E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Marine Functional Food"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Colin Barrow

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, 3217, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Marine biotechnology; marine lipids; enzyme catalysts

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The marine environment contains a wide range of biological and chemical diversity. A number of materials derived from the marine environment have historically been used as food ingredients, the most well known being the marine polysaccharides carrageenan, alginate and agar. However, more recently bioactive substances, particularly marine oils and glucosamine, have been added to foods to provide additional health benefits. Functional foods containing omega-3 fats in particular are widely consumed with several hundred new products being introduced worldwide each year. Research on omega-3 fatty acids for functional food includes formulation, stabilization, microencapsulation and research into various forms such as phospholipids, triglyceride and ethyl esters. In additional the omega-3 fats and glucosamine a variety of other marine materials are being developed as functional food ingredients. These include bioactive peptides derived from fish muscle, such as ACE inhibitors, bioactive gelatine and collagen compounds, and material from shellfish, particularly chitin, chitosan and oligo-chitosan.

This special issue of Marine Drugs is devoted to “Marine Functional Food”. The aim of this issue is to present recent advances in the discovery, development and formulation of marine materials as functional food ingredients. Manuscripts in this special issue will cover a number of aspects of recent developments in the field.

Prof. Dr. Colin Barrow
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • functional food
  • marine bioactives
  • omega-3 fats
  • glucosamine
  • food formulation
  • marine byproducts

Published Papers (26 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-26
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Antioxidant, Anti-Nephrolithe Activities and in Vitro Digestibility Studies of Three Different Cyanobacterial Pigment Extracts
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5384-5401; doi:10.3390/md13085384
Received: 2 June 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phycobiliprotein-containing water and carotenoid-containing methanolic extracts of three different cyanobacteria, Pseudanabaena sp., Spirulina sp. and Lyngbya sp., were studied for their DPPH scavenging, iso-bolographic studies, and anti-nephrolithe activities. The best EC50 values for DPPH scavenging were in Lyngbya water (LW, 18.78 ±
[...] Read more.
Phycobiliprotein-containing water and carotenoid-containing methanolic extracts of three different cyanobacteria, Pseudanabaena sp., Spirulina sp. and Lyngbya sp., were studied for their DPPH scavenging, iso-bolographic studies, and anti-nephrolithe activities. The best EC50 values for DPPH scavenging were in Lyngbya water (LW, 18.78 ± 1.57 mg·mg−1 DPPH) and Lyngbya methanol (LM, 59.56 ± 37.38 mg·mg−1 DPPH) extracts. Iso-bolographic analysis revealed most of the combinations of extracts were antagonistic to each other, although LM—Spirulina methanol (SM) 1:1 had the highest synergistic rate of 86.65%. In vitro digestion studies showed that DPPH scavenging activity was considerably decreased in all extracts except for Pseudanabaena methanol (PM) and LM after the simulated digestion. All of the extracts were effective in reducing the calcium oxalate crystal size by nearly 60%–65% compared to negative control, while PM and Spirulina water (SW) extracts could inhibit both nucleation and aggregation of calcium oxalate by nearly 60%–80%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Metabolomic Analysis of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of N-acetyl-d-Glucosamine in Dogs
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5007-5015; doi:10.3390/md13085007
Received: 22 February 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is a monosaccharide that polymerizes linearly through (1,4)-β-linkages. GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin. GlcNAc is a basic component of hyaluronic acid and keratin sulfate found on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to
[...] Read more.
N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is a monosaccharide that polymerizes linearly through (1,4)-β-linkages. GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin. GlcNAc is a basic component of hyaluronic acid and keratin sulfate found on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism after oral GlcNAc administration in dogs. Results showed that plasma levels of ectoine were significantly higher after oral administration of GlcNAc than prior to administration (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, there have been no reports of increased ectoine concentrations in the plasma. The mechanism by which GlcNAc administration leads to increased ectoine plasma concentration remains unclear; future studies are required to clarify this mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa)
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 4654-4681; doi:10.3390/md13084654
Received: 1 May 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are
[...] Read more.
Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Characterization of Shrimp Oil from Pandalus borealis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3849-3876; doi:10.3390/md13063849
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, was recovered from the cooking water of shrimp processing facilities. The oil contains significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in triglyceride form, along with substantial long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids
[...] Read more.
Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, was recovered from the cooking water of shrimp processing facilities. The oil contains significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in triglyceride form, along with substantial long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). It also features natural isomeric forms of astaxanthin, a nutritional carotenoid, which gives the oil a brilliant red color. As part of our efforts in developing value added products from waste streams of the seafood processing industry, we present in this paper a comprehensive characterization of the triacylglycerols (TAGs) and astaxanthin esters that predominate in the shrimp oil by using HPLC-HRMS and MS/MS, as well as 13C-NMR. This approach, in combination with FAME analysis, offers direct characterization of fatty acid molecules in their intact forms, including the distribution of regioisomers in TAGs. The information is important for the standardization and quality control, as well as for differentiation of composition features of shrimp oil, which could be sold as an ingredient in health supplements and functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Ecklonia cava Polyphenol Has a Protective Effect against Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3877-3891; doi:10.3390/md13063877
Received: 12 March 2015 / Revised: 23 May 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previously, we showed that Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP) treatment suppressed ethanol-induced increases in hepatocyte death by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining intracellular glutathione levels. Here, we examined the effects of ECP on the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and their regulating
[...] Read more.
Previously, we showed that Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP) treatment suppressed ethanol-induced increases in hepatocyte death by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining intracellular glutathione levels. Here, we examined the effects of ECP on the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and their regulating mechanisms in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with or without 100 mM ethanol. ECP was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. ECP was added to cultured cells that had been incubated with or without ethanol. The cells were incubated for 0–24 h. In cultured hepatocytes, the ECP treatment with ethanol inhibited cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression and activity, which is related to the production of ROS when large quantities of ethanol are oxidized. On the other hand, ECP treatment with ethanol increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These changes in activities of CYP2E1 and ADH were suppressed by treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. ECP treatment with ethanol enhanced cyclic AMP concentrations compared with those of control cells. ECP may be a candidate for preventing ethanol-induced liver injury via regulating alcohol metabolic enzymes in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3606-3624; doi:10.3390/md13063606
Received: 19 March 2015 / Revised: 16 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 5 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 hwere exposed to 5 mg/Lammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including
[...] Read more.
White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3653-3671; doi:10.3390/md13063653
Received: 28 February 2015 / Revised: 21 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 5 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs), isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA). PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine
[...] Read more.
Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs), isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA). PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0) till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3422-3442; doi:10.3390/md13063422
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 19 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri) was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with ethanol
[...] Read more.
The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri) was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v). The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone–methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Cytoprotective Effect of Petalonia binghamiae Methanol Extract against Oxidative Stress in C2C12 Myoblasts: Mediation by Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2 Related Factor 2
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2666-2679; doi:10.3390/md13052666
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (837 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was designed to examine the protective effects of the marine brown algae Petalonia binghamiae against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. P. binghamiae methanol extract (PBME) prevented hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced growth inhibition and
[...] Read more.
This study was designed to examine the protective effects of the marine brown algae Petalonia binghamiae against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. P. binghamiae methanol extract (PBME) prevented hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced growth inhibition and exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2 in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts. PBME also significantly attenuated H2O2-induced comet tail formation in a comet assay, histone γH2A.X phosphorylation, and annexin V-positive cells, suggesting that PBME prevented H2O2-induced cellular DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, PBME increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent antioxidant enzyme, associated with the induction of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). However, zinc protoporphyrin IX, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, significantly abolished the protective effects of PBME on H2O2-induced ROS generation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PBME augments the antioxidant defense capacity through activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Dark Muscle
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2580-2601; doi:10.3390/md13052580
Received: 7 March 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and
[...] Read more.
Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%), hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%), and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03%) and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively), small molecular sizes (3–6 peptides), low molecular weights (524.78 kDa), and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11). This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis) dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Effects of the Cultivated Chondrus crispus in a C. elegans Model of Parkinson’s Disease
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2250-2266; doi:10.3390/md13042250
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly people, currently with no cure. Its mechanisms are not well understood, thus studies targeting cause-directed therapy or prevention are needed. This study uses the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans PD model. We
[...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly people, currently with no cure. Its mechanisms are not well understood, thus studies targeting cause-directed therapy or prevention are needed. This study uses the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans PD model. We demonstrated that dietary supplementation of the worms with an extract from the cultivated red seaweed Chondrus crispus decreased the accumulation of α-synulein and protected the worms from the neuronal toxin-, 6-OHDA, induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration. These effects were associated with a corrected slowness of movement. We also showed that the enhancement of oxidative stress tolerance and an up-regulation of the stress response genes, sod-3 and skn-1, may have served as the molecular mechanism for the C. crispus-extract-mediated protection against PD pathology. Altogether, apart from its potential as a functional food, the tested red seaweed, C. crispus, might find promising pharmaceutical applications for the development of potential novel anti-neurodegenerative drugs for humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protects against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage by Modulating Inflammatory Mediators in Mice and HepG2 Cells
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 1051-1067; doi:10.3390/md13021051
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 30 January 2015 / Accepted: 10 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or
[...] Read more.
Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Enzyme-Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Material from Chondrus crispus and Codium fragile and Its Effect on Herpes simplex Virus (HSV-1)
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 558-580; doi:10.3390/md13010558
Received: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Codium fragile and Chondrus crispus are, respectively, green and red seaweeds which are abundant along the North Atlantic coasts. We investigated the chemical composition and antiviral activity of enzymatic extracts of C. fragile (CF) and C. crispus (CC). On a dry weight basis,
[...] Read more.
Codium fragile and Chondrus crispus are, respectively, green and red seaweeds which are abundant along the North Atlantic coasts. We investigated the chemical composition and antiviral activity of enzymatic extracts of C. fragile (CF) and C. crispus (CC). On a dry weight basis, CF consisted of 11% protein, 31% neutral sugars, 0.8% sulfate, 0.6% uronic acids, and 49% ash, while CC contained 27% protein, 28% neutral sugars, 17% sulfate, 1.8% uronic acids, and 25% ash. Enzyme-assisted hydrolysis improved the extraction efficiency of bioactive materials. Commercial proteases and carbohydrases significantly improved (p ≤ 0.001) biomass yield (40%–70% dry matter) as compared to aqueous extraction (20%–25% dry matter). Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis enhanced the recovery of protein, neutral sugars, uronic acids, and sulfates. The enzymatic hydrolysates exhibited significant activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) with EC50 of 77.6–126.8 μg/mL for CC and 36.5–41.3 μg/mL for CF, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.001 ID50/cells without cytotoxity (1–200 μg/mL). The extracts obtained from proteases (P1) and carbohydrases (C3) were also effective at higher virus MOI of 0.01 ID50/cells without cytotoxity. Taken together, these results indicate the potential application of enzymatic hydrolysates of C. fragile and C. crispus in functional food and antiviral drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effects of Ecklonia cava Extract on High Glucose-Induced Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(12), 2793-2808; doi:10.3390/md9122793
Received: 10 November 2011 / Revised: 9 December 2011 / Accepted: 13 December 2011 / Published: 20 December 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a disease closely associated with obesity and diabetes. A prevalence of type 2 diabetes and a high body mass index in cryptogenic cirrhosis may imply that obesity leads to cirrhosis. Here, we examined the effects of an extract of
[...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a disease closely associated with obesity and diabetes. A prevalence of type 2 diabetes and a high body mass index in cryptogenic cirrhosis may imply that obesity leads to cirrhosis. Here, we examined the effects of an extract of Ecklonia cava, a brown algae, on the activation of high glucose-induced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), key players in hepatic fibrosis. Isolated HSCs were incubated with or without a high glucose concentration. Ecklonia cava extract (ECE) was added to the culture simultaneously with the high glucose. Treatment with high glucose stimulated expression of type I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin, which are markers of activation in HSCs, in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of high glucose-treated HSCs was suppressed by the ECE. An increase in the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in intracellular glutathione levels were observed soon after treatment with high glucose, and these changes were suppressed by the simultaneous addition of ECE. High glucose levels stimulated the secretion of bioactive transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) from the cells, and the stimulation was also suppressed by treating the HSCs with ECE. These results suggest that the suppression of high glucose-induced HSC activation by ECE is mediated through the inhibition of ROS and/or GSH and the downregulation of TGF-β secretion. ECE is useful for preventing the development of diabetic liver fibrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Chitosan, the Marine Functional Food, Is a Potent Adsorbent of Humic Acid
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(12), 2488-2498; doi:10.3390/md9122488
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 28 November 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan is prepared by the deacetylation of chitin, the second-most abundant biopolymer in nature, and has applicability in the removal of dyes, heavy metals and radioactive waste for pollution control. In weight-reduction remedies, chitosan is used to form hydrogels with lipids and to
[...] Read more.
Chitosan is prepared by the deacetylation of chitin, the second-most abundant biopolymer in nature, and has applicability in the removal of dyes, heavy metals and radioactive waste for pollution control. In weight-reduction remedies, chitosan is used to form hydrogels with lipids and to depress the intestinal absorption of lipids. In this study, an experimental method was implemented to simulate the effect of chitosan on the adsorption of humic acid in the gastrointestinal tract. The adsorption capacity of chitosan was measured by its adsorption isotherm and analyzed using the Langmuir equation. The results showed that 3.3 grams of humic acid was absorbed by 1 gram of chitosan. The adsorption capacity of chitosan was much greater than that of chitin, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose or activated charcoal. Cellulose and carboxymethyl-cellulose, a cellulose derivative with a negative charge, could not adsorb humic acid in the gastrointestinal tract. This result suggests that chitosan entraps humic acid because of its positive charge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Effect of a Marine Oligopeptide Preparation from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis in Radiation Injured Mice
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(11), 2304-2315; doi:10.3390/md9112304
Received: 27 September 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine oligopeptide preparation (MOP) obtained from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) by the method of enzymatic hydrolysis, has been found to possess a radioprotective property through stimulation of the radiation-induced immunosuppression. The current study aimed to further investigate the free radicals scavenging
[...] Read more.
Marine oligopeptide preparation (MOP) obtained from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) by the method of enzymatic hydrolysis, has been found to possess a radioprotective property through stimulation of the radiation-induced immunosuppression. The current study aimed to further investigate the free radicals scavenging and antioxidant effects of MOP in radiation injured mice. Female ICR mice (6–8 weeks old) were randomly divided into 5 groups, i.e., blank control, irradiation control and MOP (0.225, 0.450 and 1.350 g/kg body weight) plus an irradiation-treated group. The result revealed that MOP significantly increased the white blood cell counts after irradiation, and lessened the radiation-induced oxidative damage. These effects may be caused by augmentation of the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GSH-Px, reduction of the lipid peroxidation (MDA level) in liver, and protection against radiation-induced apoptosis. Therefore, we propose that MOP be used as an ideal antioxidant to alleviate radiation-induced oxidation damage in cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Thermal Transition Properties of Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) and Ling (Genypterus blacodes) Skin Collagens: Implications for Processing
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1176-1186; doi:10.3390/md9071176
Received: 6 May 2011 / Revised: 21 June 2011 / Accepted: 22 June 2011 / Published: 28 June 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) and ling (Genypterus blacodes) are cold-water fish caught in New Zealand waters. Their skins are a major component of the post-processing waste stream. Valuable products could be developed from the skins, as they are primarily composed
[...] Read more.
Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) and ling (Genypterus blacodes) are cold-water fish caught in New Zealand waters. Their skins are a major component of the post-processing waste stream. Valuable products could be developed from the skins, as they are primarily composed of collagen, which has many commercial applications. We prepared acid soluble collagens (ASC) from hoki and ling skins, and analyzed their thermal denaturation properties using a Rapid Visco™ Analyzer. At slower heating rates the denaturation temperature (TD) of hoki and ling collagens decreased. This result is consistent with the model of irreversible rate kinetics for the denaturation of collagen. We determined the effects of solvents that disrupt hydrogen bonding on ASC stability. Increasing concentrations of urea from 0.1 M to 1.0 M and acetic acid from 0.1 M to 0.5 M decreased TD. This resulted from the effects of these reagents on the hydrogen bonds that stabilize the collagen triple helix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Heated Sterilized Pepsin Hydrolysate Derived from Half-Fin Anchovy (Setipinna taty)
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1142-1156; doi:10.3390/md9061142
Received: 9 May 2011 / Revised: 14 June 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 23 June 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we studied the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the heated pepsin hydrolysate from a marine fish half-fin anchovy (HAHp-H). Furthermore, we compared the chemical profiles including the amino acid composition, the browning intensity, the IR and UV-visible spectra, and the
[...] Read more.
In this paper we studied the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the heated pepsin hydrolysate from a marine fish half-fin anchovy (HAHp-H). Furthermore, we compared the chemical profiles including the amino acid composition, the browning intensity, the IR and UV-visible spectra, and the molecular weight distribution between the half-fin anchovy pepsin hydrolysate (HAHp) and HAHp-H. Results showed that heat sterilization on HAHp improved the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, the antiproliferative activities were all increased for HAHp-H on DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line, 1299 human lung cancer cell line and 109 human esophagus cancer cell line. The contents of free amino acid and reducing sugar of HAHp-H were decreased (P < 0.05). However, hydrophobic amino acid residues and the browning intensity of HAHp-H were increased. FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that amide I and amide III bands of HAHp-H were slightly modified, whereas band intensity of amide II was reduced dramatically. Thermal sterilization resulted in the increased fractions of HAHp-H with molecular weight of 3000–5000 Da and below 500 Da. The enhanced antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of HAHp-H might be attributed to the Maillard reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1119-1132; doi:10.3390/md9061119
Received: 21 March 2011 / Revised: 3 May 2011 / Accepted: 24 May 2011 / Published: 17 June 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds
[...] Read more.
Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Oral Glucosamine Hydrochloride Administration on Plasma Free Amino Acid Concentrations in Dogs
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(5), 712-718; doi:10.3390/md9050712
Received: 23 March 2011 / Revised: 18 April 2011 / Accepted: 25 April 2011 / Published: 27 April 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We examined the effects of oral glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and D-glucose (Glc) administration on plasma total free amino acid (PFAA) concentrations in dogs. The PFAA concentrations increased in the control group and the GlcNAc group at one hour after feeding,
[...] Read more.
We examined the effects of oral glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and D-glucose (Glc) administration on plasma total free amino acid (PFAA) concentrations in dogs. The PFAA concentrations increased in the control group and the GlcNAc group at one hour after feeding, and each amino acid concentration increased. On the other hand, in the GlcN group and the Glc group PFAA concentrations decreased at one hour after feeding. A significant decrease in amino acid concentration was observed for glutamate, glycine and alanine. Our results suggest the existence of differences in PFAA dynamics after oral administration of GlcN and GlcNAc in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Oral Administration of Skin Gelatin Isolated from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) Enhances Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(5), 696-711; doi:10.3390/md9050696
Received: 4 March 2011 / Revised: 12 April 2011 / Accepted: 18 April 2011 / Published: 26 April 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Care for diabetic wounds remains a significant clinical problem. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of skin gelatin from Chum Salmon on defective wound repair in the skin of diabetic rats. Full-thickness excisional skin wounds were made in 48 rats,
[...] Read more.
Care for diabetic wounds remains a significant clinical problem. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of skin gelatin from Chum Salmon on defective wound repair in the skin of diabetic rats. Full-thickness excisional skin wounds were made in 48 rats, of which 32 were diabetes. The diabetic rats were orally treated daily for 14 days with skin gelatin from Chum Salmon (2 g/kg) or its vehicle. Sixteen non-diabetic control rats received the same amount of water as vehicle-treated non-diabetic rats. Rats were killed to assess the rate of wound closure, microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hydroxyproline (HP) contents in wound tissues and nitrate in plasma and wound tissue at 7 and 14 days after wounding. Skin gelatin-treated diabetic rats showed a better wound closure, increased MVD, VEGF, hyproxyproline and NO contents and a reduced extent of inflammatory response. All parameters were significant (P < 0.05) in comparison to vehicle-treated diabetic group. In light of our finding that skin gelatin of Chum Salmon promotes skin wound repair in diabetic rats, we propose that oral administration of Chum Salmon skin gelatin might be a beneficial method for treating wound disorders associated with diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Seaweeds as Preventive Agents for Cardiovascular Diseases: From Nutrients to Functional Foods
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(11), 6838-6865; doi:10.3390/md13116838
Received: 8 August 2015 / Revised: 16 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Being naturally enriched in key nutrients and in various health-promoting compounds, seaweeds represent promising candidates for the design of functional foods. Soluble dietary fibers, peptides, phlorotannins, lipids and minerals are macroalgae’s major compounds that can hold potential in high-value food products derived from
[...] Read more.
Being naturally enriched in key nutrients and in various health-promoting compounds, seaweeds represent promising candidates for the design of functional foods. Soluble dietary fibers, peptides, phlorotannins, lipids and minerals are macroalgae’s major compounds that can hold potential in high-value food products derived from macroalgae, including those directed to the cardiovascular-health promotion. This manuscript revises available reported data focusing the role of diet supplementation of macroalgae, or extracts enriched in bioactive compounds from macroalgae origin, in targeting modifiable markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), like dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, hypertension, hypercoagulability and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems, among others. At last, the review also describes several products that have been formulated with the use of whole macroalgae or extracts, along with their claimed cardiovascular-associated benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Figures

Open AccessReview Proteins and Carbohydrates from Red Seaweeds: Evidence for Beneficial Effects on Gut Function and Microbiota
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5358-5383; doi:10.3390/md13085358
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of
[...] Read more.
Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain “cellulose binding domains”, phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids) together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and “dl-hybrid”) and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), Toll-like receptors (TLR) and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessReview Anti-Obesity Activity of the Marine Carotenoid Fucoxanthin
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2196-2214; doi:10.3390/md13042196
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a
[...] Read more.
Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a state of low-level inflammation, is a powerful determinant both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. A few molecular targets offer hope for anti-obesity therapeutics. One of the keys to success could be the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the regulation of cytokine secretions from both abdominal adipose cells and macrophage cells infiltrated into adipose tissue. Anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid, exactly belonging to xanthophylls, have been reported. Nutrigenomic studies reveal that fucoxanthin induces UCP1 in abdominal WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose levels through the regulation of cytokine secretions from WAT. The key structure of anti-obesity effect is suggested to be the carotenoid end of the polyene chromophore, which contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups. Fucoxanthin, which can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds, recently displayed its many physiological functions and biological properties. We reviewed recent studies and this article aims to explain essential background of fucoxanthin, focusing on its promising potential anti-obesity effects. In this respect, fucoxanthin can be developed into promising marine drugs and nutritional products, in order to become a helpful functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessReview High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(10), 1761-1805; doi:10.3390/md9101761
Received: 3 August 2011 / Revised: 30 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 September 2011 / Published: 10 October 2011
Cited by 108 | PDF Full-text (548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat,
[...] Read more.
Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessReview Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1056-1100; doi:10.3390/md9061056
Received: 2 April 2011 / Revised: 2 June 2011 / Accepted: 8 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
Cited by 150 | PDF Full-text (634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the
[...] Read more.
The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Marine Drugs Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
marinedrugs@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Marine Drugs
Back to Top