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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Patient Education for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Preliminary Experience Using 3D-Printed Clinical Imaging Data
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 13; doi:10.3390/jfb8020013
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
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Abstract
Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to
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Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to compliance, which ultimately yields improved medical outcomes and better quality of life. Here we report the usage of advanced, polyjet 3D printing methods to develop a multimaterial replica of human nasal sinus anatomy, derived from clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT) data, to be used as an educational aid during physician consultation. The final patient education model was developed over several iterations to optimize material properties, anatomical accuracy and overall display. A two-arm, single-center, randomized, prospective study was then performed in which 50 ENT surgical candidates (and an associated control group, n = 50) were given an explanation of their anatomy, disease state, and treatment options using the education model as an aid. Statistically significant improvements in patient ratings of their physician’s explanation of their treatment options (p = 0.020), self-rated anatomical understanding (p = 0.043), self-rated understanding of disease state (p = 0.016), and effectiveness of the visualization (p = 0.007) were noted from the population that viewed the 3D education model, indicating it is an effective tool which ENT surgeons may use to educate and interact with patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Enhanced Osseointegration of a Modified Titanium Implant with Bound Phospho-Threonine: A Preliminary In Vivo Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 16; doi:10.3390/jfb8020016
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Implant surface topography is a key factor in achieving osseointegration. l-Threonine can be chemically and stably bonded to titanium surfaces by phosphorylation. This study investigated the degree of in vivo osseointegration of an implant with a novel o-phospho-l-threonine (p-Thr)-binding surface. MC3T3-E1 cells were
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Implant surface topography is a key factor in achieving osseointegration. l-Threonine can be chemically and stably bonded to titanium surfaces by phosphorylation. This study investigated the degree of in vivo osseointegration of an implant with a novel o-phospho-l-threonine (p-Thr)-binding surface. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the p-Thr binding surface and machined surface disks, and initial cell attachment was evaluated. p-Thr-binding and machined surface implants were tested in vivo by implantation into the femurs of three male New Zealand white rabbits, and the osseointegration was assessed by measurement of removal torque (RT) and bone-implant contact (BIC) ratio. Initial cell attachment was greater for the p-Thr-binding than for the machined surface implant group (P < 0.05). In addition, RT and BIC values were higher for the p-Thr-binding surface than for the machined surface (P < 0.05). These results indicate that our implant with a p-Thr-binding surface can achieve enhanced osseointegration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Effect of Platelet-Rich Fibrin, Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate, Platelet-Rich Plasma and Resorbable Collagen on Soft Tissue Closure of Extraction Sites
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 17; doi:10.3390/jfb8020017
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Rapid and complete soft tissue healing after tooth extraction minimizes surgical complications and facilitates subsequent implant placement. We used four treatment methods and assessed changes in soft tissue socket closure following tooth extraction in humans. The effects of platelet-rich fibrin-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRF-CSH),
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Rapid and complete soft tissue healing after tooth extraction minimizes surgical complications and facilitates subsequent implant placement. We used four treatment methods and assessed changes in soft tissue socket closure following tooth extraction in humans. The effects of platelet-rich fibrin-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRF-CSH), platelet-rich plasma-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRP-CSH), a resorbable collagen dressing (RCD), and no grafting material were compared in a randomized, controlled pilot study with a blinded parallel design (N = 23). Patients with a hopeless tooth scheduled for extraction were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Socket measurements were obtained immediately after extraction and treatment, as well as after 21 days. There was a significant decrease in the total epithelialized external surface area of the extraction sockets in each group at all time points. However, there were no significant differences in soft tissue closure (p > 0.05) at any time point and PRF-CSH or PRP-CSH did not provide any additional benefit to enhance the soft tissue closure of extraction sockets compared with either RCD or sites without graft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Cellular Morphology-Mediated Proliferation and Drug Sensitivity of Breast Cancer Cells
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 18; doi:10.3390/jfb8020018
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
The interpretation of the local microenvironment of the extracellular matrix for malignant tumor cells is in intimate relation with metastatic spread of cancer cells involving the associated issues of cellular proliferation and drug responsiveness. This study was aimed to assess the combination of
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The interpretation of the local microenvironment of the extracellular matrix for malignant tumor cells is in intimate relation with metastatic spread of cancer cells involving the associated issues of cellular proliferation and drug responsiveness. This study was aimed to assess the combination of both surface topographies (fiber alignments) and different stiffness of the polymeric substrates (poly(l-lactic acid) and poly(ε-caprolactone), PLLA and PCL, respectively) as well as collagen substrates (coat and gel) to elucidate the effect of the cellular morphology on cellular proliferation and drug sensitivities of two different types of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). The morphological spreading parameter (nucleus/cytoplasm area ratio) induced by the anthropogenic substrates has correlated intimately with the cellular proliferation and the drug sensitivity the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of cancer cells. This study demonstrated the promising results of the parameter for the evaluation of cancer cell malignancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Scaffolds)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Activity of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Ti-6Al-4V Metal Oxide
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 20; doi:10.3390/jfb8020020
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a
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Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the attachment of the S-nitrosothiol donor to the Ti-Al-4V surface. Attachment of S-nitroso-penicillamine resulted in a nitric oxide (NO) release of 89.6 ± 4.8 nmol/cm2 under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis growth by 41.5 ± 1.2% and 25.3 ± 0.6%, respectively. Combining the S-nitrosothiol releasing Ti-6Al-4V with tetracycline, a commonly-prescribed antibiotic, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 35.4 ± 1.3%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used. A synergistic effect of ampicillin with S-nitroso-penicillamine-modified Ti-6Al-4V against S. epidermidis was not observed. The functionalized Ti-6Al-4V surface was not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Endovascular Embolization by Transcatheter Delivery of Particles: Past, Present, and Future
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 12; doi:10.3390/jfb8020012
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
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Abstract
Minimally invasive techniques to occlude flow within blood vessels, initially pioneered in the 1970s with autologous materials and subsequently advanced with increasingly sophisticated engineered biomaterials, are routinely performed for a variety of medical conditions. Contemporary interventional radiologists have at their disposal a wide
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Minimally invasive techniques to occlude flow within blood vessels, initially pioneered in the 1970s with autologous materials and subsequently advanced with increasingly sophisticated engineered biomaterials, are routinely performed for a variety of medical conditions. Contemporary interventional radiologists have at their disposal a wide armamentarium of occlusive agents to treat a range of disease processes through a small incision in the skin. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on endovascular embolization tools, summarize the current state-of-the-art, and highlight burgeoning technologies that promise to advance the field in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessReview Artificial Red Blood Cells as Potential Photosensitizers in Dye Laser Treatment Against Port-Wine Stains
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 14; doi:10.3390/jfb8020014
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
We suggest a novel method that uses artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment (at 595-nm wavelength) for port-wine stains (i.e., capillary malformations presenting as red birthmarks) based on the results of animal experiments. As compared with human
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We suggest a novel method that uses artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment (at 595-nm wavelength) for port-wine stains (i.e., capillary malformations presenting as red birthmarks) based on the results of animal experiments. As compared with human red blood cells, Hb-Vs have the same absorbance of 595 nm wavelength light and produce the same level of heat following dye laser irradiation. Small sized Hb-Vs (250 nm) distribute in the plasma phase in blood and tend to flow in the marginal zone of microvessels. Intravenous injections of Hb-Vs caused the dilatation of microvessels, and dye laser treatment with Hb-Vs destroyed the vessel wall effectively. Following the intravenous injection of Hb-Vs, the microvessels contained more Hb that absorbed laser photons and produced heat. This extra Hb tended to flow near the endothelial cells, which were the target of the laser treatment. These attributes of Hb-Vs will potentially contribute to enhancing the efficacy of dye laser treatment for port-wine stains. Hemoglobin is a type of porphyrin. Thus, our proposed treatment may have aspects of photodynamic therapy using porphyrin that leads to a cytotoxicity effect by active oxygen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood Substitutes: Evolution and Future Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Laser Ablation for Cancer: Past, Present and Future
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 19; doi:10.3390/jfb8020019
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
Laser ablation (LA) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and
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Laser ablation (LA) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and thermometric techniques during LA, used to guide the surgeon in the choice and adjustment of the optimal laser settings, and the potential use of nanoparticles to allow biologic selectivity of ablative treatments. Promising technical solutions and a better knowledge of laser-tissue interaction should allow LA to be used in a safe and effective manner as a cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Laxative Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Sujiaonori Algal Biomaterial in Japanese Adult Women with Functional Constipation: A Case Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 15; doi:10.3390/jfb8020015
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
Constipation is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that represents a major health problem in Japan. Approximately 26% of young Japanese adult women are reported to have this complaint. We report on the health effects of daily intake of Sujiaonori algal biomaterial (SBM) on constipation
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Constipation is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that represents a major health problem in Japan. Approximately 26% of young Japanese adult women are reported to have this complaint. We report on the health effects of daily intake of Sujiaonori algal biomaterial (SBM) on constipation on 12 Japanese adult women. Data are from a four-week dietary intervention study on the health effects of daily Sujiaonori supplementation on cardiovascular, skin, and gastrointestinal health in which 32 adult Japanese volunteers (age range: 20–54 years) participated. They underwent clinical and laboratory investigations, and completed two study questionnaires (the brief diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and the current health questionnaire) before and after dietary intervention. Of the 12 women volunteers with functional constipation, there were six SBM-supplemented subjects who received 3 g of Sujiaonori powder twice daily during meal, whereas the six others (controls) were from the group of those who took 3 g of a power made of 70% corn starch and 30% Japanese spinach mixture. The analysis of data on daily nutrient intake showed no significant dietary changes for nutrients (minerals, proteins, fiber, fat) and calorie intake (except alcohol intake that was reduced) in both groups. In SBM group, a significant reduction of the proportion of women with constipation was observed (p < 0.001), whereas no significant change was noted within the control group (p > 0.05). When both groups were compared, SBM was more effective than the control product; 66.7% (4/6) of SBM-supplemented women had their constipation relieved, whereas only one control (16.7%) controls benefited from dietary intervention (p < 0.001). In addition, no adverse effect was reported in the SBM group, whereas two controls reported nausea at post-survey. These results suggest that Sujiaonori contains compounds that can improve gastrointestinal function and relieve constipation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Healthcare)
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