanding of how BOs can optimize resources and capacities available in their collaborative networks through, e.g., the development of boundary-crossing leaders and competences, as well as the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Water Management on Rice Varieties, Yield, and Water Productivity under the System of Rice Intensification in Southern Taiwan
Water 2017, 9(1), 3; doi:10.3390/w9010003
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
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Abstract
The system of rice intensification (SRI) uses less water and enhances rice yield through synergy among several agronomic management practices. This claim was investigated to determine the effects of crop growth, yield and irrigation water use, using two thirds of the recommended SRI
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The system of rice intensification (SRI) uses less water and enhances rice yield through synergy among several agronomic management practices. This claim was investigated to determine the effects of crop growth, yield and irrigation water use, using two thirds of the recommended SRI practices and two rice varieties, namely Tainan11 (TN11) and Tidung30 (TD30). Irrigation regimes were (a) intermittent irrigation with three-day intervals (TD303 and TN113); (b) intermittent irrigation with seven-day intervals (TD307 and TN117) and (c) continuous flooding (TD30F and TN11F). Results showed that intermittent irrigation of three- and seven-day intervals produced water savings of 55% and 74% compared with continuous flooding. Total water productivity was greater with intermittent irrigation at seven-day intervals producing 0.35 kg·grain/m3 (TN117) and 0.46 kg·grain/m3 (TD307). Average daily headed panicle reduced by 166% and 196% for TN113 and TN117 compared with TN11F, with similar reduction recorded for TD303 (150%) and TD307 (156%) compared with TD30F. Grain yield of TD30 was comparable among irrigation regimes; however, it reduced by 30.29% in TN117 compared to TN11F. Plant height and leaf area were greater in plants exposed to intermittent irrigation of three-day intervals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Water Management in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle Comparing Sprinkler and Surface Irrigation for Wheat Using Multi-Criteria Analysis: Water Saving vs. Economic Returns
Water 2017, 9(1), 50; doi:10.3390/w9010050
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract
Coping with water scarcity using supplemental irrigation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the semi-arid northeast Syria is a great challenge for sustainable water use in agriculture. Graded borders and set sprinkler systems were compared using multi-criteria analysis. Alternative solutions for surface
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Coping with water scarcity using supplemental irrigation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the semi-arid northeast Syria is a great challenge for sustainable water use in agriculture. Graded borders and set sprinkler systems were compared using multi-criteria analysis. Alternative solutions for surface irrigation and for sprinkler systems were developed with the SADREG and the PROASPER design models, respectively. For each alternative, two deficit irrigation strategies were considered, which were characterized using indicators relative to irrigation water use, yields and water productivity, including farm economic returns. Alternatives were ranked considering two contrasting priorities: economic returns and water saving. A first step in ranking led to a selection of graded borders with and without precise land levelling and of solid set and semi-permanent sprinkler systems. Precise-levelled borders were better for water saving, while non-precise ones ranked higher for economic returns. Semi-permanent set systems have been shown to be better in economic terms and similar to solid set systems when water saving is prioritized. Semi-permanent sprinkler systems rank first when comparing all type of systems together regardless of the considered deficit irrigation strategy. Likely, border irrigation is appropriate when wheat is in rotation with cotton if the latter is surface irrigated. When peace becomes effective, appropriate economic incentives and training for farmers are required to implement innovative approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance of a Novel Fertilizer-Drawn Forward Osmosis Aerobic Membrane Bioreactor (FDFO-MBR): Mitigating Salinity Build-Up by Integrating Microfiltration
Water 2017, 9(1), 21; doi:10.3390/w9010021
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, three different fertilizer draw solutions were tested in a novel forward osmosis-microfiltration aerobic membrane bioreactor (MF-FDFO-MBR) hybrid system and their performance were evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt diffusion. Results were also compared with a standard solution.
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In this paper, three different fertilizer draw solutions were tested in a novel forward osmosis-microfiltration aerobic membrane bioreactor (MF-FDFO-MBR) hybrid system and their performance were evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt diffusion. Results were also compared with a standard solution. Results showed that ammonium sulfate is the most suitable fertilizer for this hybrid system since it has a relatively high water flux (6.85 LMH) with a comparatively low reverse salt flux (3.02 gMH). The performance of the process was also studied by investigating different process parameters: draw solution concentration, FO draw solution flow rate and MF imposed flux. It was found that the optimal conditions for this hybrid system were: draw solution concentration of 1 M, FO draw solution flow rate of 200 mL/min and MF imposed flux of 10 LMH. The salt accumulation increased from 834 to 5400 μS/cm during the first four weeks but after integrating MF, the salinity dropped significantly from 5400 to 1100 μS/cm suggesting that MF is efficient in mitigating the salinity build up inside the reactor. This study demonstrated that the integration of the MF membrane could effectively control the salinity and enhance the stable FO flux in the OMBR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membranes for Water Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Evolution of Cretan Aqueducts and Their Potential for Hydroelectric Exploitation
Water 2017, 9(1), 31; doi:10.3390/w9010031
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 7 January 2017
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Abstract
In this article, several archaeological, historical and other aspects of aqueducts in Crete, Greece, since the prehistoric times until today, are reviewed and presented. In Crete, since the Minoan era, various water management techniques that are found in modern water technologies were developed
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In this article, several archaeological, historical and other aspects of aqueducts in Crete, Greece, since the prehistoric times until today, are reviewed and presented. In Crete, since the Minoan era, various water management techniques that are found in modern water technologies were developed and applied. One of the most significant features of the Minoan civilization was the architecture of water supply systems in the palaces and other settlements. These technologies were continued and improved mainly during the Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods and at the same time spread to other towns in the mainland and islands. The aqueduct technologies developed during the Classical and Hellenistic periods were further developed by Romans, mainly by enlarging their application scale (e.g., water bridges). Several paradigms of Cretan aqueducts are considered by which the significance of those technologies for water supply in areas with limited water resources is justified. A brief presentation and discussion of climatic conditions, the karst hydrogeology and the water resources management in Crete is also included. The article also describes the present water management profile of the island, in terms of the water plants, water supply–irrigation networks, and water renewable energy exploitation of dams and water pipelines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fouling Communities of Two Accidental Artificial Reefs (Modern Shipwrecks) in Cyprus (Levantine Sea)
Water 2017, 9(1), 11; doi:10.3390/w9010011
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
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Abstract
Artificial reefs are considered one of the alternative methods in fisheries management, used in order to enhance stocks and marine biodiversity in general. A number of biotic and abiotic parameters influence the fouling communities’ formation on artificial reefs through complex interactions. In order
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Artificial reefs are considered one of the alternative methods in fisheries management, used in order to enhance stocks and marine biodiversity in general. A number of biotic and abiotic parameters influence the fouling communities’ formation on artificial reefs through complex interactions. In order to understand how epibiotic or fouling communities progress through time, it is important to study these communities in mature artificial reefs, especially those that have been around for many decades, or in some cases, millennia. This study was conducted on the coral and other fouling organisms of two accidental artificial reefs (40 to 70 year-old shipwrecks) in Cyprus (Levantine Sea). The thermal and nutrient annual regime of the study sites were characterized by processing satellite data. The results indicate that the wrecks are normally under warm and oligotrophic conditions. Percentage coverage of corals and other organisms on the wrecks was calculated (image-analysis software) on photos taken in 2010 (two wrecks) and again in 2016 (one wreck) of the fouling communities. Sponges were the organisms with the highest percent cover (~27%) at the two wrecks. Four scleractinian coral species were found (7%–19% total coral cover). The oldest wreck, which has well-developed coral communities, was revisited during fieldwork in a near-by area in 2016. Only two major benthic categories (dead coral and macro algae) changed significantly between sampling periods. Given the actual policies to sink wrecks to create artificial reefs and the diverse environmental conditions in different areas that will inevitably influence fouling, it is important to carry out studies relating to mature artificial reefs/wrecks in order to be able to assess the ecological effectiveness of longstanding artificial reefs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogeochemistry and Genesis Analysis of Thermal and Mineral Springs in Arxan, Northeastern China
Water 2017, 9(1), 61; doi:10.3390/w9010061
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract
In this work, the hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopic compositions of thermal and mineral springs in Arxan, northeastern China, were used to assess the genesis of the thermal system hosted by deep-seated faults. The reservoir temperature was calculated using the mineral saturation index and
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In this work, the hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopic compositions of thermal and mineral springs in Arxan, northeastern China, were used to assess the genesis of the thermal system hosted by deep-seated faults. The reservoir temperature was calculated using the mineral saturation index and geothermometers. According to isotopic analysis, the spring water was of meteoric origin. Sixteen springs in the Arxan geothermal system with outlet temperatures ranging from 10.9 to 41.0 °C were investigated. The water samples can be classified into four groups by using a Piper diagram. The aquifer in which the Group I and Group III samples were obtained was a shallow cold aquifer of the Jurassic system, which is related to the local groundwater system and contains HCO3–Ca·Na groundwater. The Group II and Group IV samples were recharged by deeply circulating meteoric water with HCO3–Na and HCO3·SO4–Na·Ca groundwater, respectively. The springs rise from the deep basement faults. The estimated thermal reservoir temperature is 50.9–68.8 °C, and the proportion of shallow cold water ranges from 54% to 87%. A conceptual flow model based on hydrogeochemical results and hydrogeological features is given to describe the geothermal system of the Arxan springs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India): Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater
Water 2017, 9(1), 51; doi:10.3390/w9010051
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract
Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’
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Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka). The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering) were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1) large diversified and productivist farms; (2) small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3) small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Altered Precipitation and Flow Patterns in the Dunajec River Basin
Water 2017, 9(1), 22; doi:10.3390/w9010022
Received: 19 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
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Abstract
This study analyzes changes in long-term patterns of precipitation and river flow, as well as changes in their variability over the most recent 60 years (1956–2015). The study area is situated in the mountain basin of the Dunajec River, encompassing streams draining the
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This study analyzes changes in long-term patterns of precipitation and river flow, as well as changes in their variability over the most recent 60 years (1956–2015). The study area is situated in the mountain basin of the Dunajec River, encompassing streams draining the Tatra Mountains in southern Poland. The focus of the study was to evaluate how regional warming translates into precipitation changes in the studied mountain region, and how changes in climate affect sub-regional hydrology. Monthly time series of precipitation measured at several sites were compared for two 30-year periods (1986–2015 versus 1956–1985). The significance of the difference between the periods in question was evaluated by means of the Wilcoxon signed rank test with the Bonferroni correction. The identified shifts in precipitation for 6 months are statistically significant and largely consistent with the revealed changes in river flow patterns. Moreover, significant differences in precipitation variability were noted in the study area, resulting in a significant decrease in the repeatability of precipitation over the most recent 30 years (1986–2015). Changes in the variability of the river flow studied were less visible in this particular mountain region (while significant for two months); however, the overall repeatability of river flow decreased significantly at the same rate as for precipitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Volcanic Eruptions on the Occurrence of PAHs Compounds in the Aquatic Ecosystem of the Southern Part of West Spitsbergen (Hornsund Fjord, Svalbard)
Water 2017, 9(1), 42; doi:10.3390/w9010042
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 17 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 December 2016 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract
The paper presents changes in concentration levels of dioxin-like compounds that can be observed over the course of four study seasons in water samples collected from the Arctic watershed of Svalbard. The conducted analysis involved anthropogenic and natural factors that may affect the
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The paper presents changes in concentration levels of dioxin-like compounds that can be observed over the course of four study seasons in water samples collected from the Arctic watershed of Svalbard. The conducted analysis involved anthropogenic and natural factors that may affect the concentration of PAHs in the study samples of water. An attempt is made to indicate the emission source of the compounds being deposited and to identify the extent to which the substances under analysis actually affect the Arctic ecosystems. Moreover, the work employs the following: diagnostic ratios PAHs, air masses backward trajectory analysis, Lidar observations and land relief analysis in order to provide a multi-level interpretation of the obtained data. Natural environment constitutes a complex system of subtle correlations that need to be perceived as a dynamic medium, in which multi-faceted processes take place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Fate and Transport, and Removal)
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Open AccessArticle A Laboratory Study on the Filtration and Clogging of the Sand-Bottom Ash Mixture for Stormwater Infiltration Filter Media
Water 2017, 9(1), 32; doi:10.3390/w9010032
Received: 4 May 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 7 January 2017
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Abstract
The performance of stormwater infiltration systems depends significantly on the infiltration/filtration characteristics of filter media. Sand media have been frequently used due to their abundance and acceptable pollutant removal efficiency. Bottom ash media, which was known to have a high sorption capacity, are
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The performance of stormwater infiltration systems depends significantly on the infiltration/filtration characteristics of filter media. Sand media have been frequently used due to their abundance and acceptable pollutant removal efficiency. Bottom ash media, which was known to have a high sorption capacity, are being considered as alternative and/or complement filter media to enhance the overall treatment efficiency. To verify the applicability of bottom ash as filter media, a series of 1-D column infiltration tests were conducted in this study. The filtration and clogging characteristics of the sand-bottom ash mixtures at different mixing ratios were investigated with limitedly focusing on the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) present in stormwater runoff. As a result, the presence of bottom ash was identified to improve the TSS removal efficiency in spite of having a significant increase in clogging potential. All media configurations were observed to experience the premature clogging and the clogging state for varying and constant head flow conditions, respectively. The noticeable amount of crushed bottom ash particles brought by seepage force could be accountable for the rapid occurrence of clogging phenomena. Overall, a homogeneous sand filter is preferred as long as the lifespan of filter system is the primary concern. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring of the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of the Floods in the Guayas Watershed (Ecuadorian Pacific Coast) Using Global Monitoring ENVISAT ASAR Images and Rainfall Data
Water 2017, 9(1), 12; doi:10.3390/w9010012
Received: 13 November 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
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Abstract
The floods are an annual phenomenon on the Pacific Coast of Ecuador and can become devastating during El Niño years, especially in the Guayas watershed (32,300 km2), the largest drainage basin of the South American western side of the Andes. As
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The floods are an annual phenomenon on the Pacific Coast of Ecuador and can become devastating during El Niño years, especially in the Guayas watershed (32,300 km2), the largest drainage basin of the South American western side of the Andes. As limited information on flood extent in this basin is available, this study presents a monitoring of the spatio-temporal dynamics of floods in the Guayas Basin, between 2005 and 2008, using a change detection method applied to ENVISAT ASAR Global Monitoring SAR images acquired at a spatial resolution of 1 km. The method is composed of three steps. First, a supervised classification was performed to identify pixels of open water present in the Guayas Basin. Then, the separability of their radar signature from signatures of other classes was determined during the four dry seasons from 2005 to 2008. In the end, standardized anomalies of backscattering coefficient were computed during the four wet seasons of the study period to detect changes between dry and wet seasons. Different thresholds were tested to identify the flooded areas in the watershed using external information from the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. A value of −2.30 ± 0.05 was found suitable to estimate the number of inundated pixels and limit the number of false detection (below 10%). Using this threshold, monthly maps of inundation were estimated during the wet season (December to May) from 2004 to 2008. The most frequently inundated areas were found to be located along the Babahoyo River, a tributary in the east of the basin. Large interannual variability in the flood extent is observed at the flood peak (from 50 to 580 km2), consistent with the rainfall in the Guayas watershed during the study period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Energy Saving in a Water Supply Network by Coupling a Pump and a Pump As Turbine (PAT) in a Turbopump
Water 2017, 9(1), 62; doi:10.3390/w9010062
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
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Abstract
The management of a water distribution network (WDN) is performed by valve and pump control, to regulate both the pressure and the discharge between certain limits. The energy that is usually merely dissipated by valves can instead be converted and used to partially
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The management of a water distribution network (WDN) is performed by valve and pump control, to regulate both the pressure and the discharge between certain limits. The energy that is usually merely dissipated by valves can instead be converted and used to partially supply the pumping stations. Pumps used as turbines (PAT) can be used in order to both reduce pressure and recover energy, with proven economic benefits. The direct coupling of the PAT shaft with the pump shaft in a PAT-pump turbocharger (P&P plant) allows us to transfer energy from the pressure control system to the pumping system without any electrical device. Based on experimental PAT and pump performance curves, P&P equations are given and P&P working conditions are simulated with reference to the operating conditions of a real water supply network. The annual energy saving demonstrates the economic relevance of the P&P plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events
Water 2017, 9(1), 63; doi:10.3390/w9010063
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
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Abstract
An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP), confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV), has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH) events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. This research focuses
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An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP), confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV), has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH) events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Testing of Recharge Wells in a Coastal Aquifer: Summary of Field Scale Pilot Tests
Water 2017, 9(1), 53; doi:10.3390/w9010053
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 8 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 14 January 2017
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Abstract
Surplus water from seawater desalination plants along the Israeli Coast can be injected underground for seasonal storage. Two pilot projects were established to simulate the movement of air bubbles and changes in the well hydraulic parameters during pumping and recharging. The study showed
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Surplus water from seawater desalination plants along the Israeli Coast can be injected underground for seasonal storage. Two pilot projects were established to simulate the movement of air bubbles and changes in the well hydraulic parameters during pumping and recharging. The study showed that it is impossible to remove the smaller air bubbles (dissolved air) that are created during the injection process, even when the injection pipe is fully saturated. The pumping tests showed that there were large differences in the well hydraulic parameters between the pumping and the recharge tests despite that they were conducted at the same well. Two mechanisms are responsible for the reduction in the aquifer coefficients during the recharge event. The first mechanism is the pressures that the injected water needs to overcome; the aquifer pressure and the pore water pressure it is supposed to replace at the time of the injection. The second mechanism is the pressure that the injected water needs to overcome the clogging process. It is expressed as the high water level inside the recharge well in comparison to the small rising of the water level in the observation wells. This research gives good insight into the injection mechanism through wells and is essential for any further development of injection facilities and for the operation and management protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Evapotranspiration Coefficients in a Temperate Maritime Climate Using the METRIC Model and Landsat TM
Water 2017, 9(1), 23; doi:10.3390/w9010023
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
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Abstract
The applicability of a land surface temperature (LST)-evapotranspiration (ET) regression model to estimate ET fraction (ETrF) was tested in the temperate maritime climate of Central Ireland. In this study, the Mapping ET at high Resolution and with
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The applicability of a land surface temperature (LST)-evapotranspiration (ET) regression model to estimate ET fraction (ETrF) was tested in the temperate maritime climate of Central Ireland. In this study, the Mapping ET at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model was applied to calculate evapotranspiration from a mixed land cover area in Central Ireland. The ETrF values estimated on a pixel-by-pixel basis using two different surface roughness maps derived from two different estimates of Leaf Area Index (LAI) showed no significant differences. The METRIC based ETrF values from a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image from 12 July 2013 were in similar range with those obtained from a regression model using land surface temperature (LST)-ET relationship derived from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of 17 July 2006. Results indicated that ETrF values could be estimated by using LST values from Landsat TM, even when stress conditions were prevailing in the region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysing the Effects of Forest Cover and Irrigation Farm Dams on Streamflows of Water-Scarce Catchments in South Australia through the SWAT Model
Water 2017, 9(1), 33; doi:10.3390/w9010033
Received: 29 October 2016 / Revised: 31 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 7 January 2017
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Abstract
To assist water resource managers with future land use planning efforts, the eco-hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to three catchments in South Australia that experience extreme low flow conditions. Particular land uses and management issues of interest included
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To assist water resource managers with future land use planning efforts, the eco-hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to three catchments in South Australia that experience extreme low flow conditions. Particular land uses and management issues of interest included forest covers, known to affect water yields, and farm dams, known to intercept and change the hydrological dynamics in a catchment. The study achieved a satisfactory daily calibration when irrigation farm dams were incorporated in the model. For the catchment dominated by extreme low flows, a better daily simulation across a range of qualitative and quantitative metrics was gained using the base-flow static threshold optimization technique. Scenario analysis on effects of forest cover indicated an increase of surface flow and a reduction of base-flow when native eucalyptus lands were replaced by pastures and vice versa. A decreasing trend was observed for the overall water yield of catchments with more forest plantation due to the higher evapotranspiration (ET) rate and the decline in surface flow. With regards to effects of irrigation farm dams, assessment on a daily time step suggested that a significant volume of water is stored in these systems with the water loss rate highest in June and July. On an annual basis, the model indicated that approximately 13.1% to 22.0% of water has been captured by farm dams for irrigation. However, the scenario analysis revealed that the purposes of use of farm dams rather than their volumetric capacities in the catchment determined the magnitude of effects on streamflows. Water extracted from farm dams for irrigation of orchards and vineyards are more likely to diminish streamflows than other land uses. Outputs from this study suggest that the water use restrictions from farm dams during recent drought periods were an effective tool to minimize impacts on streamflows. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Repeated Fish Removal to Restore Lakes: Case Study of Lake Væng, Denmark—Two Biomanipulations during 30 Years of Monitoring
Water 2017, 9(1), 43; doi:10.3390/w9010043
Received: 19 August 2016 / Revised: 2 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract
Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake water quality. Here, we present and analyse 30 years of chemical and biological data from the shallow and 16 ha large Lake Væng, Denmark, which has
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Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake water quality. Here, we present and analyse 30 years of chemical and biological data from the shallow and 16 ha large Lake Væng, Denmark, which has been biomanipulated twice with a 20-year interval by removing roach (Rutilus rutilus) and bream (Abramis brama). After both biomanipulations, Lake Væng shifted from a turbid, phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear, water macrophyte-dominated state. Chlorophyll a was reduced from 60–80 μg·L−1 to 10–30 μg·L−1 and the coverage of submerged macrophytes, dominated by Elodea canadensis, increased from <0.1% to 70%–80%. Mean summer total phosphorus was reduced from about 0.12 to 0.07 mg·L−1 and total nitrogen decreased from 1.0 to 0.4 mg·L−1. On a seasonal scale, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations changed from a summer maximum during turbid conditions to a winter maximum under clear conditions. The future of Lake Væng is uncertain and a relatively high phosphorus loading via the groundwater, and the accumulation of a mobile P pool in the sediment make it likely that the lake eventually will return to turbid conditions. Repeated fish removals might be a relevant management strategy to apply in shallow lakes with a relatively high external nutrient loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Exposed Artificial Substrate on the Competition between Phytoplankton and Benthic Algae: Implications for Shallow Lake Restoration
Water 2017, 9(1), 24; doi:10.3390/w9010024
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
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Abstract
Phytoplankton and benthic algae coexist in shallow lakes and the outcome of the competition between these two photoautotrophs can markedly influence water clarity. It is well established that exposed artificial substrate in eutrophic waters can remove nutrients and fine particles from the water
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Phytoplankton and benthic algae coexist in shallow lakes and the outcome of the competition between these two photoautotrophs can markedly influence water clarity. It is well established that exposed artificial substrate in eutrophic waters can remove nutrients and fine particles from the water column via the attached periphyton canopy. However, the effects of the introduction of artificial substrate on the competition between planktonic and benthic primary producers remain to be elucidated. We conducted a short-term outdoor mesocosm experiment to test the hypothesis that the nutrient and light changes induced by exposed artificial substrate (polythene nets) would benefit the benthic algae. Artificial substrate significantly reduced total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and water clarity improved, the latter due to the substrate-induced reduction of both organic and inorganic suspended solids. Consequently, as judged from changes in chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations in water and sediment, respectively, exposed artificial substrate significantly reduced the phytoplankton biomass, while benthic algae biomass increased. Our results thus indicate that exposed artificial substrate may be used as a tool to re-establish benthic primary production in eutrophic shallow lakes after an external nutrient loading reduction, paving the way for a benthic- or a macrophyte-dominated system. Longer term and larger scale experiments are, however, needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn on this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Quantification of Hydrological Responses Due to Climate Change and Human Activities over Various Time Scales in South Korea
Water 2017, 9(1), 34; doi:10.3390/w9010034
Received: 26 November 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 8 January 2017
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Abstract
Hydrological responses are being impacted by both climate change and human activities. In particular, climate change and regional human activities have accelerated significantly during the last three decades in South Korea. The variation in runoff due to the two types of factors should
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Hydrological responses are being impacted by both climate change and human activities. In particular, climate change and regional human activities have accelerated significantly during the last three decades in South Korea. The variation in runoff due to the two types of factors should be quantitatively investigated to aid effective water resources’ planning and management. In water resources’ planning, analysis using various time scales is useful where rainfall is unevenly distributed. However, few studies analyzed the impacts of these two factors over different time scales. In this study, hydrologic model-based approach and hydrologic sensitivity were used to separate the relative impacts of these two factors at monthly, seasonal and annual time scales in the Soyang Dam upper basin and the Seom River basin in South Korea. After trend analysis using the Mann–Kendall nonparametric test to identify the causes of gradual change, three techniques, such as the double mass curve method, Pettitt’s test and the BCP (Bayesian change point) analysis, were used to detect change points caused by abrupt changes in the collected observed runoff. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models calibrated from the natural periods were used to calculate the impacts of human activities. Additionally, six Budyko-based methods were used to verify the results obtained from the hydrological-based approach. The results show that impacts of climate change have been stronger than those of human activities in the Soyang Dam upper basin, while the impacts of human activities have been stronger than those of climate change in the Seom River basin. Additionally, the quantitative characteristics of relative impacts due to these two factors were identified at the monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. Finally, we suggest that the procedure used in this study can be used as a reference for regional water resources’ planning and management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Measuring Spatiotemporal Features of Land Subsidence, Groundwater Drawdown, and Compressible Layer Thickness in Beijing Plain, China
Water 2017, 9(1), 64; doi:10.3390/w9010064
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
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Abstract
Beijing is located on multiple alluvial-pluvial fans with thick Quaternary unconsolidated sediments. It has suffered serious groundwater drawdown and land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation. This study aimed to introduce geographical distribution measure methods into land subsidence research characterizing, geographically, land subsidence, groundwater
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Beijing is located on multiple alluvial-pluvial fans with thick Quaternary unconsolidated sediments. It has suffered serious groundwater drawdown and land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation. This study aimed to introduce geographical distribution measure methods into land subsidence research characterizing, geographically, land subsidence, groundwater drawdown, and compressible layer thickness. Therefore, we used gravity center analysis and standard deviational ellipse (SDE) methods in GIS to statistically analyze their concentration tendency, principle orientation, dispersion trend, and distribution differences in 1995 (1999), 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. Results show that they were all concentrated in Chaoyang District of Urban Beijing. The concentration trend of land subsidence was consistent with that of groundwater drawdown. The principle orientation of land subsidence was SW–NE, which was more similar with that of the static spatial distribution of the compressible layer. The dispersion tendency of land subsidence got closer to that of the compressible layer with its increasing intensity. The spatial distribution difference between land subsidence and groundwater drawdown was about 0.2, and that between land subsidence and compressible layer thickness it decreased from 0.22 to 0.07, reflecting that the spatial distribution pattern of land subsidence was increasingly close to that of the compressible layer. Results of this study are useful for assessing the distribution of land subsidence development and managing groundwater resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Socio-Ecological Regionalization of the Urban Sub-Basins in Mexico
Water 2017, 9(1), 14; doi:10.3390/w9010014
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 17 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 2 January 2017
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Abstract
Mexico is a diverse country in terms of culture and natural environments. For this reason, the delimitation of homogeneous basins with similar environmental, social, and economic attributes is important in order to facilitate the elaboration of high-impact regional development strategies. However, this represents
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Mexico is a diverse country in terms of culture and natural environments. For this reason, the delimitation of homogeneous basins with similar environmental, social, and economic attributes is important in order to facilitate the elaboration of high-impact regional development strategies. However, this represents an ongoing challenge due to the complexity of the interactions that occur within socio-ecological systems at a regional scale. In the present study, the main objective was to identify the interrelationships among different aspects of the socio-ecological system located within basins, with the goal of utilizing this information to promote the region-specific sustainable development of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). Therefore, in this study, environmental, social, economic, and institutional variables, relevant to water management and with the capacity to be expressed spatially, were utilized to identify regions with similar characteristics and to regionalize the urban sub-basins of Mexico based on a principal component analysis (PCA) and the k-medoids clustering algorithm. The identification of the most adequate number of regions at the national level was determined by the silhouette method. As a result, five distinct regions for Mexico were generated, which forms the first step in the design of integrated water resources management strategies for these regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Testing the SWAT Model with Gridded Weather Data of Different Spatial Resolutions
Water 2017, 9(1), 54; doi:10.3390/w9010054
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
This study explored the influence of the spatial resolution of a gridded weather dataset when inputted in the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) over the Garonne River watershed. Several datasets are compared: ground-based weather stations, the 8-km SAFRAN product (Système d’Analyse Fournissant
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This study explored the influence of the spatial resolution of a gridded weather dataset when inputted in the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) over the Garonne River watershed. Several datasets are compared: ground-based weather stations, the 8-km SAFRAN product (Système d’Analyse Fournissant des Renseignements Adaptés à la Nivologie), the 0.5° CFSR product (Climate Forecasting System Reanalysis) and several derived SAFRAN grids upscaled to 16, 32, 64 and 128 km. The SWAT model, calibrated on weather stations, was successively run with each gridded weather dataset. Performances with SAFRAN up to 64 or 128 km were poor, due to a contraction of the spatial variance of daily precipitation. Performances with 8-km SAFRAN are similar to that of the aggregated 16- and 32-km SAFRAN grids. The ~30-km CFSR product was found to perform well at some sites, while in others, its performance was considerably inferior because of grid points where precipitation was overestimated. The same problem was found in the calibration, where data at some weather stations did not appear to be representative of the subwatershed in which they are used to compute hydrology. These results suggest that the difference in the representation of the climate was more influential than its spatial resolution, an analysis that was confirmed by similar performances obtained with the SWAT model calibrated on the 16- and 32-km SAFRAN grids. However, the better performances obtained from these two weather datasets than from the ground-based stations’ dataset confirmed the advantage of using the SAFRAN product in SWAT modelling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Initial Provincial Water Rights Dynamic Projection Pursuit Allocation Based on the Most Stringent Water Resources Management: A Case Study of Taihu Basin, China
Water 2017, 9(1), 35; doi:10.3390/w9010035
Received: 24 August 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract
Clarification of initial water rights is the basis and prerequisite for a water rights trade-off market and also an effective solution to the problem of water scarcity and water conflicts. According to the new requirements for the most stringent water resources management in
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Clarification of initial water rights is the basis and prerequisite for a water rights trade-off market and also an effective solution to the problem of water scarcity and water conflicts. According to the new requirements for the most stringent water resources management in China, an initial provincial water rights allocation model is proposed. Firstly, based on analysis of multiple principles for initial provincial water rights allocation including total water use, water use efficiency, water quality of water function zones, regional coordination and sharing, an index system of initial provincial water rights allocation is designed. Secondly, according to dynamic projection pursuit technique, an initial provincial water rights allocation model with the total water use control is set up. Moreover, the self-adaptive chaotic optimization algorithm is applied to tackle the model. Finally, a case study of Taihu Basin is adopted. Considering the multiple scenarios of three different water frequencies (50%, 75% and 90%) and planning year 2030, the empirical results show Jiangsu Province always obtains the most initial water rights. When the developing situation of provinces are given more consideration, Shanghai should acquire more initial water rights than Zhejiang Province; but when the dynamic increment evolving trend of provinces is taken more into account, Shanghai should obtain less initial water rights than Zhejiang Province. The case about Taihu Lake further verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model and provides a multiple-scenarios decision making support for entitling the initial water rights with the most stringent water resources management constrains in Taihu Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Rack Slope and Approaching Conditions in Bottom Intake Systems
Water 2017, 9(1), 65; doi:10.3390/w9010065
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
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Abstract
The study analyzes the flow over bottom racks made of longitudinal T-shaped bars. A clear water flow is considered in a laboratory flume. Free surface profiles, wetted rack lengths, and discharge coefficients are measured, changing parameters such as longitudinal slope, void ratio, and
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The study analyzes the flow over bottom racks made of longitudinal T-shaped bars. A clear water flow is considered in a laboratory flume. Free surface profiles, wetted rack lengths, and discharge coefficients are measured, changing parameters such as longitudinal slope, void ratio, and approaching flow. The present work complements existing experimental studies, considering the influence of the approaching flow conditions. The velocity field measured with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique and the pressure field with Pitot tubes are quantified. Numerical simulations (CFD) are used to complement laboratory data. The energy head along the rack is calculated and compared with the hypothesis of horizontal energy level with minimum energy at the beginning of the rack. A discharge coefficient adjustment that considers the slope, the void ratio, and the position along the rack is proposed and presented with the results of other works. Theoretical proposals to calculate the pressure field along the flow are compared with measurements in the laboratory. The relation between the static pressure head in the space of bars and the discharge coefficient is used as an alternative method to define the discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Increasing Winter Baseflow in Response to Permafrost Thaw and Precipitation Regime Shifts in Northeastern China
Water 2017, 9(1), 25; doi:10.3390/w9010025
Received: 29 October 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
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Abstract
Rapid permafrost thaw and precipitation regime shifts are altering surface and subsurface hydrological processes in arctic and subarctic watersheds. Long-term data (40 years) from two large permafrost watersheds in northeastern China, the Tahe River and Duobukuer River watersheds, indicate that winter baseflows are
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Rapid permafrost thaw and precipitation regime shifts are altering surface and subsurface hydrological processes in arctic and subarctic watersheds. Long-term data (40 years) from two large permafrost watersheds in northeastern China, the Tahe River and Duobukuer River watersheds, indicate that winter baseflows are characterized by significant positive trends of 1.7% and 2.5%·year−1, respectively. Winter baseflows exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with mean annual air temperature and the thawing index, an indicator of permafrost degradation, for both watersheds, as well as the increasing annual rainfall fraction of precipitation for the Duobukuer River watershed. Winter baseflows were characterized by a breakpoint in 1989, which lagged behind the mean annual air temperature breakpoint by only two years. The statistical analyses suggest that the increases in winter baseflow are likely related to enhanced groundwater storage and winter groundwater discharge caused by permafrost thaw and are potentially also due to an increase in the wet season rainfall. These hydrological trends are first apparent in marginal areas of permafrost distribution and are expected to shift northward towards formerly continuous permafrost regions in the context of future climate warming. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring of Calcite Precipitation in Hardwater Lakes with Multi-Spectral Remote Sensing Archives
Water 2017, 9(1), 15; doi:10.3390/w9010015
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 26 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
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Abstract
Calcite precipitation is a common phenomenon in calcium-rich hardwater lakes during spring and summer, but the number and spatial distribution of lakes with calcite precipitation is unknown. This paper presents a remote sensing based method to observe calcite precipitation over large areas, which
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Calcite precipitation is a common phenomenon in calcium-rich hardwater lakes during spring and summer, but the number and spatial distribution of lakes with calcite precipitation is unknown. This paper presents a remote sensing based method to observe calcite precipitation over large areas, which are an important prerequisite for a systematic monitoring and evaluation of restoration measurements. We use globally archived satellite remote sensing data for a retrospective systematic assessment of past multi-temporal calcite precipitation events. The database of this study consists of 205 data sets that comprise freely available Landsat and Sentinel 2 data acquired between 1998 and 2015 covering the Northeast German Plain. Calcite precipitation is automatically identified using the green spectra and the metric BGR area, the triangular area between the blue, green and red reflectance value. The validation is based on field measurements of CaCO3 concentrations at three selected lakes, Feldberger Haussee, Breiter Luzin and Schmaler Luzin. The classification accuracy (0.88) is highest for calcite concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L. False negative results are caused by the choice of a conservative classification threshold. False positive results can be explained by already increased calcite concentrations. We successfully transferred the developed method to 21 other hardwater lakes in Northeast Germany. The average duration of lakes with regular calcite precipitation is 37 days. The frequency of calcite precipitation reaches from single time detections up to detections nearly every year. False negative classification results and gaps in Landsat time series reduce the accuracy of frequency and duration monitoring, but in future the image density will increase by acquisitions of Sentinel-2a (and 2b). Our study tested successfully the transfer of the classification approach to Sentinel-2 images. Our study shows that 15 of the 24 lakes have at least one phase of calcite precipitation and all events occur between May and September. At the lakes Schmaler Luzin and Feldberger Haussee, we illustrated the influence of ecological restoration measures aiming at nutrient reduction in the lake water on calcite precipitation. Our study emphasizes the high variance of calcite precipitation in hardwater lakes: each lake has to be monitored individually, which is feasible using Landsat and Sentinel-2 time series. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Geogenic Factors on Water Quality and Its Relation to Human Health around Mount Ida, Turkey
Water 2017, 9(1), 66; doi:10.3390/w9010066
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
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Abstract
Water–rock interactions strongly influence water quality. Waters originating from highly altered zones affect human health. Mount Ida region in western Anatolia is an example for such geogenic interactions and additional anthropogenic impacts. A water quality monitoring study was held and a total of
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Water–rock interactions strongly influence water quality. Waters originating from highly altered zones affect human health. Mount Ida region in western Anatolia is an example for such geogenic interactions and additional anthropogenic impacts. A water quality monitoring study was held and a total of 189 samples were collected from 63 monitoring stations to characterize the quality of water resources and its relation with human health. The results indicated that waters originating from altered volcanic rocks that are mainly used for drinking purposes have low pH, high conductivity and elevated trace element levels. In addition, a number of acidic mining lakes were formed in the open pits of abandoned mine sites in the study area and pyrite oxidation in altered volcanic rocks resulted in extremely acidic, high mineral content and toxic waters that demonstrate an eminent threat for the environmental health in the area. Overall, the water quality constituents in Mount Ida region had a spatially variable pattern and were locally found to exceed the national and international standards, mainly due to geogenic alteration zones and anthropogenic intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and Health)
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Open AccessArticle UV-LEDs Efficiently Inactivate DNA and RNA Coliphages
Water 2017, 9(1), 46; doi:10.3390/w9010046
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract
UV-LEDs are a new method of disinfecting drinking water. Some viruses are very resistant to UV and the efficiency of UV-LEDs to disinfect them needs to be studied. Drinking water was disinfected with UV-LEDs after spiking the water with MS2 and four UV-
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UV-LEDs are a new method of disinfecting drinking water. Some viruses are very resistant to UV and the efficiency of UV-LEDs to disinfect them needs to be studied. Drinking water was disinfected with UV-LEDs after spiking the water with MS2 and four UV- and/or Cl-resistant coliphages belonging to RNA or DNA coliphages isolated from municipal wastewater. UV-LEDs operating at a wavelength of 270 nm for 2 min with 120 mW of irradiation caused 0.93–2.73 Log10-reductions of coliphages tested in a reactor of a 5.2 L volume. Irradiation time of 10 min in the same system increased the Log10-reductions to 4.30–5.16. Traditional mercury UV (Hg-UV) lamp at a 254 nm wavelength caused 0.67–4.08 Log10-reductions in 2 min and 4.56–7.21 Log10-reductions in 10 min in 10 mL of water. All coliphages tested except MS2 achieved 4 Log10-reductions with UV-LEDs at a dose that corresponded to 70 mWs/cm2 using Hg-UV. Thus, UV-LEDs are a promising method of disinfecting UV- and/or Cl-resistant viruses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding Public Perception of and Participation in Non-Revenue Water Management in Malaysia to Support Urban Water Policy
Water 2017, 9(1), 26; doi:10.3390/w9010026
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 24 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
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Abstract
In contextualising the serious water loss, inefficient resource utilization, and ineffective water utility management in Malaysia, the objective of this study is to understand the public’s perception of non-revenue water (NRW) management in order to provide policy inputs, and to determine ways to
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In contextualising the serious water loss, inefficient resource utilization, and ineffective water utility management in Malaysia, the objective of this study is to understand the public’s perception of non-revenue water (NRW) management in order to provide policy inputs, and to determine ways to improve public participation in NRW reduction. Findings reveal that there is currently only meagre public participation in NRW management in Malaysia, with a majority of the respondents demonstrating a lack of knowledge and awareness on NRW; over-dependence on water utility and government agencies in reducing NRW rates; and failure to submit a report when a leaking pipe is noticed. Educating the public on the importance of reducing NRW and promoting public interests and concerns around water tariffs, is essential to improve NRW reductions in Malaysia. Community-led strategies to better engage the public in addressing NRW-related issues have to be enhanced. To this end, concrete policy implications derived from the findings of the study are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Water Policy Collection)
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Open AccessArticle Water Footprints and ‘Pozas’: Conversations about Practices and Knowledges of Water Efficiency
Water 2017, 9(1), 16; doi:10.3390/w9010016
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 2 January 2017
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Abstract
In this article we present two logics of water efficiency: that of the Water Footprint and that of mango smallholder farmers on the desert coast of Peru (in Motupe). We do so in order to explore how both can learn from each other
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In this article we present two logics of water efficiency: that of the Water Footprint and that of mango smallholder farmers on the desert coast of Peru (in Motupe). We do so in order to explore how both can learn from each other and to discuss what happens when the two logics meet. Rather than treating the Water Footprint as scientific, in the sense that it is separate from traditions or politics, and Motupe poza irrigation as cultural and, therefore, thick with local beliefs and superstitions, we describe both as consisting of intricate entanglements of knowledge and culture. This produces a more or less level playing field for the two water logics to meet and for proponents of each to enter into a conversation with one another; allowing furthermore for the identification of what Water Footprint inventors and promotors can learn from poza irrigators, and vice versa. The article concludes that important water wisdom may get lost when the Water Footprint logic becomes dominant, as is currently about to happen in Peru. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Prey Survival and Vulnerability of Juvenile Rhynchocypris oxycephalus in Juvenile Fish Shelters under Predation by Korean Native Piscivorous Fish (Coreoperca herzi)
Water 2017, 9(1), 36; doi:10.3390/w9010036
Received: 10 June 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 29 December 2016 / Published: 9 January 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the newly-developed juvenile fish shelter (JFS) for its ability to increase prey survival and to improve species diversity in a freshwater ecosystem. An experiment was performed in an outdoor large-scale mesocosm three times from 2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the newly-developed juvenile fish shelter (JFS) for its ability to increase prey survival and to improve species diversity in a freshwater ecosystem. An experiment was performed in an outdoor large-scale mesocosm three times from 2011 to 2012 by comparing the responses to adjustment as a function of the volume of JFS in the control and experimental groups. Analysis results of the environmental monitoring over three periods indicated only minor differences in the physicochemical characteristics of the water quality and phyto- and zoo-plankton biomass, thereby enabling a comparative analysis of the feeding ecology. However, the water temperature exhibited large fluctuations, ranging from 16.4 to 27.6 °C, and high water temperature conditions (Period 1, 25.6 ± 2.0 °C) enhanced the predation activity of the piscivorous fish Coreoperca herzi (C. herzi, size 89 ± 4 mm). Statistically, the survival rates of the prey fish, Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (R. oxycephalus, size 29 ± 1 mm), with JFSs were greater by 35.9%–46.7%, and improved as the patch volume of JFS increased. Based on both experimental observations and statistical analysis, the JFS developed in this study could reduce the chances of predator–prey encounters, minimize prey vulnerability, and thereby increase prey survival rates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 3D CFD Modeling of Local Scouring, Bed Armoring and Sediment Deposition
Water 2017, 9(1), 56; doi:10.3390/w9010056
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
3D numerical models are increasingly used to simulate flow, sediment transport and morphological changes of rivers. For the simulation of bedload transport, the numerical flow model is generally coupled with an empirical sediment transport model. The application range of the most widely used
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3D numerical models are increasingly used to simulate flow, sediment transport and morphological changes of rivers. For the simulation of bedload transport, the numerical flow model is generally coupled with an empirical sediment transport model. The application range of the most widely used empirical models is, however, often limited in terms of hydraulic and sedimentological features and therefore the numerical model can hardly be applied to complex situations where different kinds of morphological processes take place at the same time, such as local scouring, bed armoring and aggradation of finer particles. As a possible solution method for this issue, we present the combined application of two bedload transport formulas that widens the application range and thus gives more appropriate simulation results. An example of this technique is presented in the paper by combining two bedload transport formulas. For model validation, the results of a laboratory experiment, where bed armoring, local scouring and local sediment deposition processes occurred, were used. The results showed that the combined application method can improve the reliability of the numerical simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Sediment Process)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of TRMM Product for Monitoring Drought in the Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia
Water 2017, 9(1), 57; doi:10.3390/w9010057
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
Assessment of satellite precipitation products’ capability for monitoring drought is relatively new in tropical regions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 product in estimating the standardized precipitation
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Assessment of satellite precipitation products’ capability for monitoring drought is relatively new in tropical regions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 product in estimating the standardized precipitation index (SPI) in the Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia from 1998 to 2014, by comparing it with data from 42 rain gauges. Overall, the TMPA-3B43 performed well in the monthly precipitation estimation, but performed moderately in the seasonal scale. Better performance was found in the northeast monsoon (wet season) than in the southwest monsoon (dry season). The product is more reliable in the northern and north-eastern regions (coastal zone) compared to the central, southern and south-eastern regions (mountainous area). For drought assessment, the correlations between the TMPA-3B43 and ground observations are moderate at various time-scales (one to twelve months), with better performance at shorter time-scales. The TMPA-3B43 shows similar temporal drought behavior by capturing most of the drought events at various time-scales, except for the 2008–2009 drought. These findings show that the TMPA-3B43 is not suitable to be used directly for SPI estimation in this basin. More bias correction and algorithm improvement work are needed to improve the accuracy of the TMPA-3B43 in drought monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Statistical Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Multi-Elements in an Island Arc Region: Complicating Factors and Transfer by Water Currents
Water 2017, 9(1), 37; doi:10.3390/w9010037
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract
The compositions and transfer processes affecting coastal sea sediments from the Seto Inland Sea and the Pacific Ocean are examined through the construction of comprehensive terrestrial and marine geochemical maps for western Japan. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) suggests that the elemental concentrations
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The compositions and transfer processes affecting coastal sea sediments from the Seto Inland Sea and the Pacific Ocean are examined through the construction of comprehensive terrestrial and marine geochemical maps for western Japan. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) suggests that the elemental concentrations of marine sediments vary with particle size, and that this has a greater effect than the regional provenance of the terrestrial material. Cluster analysis is employed to reveal similarities and differences in the geochemistry of coastal sea and stream sediments. This analysis suggests that the geochemical features of fine sands and silts in the marine environment reflect those of stream sediments in the adjacent terrestrial areas. However, gravels and coarse sands do not show this direct relationship, which is likely a result of mineral segregation by strong tidal currents and the denudation of old basement rocks. Finally, the transport processes for the fine-grained sediments are discussed, using the spatial distribution patterns of outliers for those elements enriched in silt and clay. Silty and clayey sediments are found to be transported and dispersed widely by a periodic current in the inner sea, and are selectively deposited at the boundary of different water masses in the outer sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of UV Treatment on the Food Safety Status of a Model Aquaponic System
Water 2017, 9(1), 27; doi:10.3390/w9010027
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
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Abstract
Few microbial studies in aquaponics, a growing trend in food production, have been conducted to determine food safety status. The aim of this study was to determine the food safety status and the effectiveness of ultraviolet treatment (15 W, luminous flux of 900
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Few microbial studies in aquaponics, a growing trend in food production, have been conducted to determine food safety status. The aim of this study was to determine the food safety status and the effectiveness of ultraviolet treatment (15 W, luminous flux of 900 lm) as a food safety intervention in reducing the microbial loads of the water system in a model aquaponic unit growing lettuce, basil, and barramundi (Australian Sea Bass). Sweet basil, bibb lettuce, water samples, and fish swabs were collected throughout the 118-day production period, and microbial analysis was conducted in triplicate for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and the prevalence of aerobic plate counts (APC), coliforms, and fecal coliforms in these systems. Absence of foodborne pathogens was confirmed using ELISA technology and enumeration through petrifilms (coliform/E. coli). A significant increase was observed in aerobic plate counts over the trial period (1 to 3 log10 CFU·mL−1) in the presence and absence of UV (p > 0.05). Ultraviolet treatment did not significantly reduce the APC or coliform counts when compared to the control system samples. Future work should focus on improving the unit design, the evaluation of bio-solid filtration, and other food safety interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrological Modeling of the Upper Indus Basin: A Case Study from a High-Altitude Glacierized Catchment Hunza
Water 2017, 9(1), 17; doi:10.3390/w9010017
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 2 January 2017
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Abstract
The Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT) model combined with a temperature index and elevation band algorithm was applied to the Hunza watershed, where snow and glacier-melt are the major contributor to river flow. This study’s uniqueness is its use of a snow melt
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The Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT) model combined with a temperature index and elevation band algorithm was applied to the Hunza watershed, where snow and glacier-melt are the major contributor to river flow. This study’s uniqueness is its use of a snow melt algorithm (temperature index with elevation bands) combined with the SWAT, applied to evaluate the performance of the SWAT model in the highly snow and glacier covered watershed of the Upper Indus Basin in response to climate change on future streamflow volume at the outlet of the Hunza watershed, and its contribution to the Indus River System in both space and time, despite its limitation; it is not designed to cover the watershed of heterogeneous mountains. The model was calibrated for the years 1998–2004 and validated for the years 2008–2010. The model performance is evaluated using the four recommended statistical coefficients with uncertainty analysis (p-factor and r-factor). Simulations generated good calibration and validation results for the daily flow gauge. The model efficiency was evaluated, and a strong relationship was observed between the simulated and observed flows. The model results give a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.82 and a Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency index (NS) of 0.80 for the daily flow with values of p-factor (79%) and r-factor (76%). The SWAT model was also used to evaluate climate change impact on hydrological regimes, the target watershed with three GCMs (General Circulation Model) of the IPCC fifth report for 2030–2059 and 2070–2099, using 1980–2010 as the control period. Overall, temperature (1.39 C to 6.58 C) and precipitation (31%) indicated increased variability at the end of the century with increasing river flow (5%–10%); in particular, the analysis showed smaller absolute changes in the hydrology of the study area towards the end of the century. The results revealed that the calibrated model was more sensitive towards temperature and precipitation, snow-melt parameters and Curve Number (CN2). The SWAT results also provided reliable information for the daily runoff from the sub-basin watersheds responding to changing climatic conditions. SWAT can thus be used to devise effective strategies for future sustainable water management in the region, while combating vulnerabilities against floods and water storage in downstream water reservoirs such as the Diamer-Basha dam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hillslope and Watershed Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle Mg2+-Based Method for the Pertuso Spring Discharge Evaluation
Water 2017, 9(1), 67; doi:10.3390/w9010067
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 24 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
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Abstract
This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in
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This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River, is the main outlet of a large karst aquifer, which is one of the most important water resources in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture, and hydroelectric supplies. The environmental monitoring activities provided data about one spring and two cross-sections of the Aniene River, from July 2014 to May 2016. A combined approach based on discharge measurements and hydrogeochemical analysis has been used to study flow paths and groundwater–surface water interaction in the study area. Tracer methods are particularly suitable in hydrogeological studies to assess transit times and flow properties in karst aquifers. The analysis of solute contents in the sampling points brought forth the identification of the Mg2+ ion as a conservative tracer in this specific system and, consequently, to the development of a conceptual model based on chemical mass balance for the Pertuso Spring discharge evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle SWAT Modeling for Depression-Dominated Areas: How Do Depressions Manipulate Hydrologic Modeling?
Water 2017, 9(1), 58; doi:10.3390/w9010058
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
Modeling hydrologic processes for depression-dominated areas such as the North American Prairie Pothole Region is complex and reliant on a clear understanding of dynamic filling-spilling-merging-splitting processes of numerous depressions over the surface. Puddles are spatially distributed over a watershed and their sizes, storages,
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Modeling hydrologic processes for depression-dominated areas such as the North American Prairie Pothole Region is complex and reliant on a clear understanding of dynamic filling-spilling-merging-splitting processes of numerous depressions over the surface. Puddles are spatially distributed over a watershed and their sizes, storages, and interactions vary over time. However, most hydrologic models fail to account for these dynamic processes. Like other traditional methods, depressions are filled as a required preprocessing step in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The objective of this study was to facilitate hydrologic modeling for depression-dominated areas by coupling SWAT with a Puddle Delineation (PD) algorithm. In the coupled PD-SWAT model, the PD algorithm was utilized to quantify topographic details, including the characteristics, distribution, and hierarchical relationships of depressions, which were incorporated into SWAT at the hydrologic response unit (HRU) scale. The new PD-SWAT model was tested for a large watershed in North Dakota under real precipitation events. In addition, hydrologic modeling of a small watershed was conducted under two extreme high and low synthetic precipitation conditions. In particular, the PD-SWAT was compared against the regular SWAT based on depressionless DEMs. The impact of depressions on the hydrologic modeling of the large and small watersheds was evaluated. The simulation results for the large watershed indicated that SWAT systematically overestimated the outlet discharge, which can be attributed to the failure to account for the hydrologic effects of depressions. It was found from the PD-SWAT modeling results that at the HRU scale surface runoff initiation was significantly delayed due to the threshold control of depressions. Under the high precipitation scenario, depressions increased the surface runoff peak. However, the low precipitation scenario could not fully fill depressions to reach the overflow thresholds in the selected sub-basins. These results suggest the importance of depressions as gatekeepers in watershed modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Soil-Vegetation Dynamic Interactions in Changing Climate)
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Open AccessArticle Research on the Influencing Factors of Comprehensive Water Consumption by Impulse Response Function Analysis
Water 2017, 9(1), 18; doi:10.3390/w9010018
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
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Abstract
Jiangsu is a major province located in the east of China, consuming a large amount of water resources. It is considered that improving the comprehensive water use efficiency has an important significance to achieve sustainable development of the economy in Jiangsu. Through extensive
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Jiangsu is a major province located in the east of China, consuming a large amount of water resources. It is considered that improving the comprehensive water use efficiency has an important significance to achieve sustainable development of the economy in Jiangsu. Through extensive literature research and investigation of Jiangsu Province, this paper establishes comprehensive water use efficiency index system using water consumption per ten thousand dollar gross domestic product (WC/$104 GDP) as the research target. In the index system, resource factors such as surface water resources (SW), groundwater resources (GW), precipitation (PT), water resources per capita (PW), water consumption per capita (PC) and irrigation area per capita (PI) cannot be artificially altered. Furthermore, the variation amplitude of resource factors is very small. It shows that the linear regression model is not suitable to analyze the resource factors by changing the independent variables. In view of this situation, this paper introduces impulse response function on the basis of vector autoregressive model (VAR) to investigate the intrinsic link between resource factors and WC/$104 GDP in Jiangsu Province. The results show that resource factors have a great impact on WC/$104 GDP in Jiangsu, and the per capita water resources (PW) has the most significant impact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Oh, Dubois and IEM Backscatter Models Using a Large Dataset of SAR Data and Experimental Soil Measurements
Water 2017, 9(1), 38; doi:10.3390/w9010038
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the most used radar backscattering models (Integral Equation Model “IEM”, Oh, Dubois, and Advanced Integral Equation Model “AIEM”) using a wide dataset of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and experimental soil measurements. These forward models
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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the most used radar backscattering models (Integral Equation Model “IEM”, Oh, Dubois, and Advanced Integral Equation Model “AIEM”) using a wide dataset of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and experimental soil measurements. These forward models reproduce the radar backscattering coefficients ( σ 0 ) from soil surface characteristics (dielectric constant, roughness) and SAR sensor parameters (radar wavelength, incidence angle, polarization). The analysis dataset is composed of AIRSAR, SIR-C, JERS-1, PALSAR-1, ESAR, ERS, RADARSAT, ASAR and TerraSAR-X data and in situ measurements (soil moisture and surface roughness). Results show that Oh model version developed in 1992 gives the best fitting of the backscattering coefficients in HH and VV polarizations with RMSE values of 2.6 dB and 2.4 dB, respectively. Simulations performed with the Dubois model show a poor correlation between real data and model simulations in HH polarization (RMSE = 4.0 dB) and better correlation with real data in VV polarization (RMSE = 2.9 dB). The IEM and the AIEM simulate the backscattering coefficient with high RMSE when using a Gaussian correlation function. However, better simulations are performed with IEM and AIEM by using an exponential correlation function (slightly better fitting with AIEM than IEM). Good agreement was found between the radar data and the simulations using the calibrated version of the IEM modified by Baghdadi (IEM_B) with bias less than 1.0 dB and RMSE less than 2.0 dB. These results confirm that, up to date, the IEM modified by Baghdadi (IEM_B) is the most adequate to estimate soil moisture and roughness from SAR data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture)
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Open AccessArticle Application of BP Neural Network Algorithm in Traditional Hydrological Model for Flood Forecasting
Water 2017, 9(1), 48; doi:10.3390/w9010048
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract
Flooding contributes to tremendous hazards every year; more accurate forecasting may significantly mitigate the damages and loss caused by flood disasters. Current hydrological models are either purely knowledge-based or data-driven. A combination of data-driven method (artificial neural networks in this paper) and knowledge-based
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Flooding contributes to tremendous hazards every year; more accurate forecasting may significantly mitigate the damages and loss caused by flood disasters. Current hydrological models are either purely knowledge-based or data-driven. A combination of data-driven method (artificial neural networks in this paper) and knowledge-based method (traditional hydrological model) may booster simulation accuracy. In this study, we proposed a new back-propagation (BP) neural network algorithm and applied it in the semi-distributed Xinanjiang (XAJ) model. The improved hydrological model is capable of updating the flow forecasting error without losing the leading time. The proposed method was tested in a real case study for both single period corrections and real-time corrections. The results reveal that the proposed method could significantly increase the accuracy of flood forecasting and indicate that the global correction effect is superior to the second-order autoregressive correction method in real-time correction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Addressing Groundwater Declines with Precision Agriculture: An Economic Comparison of Monitoring Methods for Variable-Rate Irrigation
Water 2017, 9(1), 28; doi:10.3390/w9010028
Received: 18 September 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
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Abstract
Irrigated row-crop agriculture is contributing to declining groundwater in areas such as the Mississippi Delta region of eastern Arkansas. There is a need to move toward sustainable levels of groundwater withdrawal. Recent improvements in remote monitoring technologies such as wireless soil moisture sensors
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Irrigated row-crop agriculture is contributing to declining groundwater in areas such as the Mississippi Delta region of eastern Arkansas. There is a need to move toward sustainable levels of groundwater withdrawal. Recent improvements in remote monitoring technologies such as wireless soil moisture sensors and unmanned aerial vehicles offer the potential for farmers to effectively practice site-specific variable-rate irrigation management for the purpose of applying water more efficiently, reducing pumping costs, and retaining groundwater. Soil moisture sensors and unmanned aerial vehicles are compared here in terms of their net returns per acre-foot and cost-effectiveness of aquifer retention. Soil moisture sensors ($9.09 per acre-foot) offer slightly more net returns to producers than unmanned aerial vehicles ($7.69 per acre-foot), though costs associated with unmanned aerial vehicles continue to drop as more manufacturers enter the market and regulations become clear. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Herbivory of Omnivorous Fish Shapes the Food Web Structure of a Chinese Tropical Eutrophic Lake: Evidence from Stable Isotope and Fish Gut Content Analyses
Water 2017, 9(1), 69; doi:10.3390/w9010069
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
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Abstract
Studies suggest that, unlike the situation in temperate lakes, high biomasses of omnivorous fish are maintained in subtropical and tropical lakes when they shift from a turbid phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear water macrophyte-dominated state, and the predation pressure on large-bodied zooplankton therefore
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Studies suggest that, unlike the situation in temperate lakes, high biomasses of omnivorous fish are maintained in subtropical and tropical lakes when they shift from a turbid phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear water macrophyte-dominated state, and the predation pressure on large-bodied zooplankton therefore remains high. Whether this reflects a higher degree of herbivory in warm lakes than in temperate lakes is debatable. We combined food web studies using stable isotopes with gut content analyses of the most dominant fish species to elucidate similarities and differences in food web structure between a clear water macrophyte-dominated basin (MDB) and a turbid phytoplankton-dominated basin (PDB) of Huizhou West Lake, a shallow tropical Chinese lake. The δ13C–δ15N biplot of fish and invertebrates revealed community-wide differences in isotope-based metrics of the food webs between MDB and PDB. The range of consumer δ15N (NR) was lower in MDB than in PDB, indicating shorter food web length in MDB. The mean nearest neighbor distance (MNND) and standard deviation around MNND (SDNND) were higher in MDB than in PDB, showing a markedly low fish trophic overlap and a more uneven packing of species in niches in MDB than in PDB. The range of fish δ13C (CR) of consumers was more extensive in MDB than in PDB, indicating a wider feeding range for fish in MDB. Mixing model results showed that macrophytes and associated periphyton constituted a large fraction of basal production sources for the fish in MDB, while particulate organic matter (POM) contributed a large fraction in PDB. In MDB, the diet of the dominant fish species, crucian carp (Carassius carassius), consisted mainly of vegetal matter (macrophytes and periphyton) and zooplankton, while detritus was the most important food item in PDB. Our results suggest that carbon from macrophytes with associated periphyton may constitute an important food resource for omnivorous fish, and this may strongly affect the feeding niche and the strength of the top-down trophic cascade between fish and zooplankton in the restored, macrophyte-dominated basin of the lake. This dual effect (consumption of macrophytes and zooplankton) may reduce the chances of maintaining the clear water state at the prevailing nutrient levels in the lake, and regular removal of large crucian carp may therefore be needed to maintain a healthy ecosystem state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Restoring Summer Base Flow under a Decentralized Water Management Regime: Constraints, Opportunities, and Outcomes in Mediterranean-Climate California
Water 2017, 9(1), 29; doi:10.3390/w9010029
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
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Abstract
Seasonal rainfall dynamics in Mediterranean-climate coastal California place pressures on humans and aquatic ecosystems. Without rainfall during summer, residents and land managers commonly turn to streams and adjacent shallow aquifers to meet domestic, irrigation, and recreational water needs, often depleting the water necessary
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Seasonal rainfall dynamics in Mediterranean-climate coastal California place pressures on humans and aquatic ecosystems. Without rainfall during summer, residents and land managers commonly turn to streams and adjacent shallow aquifers to meet domestic, irrigation, and recreational water needs, often depleting the water necessary to support stream biota. The potential for adverse ecological impacts within this coupled natural-human system has led to interest in restoring summer base flow (especially for federally protected steelhead and coho salmon, which depend on flow through the summer dry season for juvenile survival) through methods such as reducing dry-season water abstractions. Characterizing constraints and opportunities has proven useful for planning streamflow restoration in Mediterranean-climate coastal California. Biophysical parameters such as ample rainfall and very low summer discharge are critical considerations, but institutional parameters are equally important: regional management practices and state laws can inhibit streamflow restoration, and implementation is dependent on interrelationships among residents, agency staff, and other stakeholders (which we term the egosystem) within each watershed. Additionally, while watershed-scale spatial analysis and field-based evaluations provided a solid foundation for exploring streamflow restoration needs, adaptation based on information from local stakeholders was often essential for prioritizing projects and understanding whether projects will have their intended benefits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Groundwater Governance and the Growth of Center Pivot Irrigation in Cimarron County, OK and Union County, NM: Implications for Community Vulnerability to Drought
Water 2017, 9(1), 39; doi:10.3390/w9010039
Received: 2 October 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract
Cimarron County, Oklahoma and Union County, New Mexico, neighboring counties in the Southern High Plains, are part of a vital agricultural region in the United States. This region experiences extended periods of cyclical drought threatening its ability to produce, creating an incentive for
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Cimarron County, Oklahoma and Union County, New Mexico, neighboring counties in the Southern High Plains, are part of a vital agricultural region in the United States. This region experiences extended periods of cyclical drought threatening its ability to produce, creating an incentive for extensive center pivot irrigation (CPI). Center pivots draw from the rapidly depleting High Plains Aquifer System. As a result, the prospect of long-term sustainability for these agricultural communities is questionable. We use Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems to quantify growth in land irrigated by CPI between the 1950s and 2014, and key informant interviews to explore local perspectives on the causes and impact of such growth. In Cimarron County, OK, CPI increased by the mid-1980s, and has continually increased since. Results suggest adaptation to drought, a depleting aquifer, high corn prices, and less rigid groundwater regulations contribute to CPI growth. Conversely, CPI in Union County, NM, increased until 2010, and then declined. Results also suggest that drought-related agricultural changes and more aggressive well drilling regulations contribute to this decrease. Nevertheless, in both counties, there is a growing concern over the depleting aquifer, the long-term sustainability of CPI, and the region’s economic future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Use of Bathymetric and LiDAR Data in Generating Digital Elevation Model over the Lower Athabasca River Watershed in Alberta, Canada
Water 2017, 9(1), 19; doi:10.3390/w9010019
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 24 December 2016 / Published: 2 January 2017
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Abstract
The lower Athabasca River watershed is one of the most important regions for Alberta and elsewhere due to fact that it counts for the third largest oil reserve in the world. In order to support the oil and gas extraction, Athabasca River provides
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The lower Athabasca River watershed is one of the most important regions for Alberta and elsewhere due to fact that it counts for the third largest oil reserve in the world. In order to support the oil and gas extraction, Athabasca River provides most of the required water supply. Thus, it is critical to understand the characteristics of the river and its watershed in order to develop sustainable water management strategies. Here, our main objective was to develop a digital elevation model (DEM) over the lower Athabasca River watershed including the main river channel of Athabasca River (i.e., approximately 128 km from Fort McMurray to Firebag River confluence). In this study, the primary data were obtained from the Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency. Those were: (i) Geoswath bathymetry at 5–10 m spatial resolution; (ii) point cloud LiDAR data; and (iii) river cross-section survey data. Here, we applied spatial interpolation methods like inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) to generate the bathymetric surface at 5 m × 5 m spatial resolution using the Geoswath bathymetry data points. We artificially created data gaps in 24 sections each in the range of 100 to 400 m along the river and further investigated the performance of the methods based on statistical analysis. We observed that the DEM generated using the both IDW and OK methods were quite similar, i.e., r2, relative error, and root mean square error were approximately 0.99, 0.002, and 0.104 m, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of both methods over individual sections of interest; and overall deviation was found to be within ±2.0 m while approximately 96.5% of the data fell within ±0.25 m. Finally, we combined the Geoswath-derived DEM and LiDAR-derived DEM in generating the final DEM over the lower Athabasca River watershed at 5 m × 5 m resolution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impacts of Ridge-Furrow Planting on Salt Stress and Cotton Yield under Drip Irrigation
Water 2017, 9(1), 49; doi:10.3390/w9010049
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract
Flat (F), mini-ditch (MD), and ridge-furrow (RF) are three conventional cotton planting patterns that are usually adopted around the world, yet soil and crop responses to these three patterns are poorly studied, as is their suitability for increasing yield for coastal areas in
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Flat (F), mini-ditch (MD), and ridge-furrow (RF) are three conventional cotton planting patterns that are usually adopted around the world, yet soil and crop responses to these three patterns are poorly studied, as is their suitability for increasing yield for coastal areas in Eastern China. The effects of three planting methods on water and salt dynamics as well as on growth and lint yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were investigated in a saline field in Bohai Rim, China, to select the best planting pattern for cultivating coastal saline fields of Eastern China. Soil moisture in the root zone with RF was 11.9% and 12.1% higher than with F and MD, whereas the electrical conductivity of a saturated soil extract (ECe) in the root zone with RF was 18.0% and 13.8% lower than with MD and F, respectively, during the growth period, which indicated that RF could efficiently collect rainfall and leach salt in the root zone. After drip irrigation, the infiltration and salt-leaching depth with RF were both deeper than that with F and MD. The stand establishment of MD was the highest (80.3%) due to the greenhouse effect from film mulching, and was 12.8% and 4.6% higher than that with F and RF, respectively. Growth indicators and lint yield demonstrated that RF was superior to F and MD because of the higher soil moisture and lower ECe. The lint yield was significantly higher in RF, suggesting that RF can be an optimal planting pattern for agricultural reclamation in similar saline-alkaline areas around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Water Management in Agriculture)
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Open AccessReview Applying Process-Based Models for Subsurface Flow Treatment Wetlands: Recent Developments and Challenges
Water 2017, 9(1), 5; doi:10.3390/w9010005
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 24 December 2016
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Abstract
To date, only few process-based models for subsurface flow treatment wetlands have been developed. For modelling a treatment wetland, these models have to comprise a number of sub-models to describe water flow, pollutant transport, pollutant transformation and degradation, effects of wetland plants, and
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To date, only few process-based models for subsurface flow treatment wetlands have been developed. For modelling a treatment wetland, these models have to comprise a number of sub-models to describe water flow, pollutant transport, pollutant transformation and degradation, effects of wetland plants, and transport and deposition of suspended particulate matter. The two most advanced models are the HYDRUS Wetland Module and BIO-PORE. These two models are briefly described. This paper shows typical simulation results for vertical flow wetlands and discusses experiences and challenges using process-based wetland models in relation to the sub-models describing the most important wetland processes. It can be demonstrated that existing simulation tools can be applied for simulating processes in treatment wetlands. Most important for achieving a good match between measured and simulated pollutant concentrations is a good calibration of the water flow and transport models. Only after these calibrations have been made and the effect of the influent fractionation on simulation results has been considered, should changing the parameters of the biokinetic models be taken into account. Modelling the effects of wetland plants is possible and has to be considered when important. Up to now, models describing clogging are the least established models among the sub-models required for a complete wetland model and thus further development and research is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands for Water Treatment: New Developments)
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Open AccessReview High Variability Is a Defining Component of Mediterranean-Climate Rivers and Their Biota
Water 2017, 9(1), 52; doi:10.3390/w9010052
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
Variability in flow as a result of seasonal precipitation patterns is a defining element of streams and rivers in Mediterranean-climate regions of the world and strongly influences the biota of these unique systems. Mediterranean-climate areas include the Mediterranean Basin and parts of Australia,
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Variability in flow as a result of seasonal precipitation patterns is a defining element of streams and rivers in Mediterranean-climate regions of the world and strongly influences the biota of these unique systems. Mediterranean-climate areas include the Mediterranean Basin and parts of Australia, California, Chile, and South Africa. Mediterranean streams and rivers can experience wet winters and consequent floods to severe droughts, when intermittency in otherwise perennial systems can occur. Inter-annual variation in precipitation can include multi-year droughts or consecutive wet years. Spatial variation in patterns of precipitation (rain vs. snow) combined with topographic variability lead to spatial variability in hydrologic patterns that influence populations and communities. Mediterranean streams and rivers are global biodiversity hotspots and are particularly vulnerable to human impacts. Biomonitoring, conservation efforts, and management responses to climate change require approaches that account for spatial and temporal variability (including both intra- and inter-annual). The importance of long-term data sets for understanding and managing these systems highlights the need for sustained and coordinated research efforts in Mediterranean-climate streams and rivers. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fish Welfare in Aquaponic Systems: Its Relation to Water Quality with an Emphasis on Feed and Faeces—A Review
Water 2017, 9(1), 13; doi:10.3390/w9010013
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
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Abstract
Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture (fish) and hydroponic cultivation of plants. This review examines fish welfare in relation to rearing water quality, fish feed and fish waste and faeces to develop a sustainable aquaponic system where the co-cultured organisms, fish, bacteria in
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Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture (fish) and hydroponic cultivation of plants. This review examines fish welfare in relation to rearing water quality, fish feed and fish waste and faeces to develop a sustainable aquaponic system where the co-cultured organisms, fish, bacteria in biofilters and plants, should be considered holistically in all aquaponics operations. Water quality parameters are the primary environmental consideration for optimizing aquaponic production and for directly impacting fish welfare/health issues and plant needs. In aquaponic systems, the uptake of nutrients should be maximised for the healthy production of the plant biomass but without neglecting the best welfare conditions for the fish in terms of water quality. Measures to reduce the risks of the introduction or spread of diseases or infection and to increase biosecurity in aquaponics are also important. In addition, the possible impacts of allelochemicals, i.e., chemicals released by the plants, should be taken into account. Moreover, the effect of diet digestibility, faeces particle size and settling ratio on water quality should be carefully considered. As available information is very limited, research should be undertaken to better elucidate the relationship between appropriate levels of minerals needed by plants, and fish metabolism, health and welfare. It remains to be investigated whether and to what extent the concentrations of suspended solids that can be found in aquaponic systems can compromise the health of fish. Water quality, which directly affects fish health and well-being, is the key factor to be considered in all aquaponic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
Open AccessReview From Flood Control to Water Management: A Journey of Bangladesh towards Integrated Water Resources Management
Water 2017, 9(1), 55; doi:10.3390/w9010055
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is considered as a practical approach in solving water-related problems, which are socio-ecologically complex in nature. Bangladesh has also embraced the IWRM approach against its earlier attempt to flood control. In this paper, we evaluate the current status
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Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is considered as a practical approach in solving water-related problems, which are socio-ecologically complex in nature. Bangladesh has also embraced the IWRM approach against its earlier attempt to flood control. In this paper, we evaluate the current status of IWRM in Bangladesh through the lens of policy shifts, institutional transitions and project transformations using seven key dimensions of IWRM. Looking at IWRM from such perspectives is lacking in current literature. A thorough review of policy shifts suggests that all the key dimensions of IWRM are “highly reflected” in the current policy documents. The dimension of “integrated management” is “highly reflected” in both institutional transition and project-level transformation. Most other dimensions are also recognised at both institutional and project levels. However, such reflections gradually weaken as we move from policies to institutions to projects. Despite catchment being considered as a spatial unit of water management at both institutional and project levels, transboundary basin planning is yet to be accomplished. The participation of local people is highly promoted in various recent projects. However, equity and social issues have received less attention at project level, although it has significant potential for supporting some of the key determinants of adaptive capacity. Thus, the IWRM dimensions are in general reflected in recent policies, institutional reforms and project formulation in Bangladesh. However, to solve the complex water-problems, basin scale management through transboundary cooperation and equity and social issues need to be implemented at institutional and project levels. Full article
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Open AccessReview Chemical and Microbiological Quality of Effluents from Different On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems across Finland and Sweden
Water 2017, 9(1), 47; doi:10.3390/w9010047
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract
Domestic wastewaters, which cannot be disposed through sewage networks, must be treated with different on-site treatment systems; these are usually commercial, small-scale treatment plants or built sand filters. These systems are usually maintained by the house’s inhabitants. This study was achieved by analysing
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Domestic wastewaters, which cannot be disposed through sewage networks, must be treated with different on-site treatment systems; these are usually commercial, small-scale treatment plants or built sand filters. These systems are usually maintained by the house’s inhabitants. This study was achieved by analysing the chemical and microbiological data of 717 effluents collected in Finland and Sweden. There were inadequate reductions in 31% of phosphorus effluents, 22% of nitrogen effluents and 5% of biological oxygen demand compounds. The addition of a coagulant capable of precipitating phosphorus improved the performance of sand filters and biorotors. There are no legally binding limitations on the number of enteric microorganisms that can be present in an effluent, but the number of Escherichia coli and enterococci exceeded more than 100 colony forming units per 100 mL in 59% and 53% effluents studied, with the highest numbers for these indicators being more than 100,000 cfu per 100 mL. The number of E. coli and enterococci were lower when the concentration of phosphorus in effluent was less than 1 mg/L. The treatment efficiency varied extensively, even between similar plant models, possibly due to either irregular use, or after long pauses, when they were not being used. In addition, it is possible that the end users are not capable of properly maintaining these wastewater treatment plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Disinfection of Wastewater)
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Other

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Open AccessProject Report Estimating the Impact of Drought on Groundwater Resources of the Marshall Islands
Water 2017, 9(1), 41; doi:10.3390/w9010041
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract
Groundwater resources of small coral islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in climate. A significant short-term threat is El Niño events, which typically induce a severe months-long drought for many atoll nations in the western and central Pacific regions that
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Groundwater resources of small coral islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in climate. A significant short-term threat is El Niño events, which typically induce a severe months-long drought for many atoll nations in the western and central Pacific regions that exhausts rainwater supply and necessitates the use of groundwater. This study quantifies fresh groundwater resources under both average rainfall and drought conditions for the Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI), a nation composed solely of atolls and which is severely impacted by El Niño droughts. The atoll island algebraic model is used to estimate the thickness of the freshwater lens for 680 inhabited and uninhabited islands of the RMI, with a focus on the severe 1998 drought. The model accounts for precipitation, island width, hydraulic conductivity of the upper Holocene-age sand aquifer, the depth to the contact between the Holocene aquifer and the lower Pleistocene-age limestone aquifer, and the presence of a reef flat plate underlying the ocean side of the island. Model results are tested for islands that have fresh groundwater data. Results highlight the fragility of groundwater resources for the nation. Average lens thickness during typical seasonal rainfall is approximately 4 m, with only 30% of the islands maintaining a lens thicker than 4.5% and 55% of the islands with a lens less than 2.5 m thick. Thicker lenses typically occur for larger islands, islands located on the leeward side of an atoll due to lower hydraulic conductivity, and islands located in the southern region of the RMI due to higher rainfall rates. During drought, groundwater on small islands (<300 m in width) is completely depleted. Over half (54%) of the islands are classified as “Highly Vulnerable” to drought. Results provide valuable information for RMI water resources planners, particularly during the current 2016 El Niño drought, and similar methods can be used to quantify groundwater availability for other atoll island nations, including the Federated State of Micronesia, Republic of Maldives, and Republic of Kiribati. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessErratum Erratum: Xue, C., et al. Characterization and Sorptivity of the Plesiomonas shigelloides Strain and Its Potential Use to Remove Cd2+ from Wastewater. Water 2016, 8, 241
Water 2017, 9(1), 45; doi:10.3390/w9010045
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [1].[...] Full article

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