Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Appl. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) In recent years, organic optic electronic devices have been attracting extensive research interest. [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-148
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle SampleCNN: End-to-End Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Using Very Small Filters for Music Classification
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010150
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (14998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been applied to diverse machine learning tasks for different modalities of raw data in an end-to-end fashion. In the audio domain, a raw waveform-based approach has been explored to directly learn hierarchical characteristics of audio. However, the majority
[...] Read more.
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been applied to diverse machine learning tasks for different modalities of raw data in an end-to-end fashion. In the audio domain, a raw waveform-based approach has been explored to directly learn hierarchical characteristics of audio. However, the majority of previous studies have limited their model capacity by taking a frame-level structure similar to short-time Fourier transforms. We previously proposed a CNN architecture which learns representations using sample-level filters beyond typical frame-level input representations. The architecture showed comparable performance to the spectrogram-based CNN model in music auto-tagging. In this paper, we extend the previous work in three ways. First, considering the sample-level model requires much longer training time, we progressively downsample the input signals and examine how it affects the performance. Second, we extend the model using multi-level and multi-scale feature aggregation technique and subsequently conduct transfer learning for several music classification tasks. Finally, we visualize filters learned by the sample-level CNN in each layer to identify hierarchically learned features and show that they are sensitive to log-scaled frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sound and Music Computing) Printed Edition available
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Real-Time Reduction of Task-Related Scalp-Hemodynamics Artifact in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Sliding-Window Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010149
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
PDF Full-text (775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an effective non-invasive neuroimaging technique for measuring hemoglobin concentration in the cerebral cortex. Owing to the nature of fNIRS measurement principles, measured signals can be contaminated with task-related scalp blood flow (SBF), which is distributed over the whole
[...] Read more.
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an effective non-invasive neuroimaging technique for measuring hemoglobin concentration in the cerebral cortex. Owing to the nature of fNIRS measurement principles, measured signals can be contaminated with task-related scalp blood flow (SBF), which is distributed over the whole head and masks true brain activity. Aiming for fNIRS-based real-time application, we proposed a real-time task-related SBF artifact reduction method. Using a principal component analysis, we estimated a global temporal pattern of SBF from few short-channels, then we applied a general linear model for removing it from long-channels that were possibly contaminated by SBF. Sliding-window analysis was applied for both signal steps for real-time processing. To assess the performance, a semi-real simulation was executed with measured short-channel signals in a motor-task experiment. Compared with conventional techniques with no elements of SBF, the proposed method showed significantly higher estimation performance for true brain activation under a task-related SBF artifact environment. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Research on Model-Based Fault Diagnosis for a Gas Turbine Based on Transient Performance
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010148
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 22 January 2018
PDF Full-text (4658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is essential to monitor and to diagnose faults in rotating machinery with a high thrust–weight ratio and complex structure for a variety of industrial applications, for which reliable signal measurements are required. However, the measured values consist of the true values of
[...] Read more.
It is essential to monitor and to diagnose faults in rotating machinery with a high thrust–weight ratio and complex structure for a variety of industrial applications, for which reliable signal measurements are required. However, the measured values consist of the true values of the parameters, the inertia of measurements, random errors and systematic errors. Such signals cannot reflect the true performance state and the health state of rotating machinery accurately. High-quality, steady-state measurements are necessary for most current diagnostic methods. Unfortunately, it is hard to obtain these kinds of measurements for most rotating machinery. Diagnosis based on transient performance is a useful tool that can potentially solve this problem. A model-based fault diagnosis method for gas turbines based on transient performance is proposed in this paper. The fault diagnosis consists of a dynamic simulation model, a diagnostic scheme, and an optimization algorithm. A high-accuracy, nonlinear, dynamic gas turbine model using a modular modeling method is presented that involves thermophysical properties, a component characteristic chart, and system inertial. The startup process is simulated using this model. The consistency between the simulation results and the field operation data shows the validity of the model and the advantages of transient accumulated deviation. In addition, a diagnostic scheme is designed to fulfill this process. Finally, cuckoo search is selected to solve the optimization problem in fault diagnosis. Comparative diagnostic results for a gas turbine before and after washing indicate the improved effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method of using data from transient processes, compared with traditional methods using data from the steady state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Turbine Engine - towards the Future of Power)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Maximum Power Point Tracking Implementation by Dspace Controller Integrated Through Z-Source Inverter Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for Photovoltaic Applications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010145
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
PDF Full-text (9181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is used to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic system. This paper involves working on an enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based MPPT method for the photovoltaic (PV) system integrated through Z-Source inverter. The main benefit of
[...] Read more.
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is used to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic system. This paper involves working on an enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based MPPT method for the photovoltaic (PV) system integrated through Z-Source inverter. The main benefit of the proposed method is the diminishing of the steady-state oscillation when the maximum power point (MPP) is located. Additionally, during an extreme environmental condition, such as partial shading and large fluctuations of irradiance and temperature, the proposed method has the capability to track the MPP. This algorithm is implemented in dspace 1104 controller. MATLAB simulations are carried out under varying irradiance and temperature conditions to evaluate its effectiveness. Its performance is compared with a conventional method like Perturb and observe (P&O) method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Manipulating Propagation Constants of Silver Nanowire Plasmonic Waveguide Modes Using a Dielectric Multilayer Substrate
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010144
Received: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 22 January 2018
PDF Full-text (1918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that when a silver nanowire is placed on a dielectric multilayer, but not the commonly used bare glass slide, the effective refractive index of the propagating surface plasmons along the silver nanowire can be controlled. Furthermore, by increasing
[...] Read more.
Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that when a silver nanowire is placed on a dielectric multilayer, but not the commonly used bare glass slide, the effective refractive index of the propagating surface plasmons along the silver nanowire can be controlled. Furthermore, by increasing the thickness of the top dielectric layer, longer wavelength light can also propagate along a very thin silver nanowire. In the experiment, the diameter of the silver nanowire could be as thin as 70 nm, with the incident wavelength as long as 640 nm. The principle of this control is analysed from the existence of a photonic band gap and the Bloch surface wave with this dielectric multilayer substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Waves on Planar Photonic Crystals)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Current Status of Single Particle Imaging with X-ray Lasers
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010132
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The advent of ultrafast X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) opens the tantalizing possibility of the atomic-resolution imaging of reproducible objects such as viruses, nanoparticles, single molecules, clusters, and perhaps biological cells, achieving a resolution for single particle imaging better than a few tens of
[...] Read more.
The advent of ultrafast X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) opens the tantalizing possibility of the atomic-resolution imaging of reproducible objects such as viruses, nanoparticles, single molecules, clusters, and perhaps biological cells, achieving a resolution for single particle imaging better than a few tens of nanometers. Improving upon this is a significant challenge which has been the focus of a global single particle imaging (SPI) initiative launched in December 2014 at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA. A roadmap was outlined, and significant multi-disciplinary effort has since been devoted to work on the technical challenges of SPI such as radiation damage, beam characterization, beamline instrumentation and optics, sample preparation and delivery and algorithm development at multiple institutions involved in the SPI initiative. Currently, the SPI initiative has achieved 3D imaging of rice dwarf virus (RDV) and coliphage PR772 viruses at ~10 nm resolution by using soft X-ray FEL pulses at the Atomic Molecular and Optical (AMO) instrument of LCLS. Meanwhile, diffraction patterns with signal above noise up to the corner of the detector with a resolution of ~6 Ångström (Å) were also recorded with hard X-rays at the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument, also at LCLS. Achieving atomic resolution is truly a grand challenge and there is still a long way to go in light of recent developments in electron microscopy. However, the potential for studying dynamics at physiological conditions and capturing ultrafast biological, chemical and physical processes represents a tremendous potential application, attracting continued interest in pursuing further method development. In this paper, we give a brief introduction of SPI developments and look ahead to further method development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue X-Ray Free-Electron Laser) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Incoherent Digital Holography: A Review
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010143
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Digital holography (DH) is a promising technique for modern three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Coherent holography records the complex amplitude of a 3D object holographically, giving speckle noise upon reconstruction and presenting a serious drawback inherent in coherent optical systems. On the other hand, incoherent
[...] Read more.
Digital holography (DH) is a promising technique for modern three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Coherent holography records the complex amplitude of a 3D object holographically, giving speckle noise upon reconstruction and presenting a serious drawback inherent in coherent optical systems. On the other hand, incoherent holography records the intensity distribution of the object, allowing a higher signal-to-noise ratio as compared to its coherent counterpart. Currently there are two incoherent digital holographic techniques: optical scanning holography (OSH) and Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH). In this review, we first explain the principles of OSH and FINCH. We then compare, to some extent, the differences between OSH and FINCH. Finally, some of the recent applications of the two incoherent holographic techniques are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography and 3D Imaging: Tomorrows Ultimate Experience)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Variability of Hydroacoustic Noise Probability Density Function at the Output of Automatic Gain Control System
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010142
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
PDF Full-text (4466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research presents results of the estimation of temporal variability of the hydroacoustic noise probability density function (PDF) in shallow waters within the frequency band of 0.03–3.3 kHz; the studies were conducted near the Primorsky Aquarium on Russky Island, Vladivostok, Russia. Signals were
[...] Read more.
This research presents results of the estimation of temporal variability of the hydroacoustic noise probability density function (PDF) in shallow waters within the frequency band of 0.03–3.3 kHz; the studies were conducted near the Primorsky Aquarium on Russky Island, Vladivostok, Russia. Signals were received via unidirectional hydrophone and automatic gain control of the received signals. The hydrophone was attached to a drifting buoy via an elastic suspension; the received signals were transmitted by cable to a boat drifting with the buoy. The results of the comparison of the sea noise probability density function (PDF) estimates at the output of a system with automatic gain control (AGC) with similar results for a white Gaussian noise in the same frequency band are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Acoustics, Communications and Information Processing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Hierarchical Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Analysis of Transit Signal Priority Control Systems
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010141
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
PDF Full-text (3209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the problem of developing a model for traffic signal control with transit priority using Hierarchical Colored Petri nets (HCPN). Petri nets (PN) are useful for state analysis of discrete event systems due to their powerful modeling capability and
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the problem of developing a model for traffic signal control with transit priority using Hierarchical Colored Petri nets (HCPN). Petri nets (PN) are useful for state analysis of discrete event systems due to their powerful modeling capability and mathematical formalism. This paper focuses on their use to formalize the transit signal priority (TSP) control model. In a four-phase traffic signal control model, the transit detection and two kinds of transit priority strategies are integrated to obtain the HCPN-based TSP control models. One of the advantages to use these models is the clear presentation of traffic light behaviors in terms of conditions and events that cause the detection of a priority request by a transit vehicle. Another advantage of the resulting models is that the correctness and reliability of the proposed strategies are easily analyzed. After their full reachable states are generated, the boundness, liveness, and fairness of the proposed models are verified. Experimental results show that the proposed control model provides transit vehicles with better effectiveness at intersections. This work helps advance the state of the art in the design of signal control models related to the intersection of roadways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Agile Attitude Control and Singularity Avoidance/Escape by the SDRE Method Using a Biased State-Dependent Weighting Matrix
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010140
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
PDF Full-text (8397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years there has been an increasing need to improve satellite attitude control performance in terms of agility and attitude accuracy in large-angle attitude maneuvers. To achieve such control performance, single-gimbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) should be mounted as modern-type actuators. Conventionally,
[...] Read more.
In recent years there has been an increasing need to improve satellite attitude control performance in terms of agility and attitude accuracy in large-angle attitude maneuvers. To achieve such control performance, single-gimbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) should be mounted as modern-type actuators. Conventionally, based on the torque command calculated by the attitude control system of the satellite, SGCMGs were controlled by solving inverse kinematics through a pseudo inverse matrix steering law. However, in such a control system structure, it may be difficult to obtain the desired torque required by the attitude control system because of the singularity problem of SGCMGs. Furthermore, with respect to implementation, since the condition number of the Jacobian matrix of SGCMG becomes extremely large in the singularity, the numerical calculation error of the pseudo inverse matrix increases greatly. Therefore, we propose an overall control system that can solve above-described problems and the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) control system that integrates the satellite and SGCMG system. The proposed optimal control system, which does not solve the pseudo inverse matrix, can realize gimbal angle guidance by gimbal angle feedback and singularity avoidance/escape using the biased weighting matrix. In the numerical simulation, the usefulness of proposed system is shown in comparison with the conventional system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Motion Planning for Bipedal Robot to Perform Jump Maneuver
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010139
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The remarkable ability of humans to perform jump maneuvers greatly contributes to the improvements of the obstacle negotiation ability of humans. The paper proposes a jumping control scheme for a bipedal robot to perform a high jump. The half-body of the robot is
[...] Read more.
The remarkable ability of humans to perform jump maneuvers greatly contributes to the improvements of the obstacle negotiation ability of humans. The paper proposes a jumping control scheme for a bipedal robot to perform a high jump. The half-body of the robot is modeled as three planar links and the motion during the launching phase is taken into account. A geometrically simple motion was first conducted through which the gear reduction ratio that matches the maximum motor output for high jumping was selected. Then, the following strategies to further exploit the motor output performance was examined: (1) to set the maximum torque of each joint as the baseline that is explicitly modeled as a piecewise linear function dependent on the joint angular velocity; (2) to exert it with a correction of the joint angular accelerations in order to satisfy some balancing criteria during the motion. The criteria include the location of ZMP (zero moment point) and the torque limit. Using the technique described above, the jumping pattern is pre-calculated to maximize the jump height. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through simulations. In the simulation, the bipedal robot model achieved a 0.477-m high jump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Robotics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Computational Modelling of Rectangular Sub-Boundary Layer Vortex Generators
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010138
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
PDF Full-text (4773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vortex generators (VGs) are increasingly used in the wind turbine manufacture industry as flow control devices to improve rotor blade aerodynamic performance. Nevertheless, VGs may produce excess residual drag in some applications. The so-called sub-boundary layer VGs can provide an effective flow-separation control
[...] Read more.
Vortex generators (VGs) are increasingly used in the wind turbine manufacture industry as flow control devices to improve rotor blade aerodynamic performance. Nevertheless, VGs may produce excess residual drag in some applications. The so-called sub-boundary layer VGs can provide an effective flow-separation control with lower drag than the conventional VGs. The main objective of this study is to investigate how well the simulations can reproduce the physics of the flow of the primary vortex generated by rectangular sub-boundary layer VGs mounted on a flat plate with a negligible pressure gradient with an angle of attack of the vane to the oncoming flow of β = 18°. Three devices with aspect ratio values of 2, 2.5 and 3 are qualitatively and quantitatively compared. To that end, computational simulations have been carried out using the RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes) method and at Reynolds number Re = 2600 based on the boundary layer momentum thickness θ at the VG position. The computational results show good agreement with the experimental data provided by the Advanced Aerodynamic Tools of Large Rotors (AVATAR) European project for the development and validation of aerodynamic models. Finally, the results indicate that the highest VG seems to be more suitable for separation control applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Flow Control Technologies for Energy and Propulsive Systems)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle A 25.78-Gbit/s × 4-ch Active Optical Cable with Ultra-Compact Form Factor for High-Density Optical Interconnects
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010137
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
PDF Full-text (4262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A 25.78-Gbit/s × 4-ch active optical cable (AOC) with an ultra-compact form factor is proposed. The size of the proposed AOC is 5.2 cm3, which is 55% smaller than the standard form factor of Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable (QSFP28), and 45%
[...] Read more.
A 25.78-Gbit/s × 4-ch active optical cable (AOC) with an ultra-compact form factor is proposed. The size of the proposed AOC is 5.2 cm3, which is 55% smaller than the standard form factor of Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable (QSFP28), and 45% smaller than that of Micro Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable (μQSFP). As a result of utilizing a high-efficiency heat-dissipation structure and optimizing signal transmission lines and ground vias, the proposed AOC achieves high-heat dissipation and low-crosstalk characteristics. Furthermore, the proposed AOC demonstrated 25.78-Gbit/s error-free optical transmission over a 100-m Optical Multimode 3 (OM3) multimode fiber under all-channels (4-ch) operation and case temperature (Tc) of 70 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Interconnects)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Pareto Optimal Solutions for Network Defense Strategy Selection Simulator in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010136
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using Pareto optimization in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning (MORL) leads to better learning results for network defense games. This is particularly useful for network security agents, who must often balance several goals when choosing what action to take in defense of a network. If
[...] Read more.
Using Pareto optimization in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning (MORL) leads to better learning results for network defense games. This is particularly useful for network security agents, who must often balance several goals when choosing what action to take in defense of a network. If the defender knows his preferred reward distribution, the advantages of Pareto optimization can be retained by using a scalarization algorithm prior to the implementation of the MORL. In this paper, we simulate a network defense scenario by creating a multi-objective zero-sum game and using Pareto optimization and MORL to determine optimal solutions and compare those solutions to different scalarization approaches. We build a Pareto Defense Strategy Selection Simulator (PDSSS) system for assisting network administrators on decision-making, specifically, on defense strategy selection, and the experiment results show that the Satisficing Trade-Off Method (STOM) scalarization approach performs better than linear scalarization or GUESS method. The results of this paper can aid network security agents attempting to find an optimal defense policy for network security games. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Analyzing Free-Hand Sound-Tracings of Melodic Phrases
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010135
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this paper, we report on a free-hand motion capture study in which 32 participants ‘traced’ 16 melodic vocal phrases with their hands in the air in two experimental conditions. Melodic contours are often thought of as correlated with vertical movement (up and
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we report on a free-hand motion capture study in which 32 participants ‘traced’ 16 melodic vocal phrases with their hands in the air in two experimental conditions. Melodic contours are often thought of as correlated with vertical movement (up and down) in time, and this was also our initial expectation. We did find an arch shape for most of the tracings, although this did not correspond directly to the melodic contours. Furthermore, representation of pitch in the vertical dimension was but one of a diverse range of movement strategies used to trace the melodies. Six different mapping strategies were observed, and these strategies have been quantified and statistically tested. The conclusion is that metaphorical representation is much more common than a ‘graph-like’ rendering for such a melodic sound-tracing task. Other findings include a clear gender difference for some of the tracing strategies and an unexpected representation of melodies in terms of a small object for some of the Hindustani music examples. The data also show a tendency of participants moving within a shared ‘social box’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sound and Music Computing) Printed Edition available
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top