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Water, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Assessment on the Effect of Climate Change on Streamflow in the Source Region of the Yangtze River, China
Water 2017, 9(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010070
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
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Abstract
Tuotuo River basin, known as the source region of the Yangtze River, is the key area where the impact of climate change has been observed on many of the hydrological processes of this central region of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we
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Tuotuo River basin, known as the source region of the Yangtze River, is the key area where the impact of climate change has been observed on many of the hydrological processes of this central region of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we examined six Global Climate Models (GCMs) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. First, the already impacted climate change was analyzed, based on the historical data available and then, the simulation results of the GCMs and RCPs were used for future scenario assessments. Results indicated that the annual mean temperature will likely be increased, ranging from −0.66 °C to 6.68 °C during the three future prediction periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s), while the change in the annual precipitation ranged from −1.18% to 66.14%. Then, a well-known distributed hydrological soil vegetation model (DHSVM) was utilized to evaluate the effects of future climate change on the streamflow dynamics. The seasonal mean streamflows, predicted by the six GCMs and the three RCPs scenarios, were also shown to likely increase, ranging from −0.52% to 22.58%. Watershed managers and regulators can use the findings from this study to better implement their conservation practices in the face of climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Herbivory of Omnivorous Fish Shapes the Food Web Structure of a Chinese Tropical Eutrophic Lake: Evidence from Stable Isotope and Fish Gut Content Analyses
Water 2017, 9(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010069
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
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Abstract
Studies suggest that, unlike the situation in temperate lakes, high biomasses of omnivorous fish are maintained in subtropical and tropical lakes when they shift from a turbid phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear water macrophyte-dominated state, and the predation pressure on large-bodied zooplankton therefore
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Studies suggest that, unlike the situation in temperate lakes, high biomasses of omnivorous fish are maintained in subtropical and tropical lakes when they shift from a turbid phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear water macrophyte-dominated state, and the predation pressure on large-bodied zooplankton therefore remains high. Whether this reflects a higher degree of herbivory in warm lakes than in temperate lakes is debatable. We combined food web studies using stable isotopes with gut content analyses of the most dominant fish species to elucidate similarities and differences in food web structure between a clear water macrophyte-dominated basin (MDB) and a turbid phytoplankton-dominated basin (PDB) of Huizhou West Lake, a shallow tropical Chinese lake. The δ13C–δ15N biplot of fish and invertebrates revealed community-wide differences in isotope-based metrics of the food webs between MDB and PDB. The range of consumer δ15N (NR) was lower in MDB than in PDB, indicating shorter food web length in MDB. The mean nearest neighbor distance (MNND) and standard deviation around MNND (SDNND) were higher in MDB than in PDB, showing a markedly low fish trophic overlap and a more uneven packing of species in niches in MDB than in PDB. The range of fish δ13C (CR) of consumers was more extensive in MDB than in PDB, indicating a wider feeding range for fish in MDB. Mixing model results showed that macrophytes and associated periphyton constituted a large fraction of basal production sources for the fish in MDB, while particulate organic matter (POM) contributed a large fraction in PDB. In MDB, the diet of the dominant fish species, crucian carp (Carassius carassius), consisted mainly of vegetal matter (macrophytes and periphyton) and zooplankton, while detritus was the most important food item in PDB. Our results suggest that carbon from macrophytes with associated periphyton may constitute an important food resource for omnivorous fish, and this may strongly affect the feeding niche and the strength of the top-down trophic cascade between fish and zooplankton in the restored, macrophyte-dominated basin of the lake. This dual effect (consumption of macrophytes and zooplankton) may reduce the chances of maintaining the clear water state at the prevailing nutrient levels in the lake, and regular removal of large crucian carp may therefore be needed to maintain a healthy ecosystem state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Mg2+-Based Method for the Pertuso Spring Discharge Evaluation
Water 2017, 9(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010067
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 24 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
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Abstract
This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in
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This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River, is the main outlet of a large karst aquifer, which is one of the most important water resources in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture, and hydroelectric supplies. The environmental monitoring activities provided data about one spring and two cross-sections of the Aniene River, from July 2014 to May 2016. A combined approach based on discharge measurements and hydrogeochemical analysis has been used to study flow paths and groundwater–surface water interaction in the study area. Tracer methods are particularly suitable in hydrogeological studies to assess transit times and flow properties in karst aquifers. The analysis of solute contents in the sampling points brought forth the identification of the Mg2+ ion as a conservative tracer in this specific system and, consequently, to the development of a conceptual model based on chemical mass balance for the Pertuso Spring discharge evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle Measuring Spatiotemporal Features of Land Subsidence, Groundwater Drawdown, and Compressible Layer Thickness in Beijing Plain, China
Water 2017, 9(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010064
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Beijing is located on multiple alluvial-pluvial fans with thick Quaternary unconsolidated sediments. It has suffered serious groundwater drawdown and land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation. This study aimed to introduce geographical distribution measure methods into land subsidence research characterizing, geographically, land subsidence, groundwater
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Beijing is located on multiple alluvial-pluvial fans with thick Quaternary unconsolidated sediments. It has suffered serious groundwater drawdown and land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation. This study aimed to introduce geographical distribution measure methods into land subsidence research characterizing, geographically, land subsidence, groundwater drawdown, and compressible layer thickness. Therefore, we used gravity center analysis and standard deviational ellipse (SDE) methods in GIS to statistically analyze their concentration tendency, principle orientation, dispersion trend, and distribution differences in 1995 (1999), 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. Results show that they were all concentrated in Chaoyang District of Urban Beijing. The concentration trend of land subsidence was consistent with that of groundwater drawdown. The principle orientation of land subsidence was SW–NE, which was more similar with that of the static spatial distribution of the compressible layer. The dispersion tendency of land subsidence got closer to that of the compressible layer with its increasing intensity. The spatial distribution difference between land subsidence and groundwater drawdown was about 0.2, and that between land subsidence and compressible layer thickness it decreased from 0.22 to 0.07, reflecting that the spatial distribution pattern of land subsidence was increasingly close to that of the compressible layer. Results of this study are useful for assessing the distribution of land subsidence development and managing groundwater resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Geogenic Factors on Water Quality and Its Relation to Human Health around Mount Ida, Turkey
Water 2017, 9(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010066
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
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Abstract
Water–rock interactions strongly influence water quality. Waters originating from highly altered zones affect human health. Mount Ida region in western Anatolia is an example for such geogenic interactions and additional anthropogenic impacts. A water quality monitoring study was held and a total of
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Water–rock interactions strongly influence water quality. Waters originating from highly altered zones affect human health. Mount Ida region in western Anatolia is an example for such geogenic interactions and additional anthropogenic impacts. A water quality monitoring study was held and a total of 189 samples were collected from 63 monitoring stations to characterize the quality of water resources and its relation with human health. The results indicated that waters originating from altered volcanic rocks that are mainly used for drinking purposes have low pH, high conductivity and elevated trace element levels. In addition, a number of acidic mining lakes were formed in the open pits of abandoned mine sites in the study area and pyrite oxidation in altered volcanic rocks resulted in extremely acidic, high mineral content and toxic waters that demonstrate an eminent threat for the environmental health in the area. Overall, the water quality constituents in Mount Ida region had a spatially variable pattern and were locally found to exceed the national and international standards, mainly due to geogenic alteration zones and anthropogenic intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Rack Slope and Approaching Conditions in Bottom Intake Systems
Water 2017, 9(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010065
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
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Abstract
The study analyzes the flow over bottom racks made of longitudinal T-shaped bars. A clear water flow is considered in a laboratory flume. Free surface profiles, wetted rack lengths, and discharge coefficients are measured, changing parameters such as longitudinal slope, void ratio, and
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The study analyzes the flow over bottom racks made of longitudinal T-shaped bars. A clear water flow is considered in a laboratory flume. Free surface profiles, wetted rack lengths, and discharge coefficients are measured, changing parameters such as longitudinal slope, void ratio, and approaching flow. The present work complements existing experimental studies, considering the influence of the approaching flow conditions. The velocity field measured with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique and the pressure field with Pitot tubes are quantified. Numerical simulations (CFD) are used to complement laboratory data. The energy head along the rack is calculated and compared with the hypothesis of horizontal energy level with minimum energy at the beginning of the rack. A discharge coefficient adjustment that considers the slope, the void ratio, and the position along the rack is proposed and presented with the results of other works. Theoretical proposals to calculate the pressure field along the flow are compared with measurements in the laboratory. The relation between the static pressure head in the space of bars and the discharge coefficient is used as an alternative method to define the discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events
Water 2017, 9(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010063
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
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Abstract
An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP), confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV), has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH) events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. This research focuses
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An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP), confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV), has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH) events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Energy Saving in a Water Supply Network by Coupling a Pump and a Pump As Turbine (PAT) in a Turbopump
Water 2017, 9(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010062
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
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Abstract
The management of a water distribution network (WDN) is performed by valve and pump control, to regulate both the pressure and the discharge between certain limits. The energy that is usually merely dissipated by valves can instead be converted and used to partially
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The management of a water distribution network (WDN) is performed by valve and pump control, to regulate both the pressure and the discharge between certain limits. The energy that is usually merely dissipated by valves can instead be converted and used to partially supply the pumping stations. Pumps used as turbines (PAT) can be used in order to both reduce pressure and recover energy, with proven economic benefits. The direct coupling of the PAT shaft with the pump shaft in a PAT-pump turbocharger (P&P plant) allows us to transfer energy from the pressure control system to the pumping system without any electrical device. Based on experimental PAT and pump performance curves, P&P equations are given and P&P working conditions are simulated with reference to the operating conditions of a real water supply network. The annual energy saving demonstrates the economic relevance of the P&P plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogeochemistry and Genesis Analysis of Thermal and Mineral Springs in Arxan, Northeastern China
Water 2017, 9(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010061
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract
In this work, the hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopic compositions of thermal and mineral springs in Arxan, northeastern China, were used to assess the genesis of the thermal system hosted by deep-seated faults. The reservoir temperature was calculated using the mineral saturation index and
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In this work, the hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopic compositions of thermal and mineral springs in Arxan, northeastern China, were used to assess the genesis of the thermal system hosted by deep-seated faults. The reservoir temperature was calculated using the mineral saturation index and geothermometers. According to isotopic analysis, the spring water was of meteoric origin. Sixteen springs in the Arxan geothermal system with outlet temperatures ranging from 10.9 to 41.0 °C were investigated. The water samples can be classified into four groups by using a Piper diagram. The aquifer in which the Group I and Group III samples were obtained was a shallow cold aquifer of the Jurassic system, which is related to the local groundwater system and contains HCO3–Ca·Na groundwater. The Group II and Group IV samples were recharged by deeply circulating meteoric water with HCO3–Na and HCO3·SO4–Na·Ca groundwater, respectively. The springs rise from the deep basement faults. The estimated thermal reservoir temperature is 50.9–68.8 °C, and the proportion of shallow cold water ranges from 54% to 87%. A conceptual flow model based on hydrogeochemical results and hydrogeological features is given to describe the geothermal system of the Arxan springs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Building a Foundation for Knowledge Co-Creation in Collaborative Water Governance: Dimensions of Stakeholder Networks Facilitated through Bridging Organizations
Water 2017, 9(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010060
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract
The sustainable governance of water resources relies on processes of multi-stakeholder collaborations and interactions that facilitate the sharing and integration of diverse sources and types of knowledge. In this context, it is essential to fully recognize the importance of fostering and enhancing critical
[...] Read more.
The sustainable governance of water resources relies on processes of multi-stakeholder collaborations and interactions that facilitate the sharing and integration of diverse sources and types of knowledge. In this context, it is essential to fully recognize the importance of fostering and enhancing critical connections within and between networks of relationships between different government and non-government agencies, as well as the dynamics that are in support of the development of new knowledge and practices. In Quebec, a network of watershed organizations (WOs) has been put in place to serve as bridging organizations (BOs) for stakeholder groups in their watershed territories. Using the WOs as a case study, this research aims to contribute to a greater understanding of how stakeholder groups can be effectively connected to support knowledge co-creation through networked relationships facilitated by BOs. In line with this overall research aim, the following research objectives are proposed: (1) to assess the quality of the knowledge that is developed and shared through the WOs and their stakeholder networks; (2) to determine the characteristics of stakeholders participating in the WOs’ networks that either hinder or support collaborations and knowledge co-creation; (3) to describe the collaborative processes and mechanisms through which the WOs facilitate stakeholder interactions and knowledge co-creation; and (4) to assess the quality of the relationships and interactions between stakeholders participating in the WOs’ collaborative networks. A comprehensive literature review is provided of collaborative network dimensions that are in support of knowledge co-creation that forms the foundation of a research framework to assess knowledge co-creation processes that are facilitated through BOs and their collaborative networks. Documented experiences have been gathered through face-to-face semi-structured interviews, as well as a Quebec-wide survey distributed to all WOs and their staff. A total of 41 interviews were conducted, of which nine interviews were with staff members of six selected WOs. Stakeholder perspectives were captured through 33 interviews with diverse stakeholders from three of the six selected WOs. Additionally, interviews were also conducted with five decision makers at the Quebec provincial government level. The findings of this study point to some key challenges and constraints for the effective facilitation of collaboration and knowledge co-creation through the Quebec WOs and their stakeholder networks. Through diverse collaborative mechanisms, most WOs have, to an extent, succeeded in creating opportunities for learning through a renewed sense making of different practices (and related identities) through the development of their watershed master plans, as well as through the facilitation of new communicative connections and translation efforts between diverse stakeholder groups. Key challenges to their effectiveness have been relating to a limited capacity and resources, limited territory-wide impacts, as well as limited perceived legitimacy that hindered the WOs as BOs in their ability to facilitate effective knowledge co-creation. Areas for further research to overcome these challenges are in developing a greater understanding of how BOs can optimize resources and capacities available in their collaborative networks through, e.g., the development of boundary-crossing leaders and competences, as well as the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT). Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Twenty-Five Years of Hydroinformatics
Water 2017, 9(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010059
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
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Abstract
Hydroinformatics emerged in 1991 when numerical modelling of water expanded its range from one that was restricted to the modelling of flows to a much wider ranging sociotechnical discipline that supports stakeholders in addressing their water-related problems. However, despite numerous advances in hydroinformatics,
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Hydroinformatics emerged in 1991 when numerical modelling of water expanded its range from one that was restricted to the modelling of flows to a much wider ranging sociotechnical discipline that supports stakeholders in addressing their water-related problems. However, despite numerous advances in hydroinformatics, the current practical and research effort is still very much technocratic (or techno-centric) which in turn may restrict the potential of hydroinformatics in its scope and its reach. This Special Issue, through the compilation of thirteen papers, illustrates some of the developments and applications in the field of hydroinformatics and marks the twenty-five years of its existence. We hope that this will help to further raise the awareness of the subject and its developments and applications. In the Editorial of this Special Issue, we briefly discuss the origin of hydroinformatics and we introduce the papers that are featuring in this Special Issue. We also give a way forward for future research and application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle SWAT Modeling for Depression-Dominated Areas: How Do Depressions Manipulate Hydrologic Modeling?
Water 2017, 9(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010058
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
Modeling hydrologic processes for depression-dominated areas such as the North American Prairie Pothole Region is complex and reliant on a clear understanding of dynamic filling-spilling-merging-splitting processes of numerous depressions over the surface. Puddles are spatially distributed over a watershed and their sizes, storages,
[...] Read more.
Modeling hydrologic processes for depression-dominated areas such as the North American Prairie Pothole Region is complex and reliant on a clear understanding of dynamic filling-spilling-merging-splitting processes of numerous depressions over the surface. Puddles are spatially distributed over a watershed and their sizes, storages, and interactions vary over time. However, most hydrologic models fail to account for these dynamic processes. Like other traditional methods, depressions are filled as a required preprocessing step in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The objective of this study was to facilitate hydrologic modeling for depression-dominated areas by coupling SWAT with a Puddle Delineation (PD) algorithm. In the coupled PD-SWAT model, the PD algorithm was utilized to quantify topographic details, including the characteristics, distribution, and hierarchical relationships of depressions, which were incorporated into SWAT at the hydrologic response unit (HRU) scale. The new PD-SWAT model was tested for a large watershed in North Dakota under real precipitation events. In addition, hydrologic modeling of a small watershed was conducted under two extreme high and low synthetic precipitation conditions. In particular, the PD-SWAT was compared against the regular SWAT based on depressionless DEMs. The impact of depressions on the hydrologic modeling of the large and small watersheds was evaluated. The simulation results for the large watershed indicated that SWAT systematically overestimated the outlet discharge, which can be attributed to the failure to account for the hydrologic effects of depressions. It was found from the PD-SWAT modeling results that at the HRU scale surface runoff initiation was significantly delayed due to the threshold control of depressions. Under the high precipitation scenario, depressions increased the surface runoff peak. However, the low precipitation scenario could not fully fill depressions to reach the overflow thresholds in the selected sub-basins. These results suggest the importance of depressions as gatekeepers in watershed modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Soil-Vegetation Dynamic Interactions in Changing Climate)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of TRMM Product for Monitoring Drought in the Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia
Water 2017, 9(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010057
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Assessment of satellite precipitation products’ capability for monitoring drought is relatively new in tropical regions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 product in estimating the standardized precipitation
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Assessment of satellite precipitation products’ capability for monitoring drought is relatively new in tropical regions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 product in estimating the standardized precipitation index (SPI) in the Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia from 1998 to 2014, by comparing it with data from 42 rain gauges. Overall, the TMPA-3B43 performed well in the monthly precipitation estimation, but performed moderately in the seasonal scale. Better performance was found in the northeast monsoon (wet season) than in the southwest monsoon (dry season). The product is more reliable in the northern and north-eastern regions (coastal zone) compared to the central, southern and south-eastern regions (mountainous area). For drought assessment, the correlations between the TMPA-3B43 and ground observations are moderate at various time-scales (one to twelve months), with better performance at shorter time-scales. The TMPA-3B43 shows similar temporal drought behavior by capturing most of the drought events at various time-scales, except for the 2008–2009 drought. These findings show that the TMPA-3B43 is not suitable to be used directly for SPI estimation in this basin. More bias correction and algorithm improvement work are needed to improve the accuracy of the TMPA-3B43 in drought monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 3D CFD Modeling of Local Scouring, Bed Armoring and Sediment Deposition
Water 2017, 9(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010056
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
3D numerical models are increasingly used to simulate flow, sediment transport and morphological changes of rivers. For the simulation of bedload transport, the numerical flow model is generally coupled with an empirical sediment transport model. The application range of the most widely used
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3D numerical models are increasingly used to simulate flow, sediment transport and morphological changes of rivers. For the simulation of bedload transport, the numerical flow model is generally coupled with an empirical sediment transport model. The application range of the most widely used empirical models is, however, often limited in terms of hydraulic and sedimentological features and therefore the numerical model can hardly be applied to complex situations where different kinds of morphological processes take place at the same time, such as local scouring, bed armoring and aggradation of finer particles. As a possible solution method for this issue, we present the combined application of two bedload transport formulas that widens the application range and thus gives more appropriate simulation results. An example of this technique is presented in the paper by combining two bedload transport formulas. For model validation, the results of a laboratory experiment, where bed armoring, local scouring and local sediment deposition processes occurred, were used. The results showed that the combined application method can improve the reliability of the numerical simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Sediment Process)
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Open AccessReview From Flood Control to Water Management: A Journey of Bangladesh towards Integrated Water Resources Management
Water 2017, 9(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010055
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is considered as a practical approach in solving water-related problems, which are socio-ecologically complex in nature. Bangladesh has also embraced the IWRM approach against its earlier attempt to flood control. In this paper, we evaluate the current status
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Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is considered as a practical approach in solving water-related problems, which are socio-ecologically complex in nature. Bangladesh has also embraced the IWRM approach against its earlier attempt to flood control. In this paper, we evaluate the current status of IWRM in Bangladesh through the lens of policy shifts, institutional transitions and project transformations using seven key dimensions of IWRM. Looking at IWRM from such perspectives is lacking in current literature. A thorough review of policy shifts suggests that all the key dimensions of IWRM are “highly reflected” in the current policy documents. The dimension of “integrated management” is “highly reflected” in both institutional transition and project-level transformation. Most other dimensions are also recognised at both institutional and project levels. However, such reflections gradually weaken as we move from policies to institutions to projects. Despite catchment being considered as a spatial unit of water management at both institutional and project levels, transboundary basin planning is yet to be accomplished. The participation of local people is highly promoted in various recent projects. However, equity and social issues have received less attention at project level, although it has significant potential for supporting some of the key determinants of adaptive capacity. Thus, the IWRM dimensions are in general reflected in recent policies, institutional reforms and project formulation in Bangladesh. However, to solve the complex water-problems, basin scale management through transboundary cooperation and equity and social issues need to be implemented at institutional and project levels. Full article
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