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Special Issue "Wind Energy"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg (Website)

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg East, Denmark
Fax: +45 9815 1411
Interests: wind power research; power electronics; control of wind turbines and wind farms; interconnection to grid; generators; power converters; ride-through operation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The "Wind Energy" issue of "Energies" focuses on recent advances in the wind energy sector on a variety of topics, including: wind resource mapping, wind intermittency issues, wind harnessing technologies, effects of wind farms on local and global climate, effects of global climate change on wind resource.

Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • wind power
  • wind energy
  • meteorology
  • numerical modeling
  • intermittency
  • renewable energy
  • electricity

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Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Risk Reserve Constrained Economic Dispatch Model with Wind Power Penetration
Energies 2010, 3(12), 1880-1894; doi:10.3390/en3121880
Received: 30 October 2010 / Revised: 26 November 2010 / Accepted: 1 December 2010 / Published: 7 December 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper develops a modified economic dispatch (ED) optimization model with wind power penetration. Due to the uncertain nature of wind speed, both overestimation and underestimation of the available wind power are compensated using the up and down spinning reserves. In order [...] Read more.
This paper develops a modified economic dispatch (ED) optimization model with wind power penetration. Due to the uncertain nature of wind speed, both overestimation and underestimation of the available wind power are compensated using the up and down spinning reserves. In order to determine both of these two reserve demands, the risk-based up and down spinning reserve constraints are presented considering not only the uncertainty of available wind power, but also the load forecast error and generator outage rates. The predictor-corrector primal-dual interior point (IP) method is utilized to solve the proposed ED model. Simulation results of a system with ten conventional generators and one wind farm demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle An Examination of AC/HVDC Power Circuits for Interconnecting Bulk Wind Generation with the Electric Grid
Energies 2010, 3(6), 1263-1289; doi:10.3390/en3061263
Received: 15 April 2010 / Accepted: 20 May 2010 / Published: 18 June 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission for integrating large scale and/or off-shore wind generation systems with the electric grid is attractive in comparison to extra high voltage (EHV) ac transmission due to a variety of reasons. While the technology of [...] Read more.
The application of high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission for integrating large scale and/or off-shore wind generation systems with the electric grid is attractive in comparison to extra high voltage (EHV) ac transmission due to a variety of reasons. While the technology of classical current sourced converters (CSC) using thyristors is well established for realization of large HVDC systems, the technology of voltage sourced converters (VSC) is emerging to be an alternative approach, particularly suitable for multi-terminal interconnections. More recently, a more modular scheme that may be termed ‘bridge of bridge’ converters (BoBC) has been introduced to realize HVDC systems. While all these three approaches are functionally capable of realizing HVDC systems, the converter power circuit design trade-offs between these alternatives are not readily apparent. This paper presents an examination of these topologies from the point of view of power semiconductor requirements, reactive component requirements, operating losses, fault tolerance, multi-terminal operation, modularity, complexity, etc. Detailed analytical models will be used along with a benchmark application to develop a comparative evaluation of the alternatives that maybe used by wind energy/bulk transmission developers for performing engineering trade-off studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Transient Response Improvement of Microgrids Exploiting the Inertia of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)
Energies 2010, 3(6), 1049-1066; doi:10.3390/en30601049
Received: 12 April 2010 / Revised: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 30 April 2010 / Published: 1 June 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Storage devices are introduced in microgrids in order to secure their power quality, power regularity and offer ancillary services in a transient period. In the transition period of a low voltage microgrid, from the connected mode of operation to the islanded mode [...] Read more.
Storage devices are introduced in microgrids in order to secure their power quality, power regularity and offer ancillary services in a transient period. In the transition period of a low voltage microgrid, from the connected mode of operation to the islanded mode of operation, the power unbalance can be partly covered by the inertia energy of the existing power sources. This paper proposes fuzzy local controllers exploiting the inertia of a Wind Turbine (WT) with a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), if such a machine exists in the microgrid, in order to decrease the necessary storage devices and the drawbacks that arise. The proposed controllers are based in fuzzy logic due to the non linear and stochastic behavior of the system. Two cases are studied and compared during the transient period where the microgrid architecture and the DFIG controller differ. In the first case, the understudy microgrid includes a hybrid fuel cell system (FCS)-battery system and a WT with a DFIGURE. The DFIG local controller in this case is also based in fuzzy logic and follows the classical optimum power absorption scenario for the WT. The transition of the microgrid from the connected mode of operation to the islanded mode is evaluated and, especially, the battery contribution is estimated. In the second case, the battery is eliminated. The fuzzy controller of the DFIG during the transition provides primary frequency control and local bus voltage support exploiting the WT inertia. The response of the system is estimated in both cases using MATLAB/Simulink software package. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle A Net-Present Value Analysis for a Wind Turbine Purchase at a Small US College
Energies 2010, 3(5), 943-959; doi:10.3390/en3050943
Received: 29 March 2010 / Accepted: 20 April 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind power is becoming an increasingly attractive method of electric power generation due to concerns with global climate change, increasing uncertainty of future oil supplies, and energy security. While most large-scale wind turbines are part of wind farms, which help states meet [...] Read more.
Wind power is becoming an increasingly attractive method of electric power generation due to concerns with global climate change, increasing uncertainty of future oil supplies, and energy security. While most large-scale wind turbines are part of wind farms, which help states meet state renewable energy standards, several colleges and universities in the United States have purchased wind turbines for financial and educational purposes. This paper gives details of a cost-benefit analysis completed for a small liberal arts college in Illinois, Principia College, which is considering buying a single large-scale turbine. The process set forth here can easily be adapted to any college, university, or school. It is found that the project has a positive net present value for both a 20-year scenario and a 30-year scenario. Assuming the project did not receive any grants, Principia College would need to have an annual real return rate of about 6% on its initial investment to gain the same economic benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle Crowbar System in Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators
Energies 2010, 3(4), 738-753; doi:10.3390/en3040738
Received: 3 February 2010 / Revised: 26 February 2010 / Accepted: 27 February 2010 / Published: 12 April 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last 15 years, the use of doubly fed induction machines in modern variable-speed wind turbines has increased rapidly. This development has been driven by the cost reduction as well as the low-loss generation of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT). According [...] Read more.
In the last 15 years, the use of doubly fed induction machines in modern variable-speed wind turbines has increased rapidly. This development has been driven by the cost reduction as well as the low-loss generation of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT). According to new grid code requirements, wind turbines must remain connected to the grid during grid disturbances. Moreover, they must also contribute to voltage support during and after grid faults. The crowbar system is essential to avoid the disconnection of the doubly fed induction wind generators from the network during faults. The insertion of the crowbar in the rotor circuits for a short period of time enables a more efficient terminal voltage control. As a general rule, the activation and the deactivation of the crowbar system is based only on the DC-link voltage level of the back-to-back converters. In this context, the authors discuss the critical rotor speed to analyze the instability of doubly fed induction generators during grid faults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle Mass and Aerodynamic Imbalance Estimates of Wind Turbines
Energies 2010, 3(4), 696-710; doi:10.3390/en3040696
Received: 18 January 2010 / Revised: 1 March 2010 / Accepted: 15 March 2010 / Published: 8 April 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to its effect on the operation time of wind turbines, rotor imbalances of a wind turbine have to be detected early enough. We present a method that determines inhomogeneous mass distributions of the rotor as well as deviations in the pitch [...] Read more.
Due to its effect on the operation time of wind turbines, rotor imbalances of a wind turbine have to be detected early enough. We present a method that determines inhomogeneous mass distributions of the rotor as well as deviations in the pitch angles of the rotor blades from vibrational data only. To this end, a mathematical model connecting the load caused by the imbalances to the resulting vibrations was developed. After discretization, the resulting vibration equation was solved analytically. The inverse problem, i.e., the calculation of the mass and aerodynamic imbalance from vibrational data, was solved by using nonlinear regularization theory. Numerical simulations were performed using artificial vibration data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle New Approaches for Very Short-term Steady-State Analysis of An Electrical Distribution System with Wind Farms
Energies 2010, 3(4), 650-670; doi:10.3390/en3040650
Received: 21 February 2010 / Revised: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 29 March 2010 / Published: 1 April 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Distribution networks are undergoing radical changes due to the high level of penetration of dispersed generation. Dispersed generation systems require particular attention due to their incorporation of uncertain energy sources, such as wind farms, and due to the impacts that such sources [...] Read more.
Distribution networks are undergoing radical changes due to the high level of penetration of dispersed generation. Dispersed generation systems require particular attention due to their incorporation of uncertain energy sources, such as wind farms, and due to the impacts that such sources have on the planning and operation of distribution networks. In particular, the foreseeable, extensive use of wind turbine generator units in the future requires that distribution system engineers properly account for their impacts on the system. Many new technical considerations must be addressed, including protection coordination, steady-state analysis, and power quality issues. This paper deals with the very short-term, steady-state analysis of a distribution system with wind farms, for which the time horizon of interest ranges from one hour to a few hours ahead. Several wind-forecasting methods are presented in order to obtain reliable input data for the steady-state analysis. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods were considered and used in performing deterministic and probabilistic load-flow analyses. Numerical applications on a 17-bus, medium-voltage, electrical distribution system with various wind farms connected at different busbars are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II
Energies 2010, 3(4), 619-633; doi:10.3390/en3040619
Received: 27 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 31 March 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside [...] Read more.
EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options have the best performance for this wind farm size and distance: the AC system and the system with a DC connection to shore. EeFarm-II is a user friendly computer program for wind farm electrical and economic evaluation. It has been built as a Simulink Library in the graphical interface of Matlab-Simulink. EeFarm-II contains models of wind turbines, generators, transformers, AC cables, inductors, nodes, splitters, PWM converters, thyristor converters, DC cables, choppers and statcoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle A Shrouded Wind Turbine Generating High Output Power with Wind-lens Technology
Energies 2010, 3(4), 634-649; doi:10.3390/en3040634
Received: 20 January 2010 / Revised: 6 February 2010 / Accepted: 27 February 2010 / Published: 31 March 2010
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (1230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed a new wind turbine system that consists of a diffuser shroud with a broad-ring brim at the exit periphery and a wind turbine inside it. The shrouded wind turbine with a brimmed diffuser has demonstrated power augmentation by a [...] Read more.
We have developed a new wind turbine system that consists of a diffuser shroud with a broad-ring brim at the exit periphery and a wind turbine inside it. The shrouded wind turbine with a brimmed diffuser has demonstrated power augmentation by a factor of about 2–5 compared with a bare wind turbine, for a given turbine diameter and wind speed. This is because a low-pressure region, due to a strong vortex formation behind the broad brim, draws more mass flow to the wind turbine inside the diffuser shroud. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines
Energies 2010, 3(2), 241-257; doi:10.3390/en3020241
Received: 4 January 2010 / Accepted: 29 January 2010 / Published: 23 February 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probabilistic design of wind turbines requires definition of the structural elements to be included in the probabilistic basis: e.g., blades, tower, foundation; identification of important failure modes; careful stochastic modeling of the uncertain parameters; recommendations for target reliability levels and recommendation for [...] Read more.
Probabilistic design of wind turbines requires definition of the structural elements to be included in the probabilistic basis: e.g., blades, tower, foundation; identification of important failure modes; careful stochastic modeling of the uncertain parameters; recommendations for target reliability levels and recommendation for consideration of system aspects. The uncertainties are characterized as aleatoric (physical uncertainty) or epistemic (statistical, measurement and model uncertainties). Methods for uncertainty modeling consistent with methods for estimating the reliability are described. It is described how uncertainties in wind turbine design related to computational models, statistical data from test specimens, results from a few full-scale tests and from prototype wind turbines can be accounted for using the Maximum Likelihood Method and a Bayesian approach. Assessment of the optimal reliability level by cost-benefit optimization is illustrated by an offshore wind turbine example. Uncertainty modeling is illustrated by an example where physical, statistical and model uncertainties are estimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle The WRF Model Forecast-Derived Low-Level Wind Shear Climatology over the United States Great Plains
Energies 2010, 3(2), 258-276; doi:10.3390/en3020258
Received: 15 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 23 February 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For wind resource assessment projects, it is common practice to use a power-law relationship (U(z) ~ zα) and a fixed shear exponent (α = 1=7) to extrapolate the observed wind speed from a low measurement level to high [...] Read more.
For wind resource assessment projects, it is common practice to use a power-law relationship (U(z) ~ zα) and a fixed shear exponent (α = 1=7) to extrapolate the observed wind speed from a low measurement level to high turbine hub-heights. However, recent studies using tall-tower observations have found that the annual average shear exponents at several locations over the United States Great Plains (USGP) are significantly higher than 1=7. These findings highlight the critical need for detailed spatio-temporal characterizations of wind shear climatology over the USGP, where numerous large wind farms will be constructed in the foreseeable future. In this paper, a new generation numerical weather prediction model—the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a fast and relatively inexpensive alternative to time-consuming and costly tall-tower projects, is utilized to determine whether it can reliably estimate the shear exponent and the magnitude of the directional shear at any arbitrary location over the USGP. Our results indicate that the WRF model qualitatively captures several low-level wind shear characteristics. However, there is definitely room for physics parameterization improvements for the WRF model to reliably represent the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Wind Power Installations on Coastal Tourism
Energies 2010, 3(1), 1-22; doi:10.3390/en3010001
Received: 10 October 2009 / Accepted: 10 December 2009 / Published: 8 January 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We surveyed more than 1,000 randomly sampled, out-of-state tourists at Delaware, USA beaches in 2007. After providing respondents with wind turbine project photo-simulations at several distances, we inquired about the effect development would have on visitation. Approximately one-quarter stated that they would [...] Read more.
We surveyed more than 1,000 randomly sampled, out-of-state tourists at Delaware, USA beaches in 2007. After providing respondents with wind turbine project photo-simulations at several distances, we inquired about the effect development would have on visitation. Approximately one-quarter stated that they would switch beaches if an offshore wind project was located 10 km from the coast, with avoidance diminishing with greater distance from shore. Stated avoidance is less than: avoidance with a fossil fuel power plant located the same distance inland; attraction to a beach with offshore wind turbines; and the percentage stating they would likely pay to take a boat tour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Electromagnetic Interference on Large Wind Turbines
Energies 2009, 2(4), 1118-1129; doi:10.3390/en20401118
Received: 27 September 2009 / Accepted: 18 November 2009 / Published: 20 November 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can both affect and be transmitted by mega-watt wind turbines. This paper provides a general overview on EMI with respect to mega-watt wind turbines. Possibilities of measuring all types of electromagnetic interference are shown. Electromagnetic fields resulting from a [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can both affect and be transmitted by mega-watt wind turbines. This paper provides a general overview on EMI with respect to mega-watt wind turbines. Possibilities of measuring all types of electromagnetic interference are shown. Electromagnetic fields resulting from a GSM transmitter mounted on a mega-watt wind turbine will be analyzed in detail. This cellular system operates as a real-time communication link. The method-of-moments is used to analytically describe the electro-magnetic fields. The electromagnetic interference will be analyzed under the given boundary condition with a commercial simulation tool. Different transmitter positions are judged on the basis of their radiation patterns. The principal EMI mechanisms are described and taken into consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities
Energies 2009, 2(4), 915-943; doi:10.3390/en20400915
Received: 26 August 2009 / Accepted: 19 October 2009 / Published: 23 October 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA) generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including <2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle Investigating the Effect of Large Wind Farms on Energy in the Atmosphere
Energies 2009, 2(4), 816-838; doi:10.3390/en20400816
Received: 21 August 2009 / Accepted: 27 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents a parameterization of the interaction between wind turbines and the atmosphere and estimates the global and regional atmospheric energy losses due to such interactions. The parameterization is based on the Blade Element Momentum theory, which calculates forces on turbine [...] Read more.
This study presents a parameterization of the interaction between wind turbines and the atmosphere and estimates the global and regional atmospheric energy losses due to such interactions. The parameterization is based on the Blade Element Momentum theory, which calculates forces on turbine blades. Should wind supply the world’s energy needs, this parameterization estimates energy loss in the lowest 1 km of the atmosphere to be ~0.007%. This is an order of magnitude smaller than atmospheric energy loss from aerosol pollution and urbanization, and orders of magnitude less than the energy added to the atmosphere from doubling CO2. Also, the net heat added to the environment due to wind dissipation is much less than that added by thermal plants that the turbines displace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Contrasting Electricity Demand with Wind Power Supply: Case Study in Hungary
Energies 2009, 2(4), 839-850; doi:10.3390/en20400839
Received: 25 August 2009 / Accepted: 27 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We compare the demand of a large electricity consumer with supply given by wind farms installed at two distant geographic locations. Obviously such situation is rather unrealistic, however our main goal is a quantitative characterization of the intermittency of wind electricity. The [...] Read more.
We compare the demand of a large electricity consumer with supply given by wind farms installed at two distant geographic locations. Obviously such situation is rather unrealistic, however our main goal is a quantitative characterization of the intermittency of wind electricity. The consumption pattern consists of marked daily and weekly cycles interrupted by periods of holidays. In contrast, wind electricity production has neither short-time nor seasonal periodicities. We show that wind power integration over a restricted area cannot provide a stable baseload supply, independently of the excess capacity. Further essential result is that the statistics are almost identical for a weekly periodic pattern of consumption and a constant load of the same average value. The length of both adequate supply and shortfall intervals exhibits a scale-free (power-law) frequency distribution, possible consequences are shortly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessArticle Global Assessment of High-Altitude Wind Power
Energies 2009, 2(2), 307-319; doi:10.3390/en20200307
Received: 20 April 2009 / Revised: 15 May 2009 / Accepted: 18 May 2009 / Published: 26 May 2009
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The available wind power resource worldwide at altitudes between 500 and 12,000 m above ground is assessed for the first time. Twenty-eight years of wind data from the reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the Department of Energy are [...] Read more.
The available wind power resource worldwide at altitudes between 500 and 12,000 m above ground is assessed for the first time. Twenty-eight years of wind data from the reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the Department of Energy are analyzed and interpolated to study geographical distributions and persistency of winds at all altitudes. Furthermore, intermittency issues and global climate effects of large-scale extraction of energy from high-altitude winds are investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Coastal and Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign?
Energies 2010, 3(7), 1383-1422; doi:10.3390/en3071383
Received: 15 June 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 20 July 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Offshore and coastal wind power is one of the fastest growing industries in many areas, especially those with shallow coastal regions due to the preferable generation conditions available in the regions. As with any expanding industry, there are concerns regarding the potential [...] Read more.
Offshore and coastal wind power is one of the fastest growing industries in many areas, especially those with shallow coastal regions due to the preferable generation conditions available in the regions. As with any expanding industry, there are concerns regarding the potential environmental effects which may be caused by the installation of the offshore wind turbines and their associated infrastructure, including substations and subsea cables. These include the potential impacts on the biological, physical and human environments. This review discusses in detail the potential impacts arising from offshore wind farm construction, and how these may be quantified and addressed through the use of conceptual models. It concludes that while not environmentally benign, the environmental impacts are minor and can be mitigated through good siting practices. In addition, it suggests that there are opportunities for environmental benefits through habitat creation and conservation protection areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessReview Review of DC System Technologies for Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy Systems with Electricity Grids
Energies 2010, 3(6), 1303-1319; doi:10.3390/en3061303
Received: 13 May 2010 / Accepted: 12 June 2010 / Published: 22 June 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ever increasing development and availability of power electronic systems is the underpinning technology that enables large scale integration of wind generation plants with the electricity grid. As the size and power capacity of the wind turbine continues to increase, so is [...] Read more.
The ever increasing development and availability of power electronic systems is the underpinning technology that enables large scale integration of wind generation plants with the electricity grid. As the size and power capacity of the wind turbine continues to increase, so is the need to place these significantly large structures at off-shore locations. DC grids and associated power transmission technologies provide opportunities for cost reduction and electricity grid impact minimization as the bulk power is concentrated at single point of entry. As a result, planning, optimization and impact can be studied and carefully controlled minimizing the risk of the investment as well as power system stability issues. This paper discusses the key technologies associated with DC grids for offshore wind farm applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessReview Illustration of Modern Wind Turbine Ancillary Services
Energies 2010, 3(6), 1290-1302; doi:10.3390/en3061290
Received: 6 May 2010 / Accepted: 12 June 2010 / Published: 21 June 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming [...] Read more.
Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming a necessity as wind turbines replace conventional units on the production side. This article includes a review of the basic control issues regarding the capability of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine configuration to fulfill the basic technical requirements set by the system operators and contribute to power system security. An overview of ancillary services provided by wind turbine technology nowadays is provided, i.e., fault ride-through capability, reactive power supply and frequency-active power control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
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Open AccessReview State of the Art and Trends in Wind Resource Assessment
Energies 2010, 3(6), 1087-1141; doi:10.3390/en3061087
Received: 1 April 2010 / Revised: 4 May 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 3 June 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1064 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given the significant rise of the utilization of wind energy the accurate assessment of the wind potential is becoming increasingly important. Direct applications of wind assessment techniques include the creation of wind maps on a local scale (typically 5 20 km) and [...] Read more.
Given the significant rise of the utilization of wind energy the accurate assessment of the wind potential is becoming increasingly important. Direct applications of wind assessment techniques include the creation of wind maps on a local scale (typically 5 20 km) and the micrositing of wind turbines, the estimation of vertical wind speed variations, prospecting on a regional scale (>100 km), estimation of the long-term wind resource at a given site, and forecasting. The measurement of wind speed and direction still widely relies on cup anemometers, though sonic anemometers are becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, remote sensing by Doppler techniques using the backscattering of either sonic beams (SODAR) or light (LIDAR) allowing for vertical profiling well beyond hub height are quickly moving into the mainstream. Local wind maps are based on the predicted modification of the regional wind flow pattern by the local atmospheric boundary layer which in turn depends on both topographic and roughness features and the measured wind rose obtained from one or several measurement towers within the boundaries of the planned development site. Initial models were based on linearized versions of the Navier-Stokes equations, whereas more recently full CFD models have been applied to wind farm micrositing. Linear models tend to perform well for terrain slopes lower than about 25% and have the advantage of short execution times. Long-term performance is frequently estimated from correlations with nearby reference stations with concurrent information and continuous time series over a period of at least 10 years. Simple methods consider only point-to-point linear correlations; more advanced methods like multiple regression techniques and methods based on the theory of distributions will be discussed. Both for early prospecting in regions where only scarce or unreliable reference information is available, wind flow modeling on a larger scale (mesoscale) is becoming increasingly popular. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessReview CFD in Wind Energy: The Virtual, Multiscale Wind Tunnel
Energies 2010, 3(5), 989-1013; doi:10.3390/en3050989
Received: 16 March 2010 / Accepted: 24 April 2010 / Published: 17 May 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past two decades, computational fluid dynamics and particularly the finite volume method have been increasingly used to predict the performance of wind turbines within their environment. Increases in available computational power has led to the application of RANS-based models to [...] Read more.
Over the past two decades, computational fluid dynamics and particularly the finite volume method have been increasingly used to predict the performance of wind turbines within their environment. Increases in available computational power has led to the application of RANS-based models to more and more complex flow problems and permitted the use of LES-based models where previously not possible. The following article reviews the development of CFD as applied by the wind energy community from small to large scale: from the flow around 2D airfoils to the flow through an entire wind farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
Open AccessReview Impacts of Large Scale Wind Penetration on Energy Supply Industry
Energies 2009, 2(4), 1031-1041; doi:10.3390/en20401031
Received: 11 August 2009 / Accepted: 5 November 2009 / Published: 9 November 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI) in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs), Distribution System Operators (DSOs) and [...] Read more.
Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI) in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs), Distribution System Operators (DSOs) and Wind Turbine Generators (WTG) constructors. This paper aims to present in a thorough and coherent way the redrawn picture for Energy Systems under these conditions. Topics related to emergent technical challenges, technical solutions required and finally the impact on ESI due to large wind power penetration, are analyzed. Finally, general conclusions are extracted about the ESI current and future state and general directions are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
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