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Special Issue "Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Taylor C. Wallace

Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, George Mason University, USA; National Osteoporosis Foundation, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nutritional interventions (micronutrient and dietary bioactive components) to promote health and prevent the onset of chronic disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is general agreement within the fields of food, nutrition, and medical sciences that an individual’s diet and lifestyle can substantially predispose one to, or protect against osteoporosis, low bone mass, and numerous other age-related bone diseases. Dietary bioactives, found in a wide variety of plant foods, have the great potential to influence bone health. The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements has defined dietary bioactives as “compounds that are constituents in foods and dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic human nutritional needs, which are responsible for changes in health status.” These compounds are generally thought to be safe in food at normal consumption levels (e.g., polyphenols in plant foods). Dietary bioactives are currently being assessed for their properties beyond antioxidant capacity, including anti-inflammatory actions. Some compounds or classes of compounds have been reported to enhance bone formation and inhibit bone resorption through their actions on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

Emerging scientific evidence is available, including limited dose-response relationships and statistically significant improvements in bone health. However, the literature is in its infancy and well-designed clinical, observational and mechanistic data are needed to better advance our understanding of the importance and mechanisms as to why bioactives may be able to influence long-term bone health outcomes.

Dr. Taylor C. Wallace
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

•    dietary bioactives
•    bone
•    osteoporosis
•    low bone mass
•    flavonoids
•    polyphenols
•    plant foods
•    osteoblast
•    osteoclast
•    antioxidant

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Palmitoleic Acid Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption by Suppressing NF-κB and MAPK Signalling Pathways
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 441; doi:10.3390/nu9050441
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are responsible for the breakdown or resorption of bone during bone remodelling. Studies have shown that certain fatty acids (FAs) can increase bone formation, reduce bone loss, and influence total bone mass. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) is a
[...] Read more.
Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are responsible for the breakdown or resorption of bone during bone remodelling. Studies have shown that certain fatty acids (FAs) can increase bone formation, reduce bone loss, and influence total bone mass. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) is a 16-carbon, monounsaturated FA that has shown anti-inflammatory properties similar to other FAs. The effects of PLA in bone remain unexplored. Here we investigated the effects of PLA on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. PLA decreased the number of large, multinucleated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive osteoclasts and furthermore, suppressed the osteolytic capability of these osteoclasts. This was accompanied by a decrease in expression of resorption markers (Trap, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp9), cathepsin K (Ctsk)). PLA further decreased the expression of genes involved in the formation and function of osteoclasts. Additionally, PLA inhibited NF-κB activity and the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK). Moreover, PLA induced apoptosis in mature osteoclasts. This study reveals that PLA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in RAW264.7 murine macrophages through suppression of NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways. This may indicate that PLA has potential as a therapeutic for bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclast formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle Distribution of Constituents and Metabolites of Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) into Serum, Blood Cells, and Synovial Fluid of Patients with Severe Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 443; doi:10.3390/nu9050443
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
The present randomized controlled study aimed to investigate the in vivo distribution of constituents or metabolites of the standardized maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol®. Thirty-three patients with severe osteoarthritis scheduled for a knee arthroplasty were randomized to receive either 200 mg
[...] Read more.
The present randomized controlled study aimed to investigate the in vivo distribution of constituents or metabolites of the standardized maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol®. Thirty-three patients with severe osteoarthritis scheduled for a knee arthroplasty were randomized to receive either 200 mg per day Pycnogenol® (P+) or no treatment (Co) over three weeks before surgery. Serum, blood cells, and synovial fluid samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI/MS/MS). Considerable interindividual differences were observed indicating pronounced variability of the polyphenol pharmacokinetics. Notably, the highest polyphenol concentrations were not detected in serum. Catechin and taxifolin primarily resided within the blood cells while the microbial catechin metabolite δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-γ-valerolactone, ferulic, and caffeic acid were mainly present in synovial fluid samples. Taxifolin was detected in serum and synovial fluid exclusively in the P+ group. Likewise, no ferulic acid was found in serum samples of the Co group. Calculating ratios of analyte distribution in individual patients revealed a simultaneous presence of some polyphenols in serum, blood cells, and/or synovial fluid only in the P+ group. This is the first evidence that polyphenols distribute into the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis which supports rationalizing the results of clinical efficacy studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Consumption of Hesperidin and Naringin  Flavanones Exerts Transient Effects to Tibia Bone  Structure in Female CD‐1 Offspring
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 250; doi:10.3390/nu9030250
Received: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR), flavanones rich in citrus fruits, support skeletal integrity in adult and aging rodent models. This study determined whether maternal consumption of HSP and NAR favorably programs bone development, resulting in higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater structure
[...] Read more.
Hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR), flavanones rich in citrus fruits, support skeletal integrity in adult and aging rodent models. This study determined whether maternal consumption of HSP and NAR favorably programs bone development, resulting in higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater structure and biomechanical strength (i.e., peak load) in female offspring. Female CD‐1 mice were fed a control diet or a HSP + NAR diet five weeks before pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, female offspring were fed a control diet until six months of age. The structure and BMD of the proximal tibia were measured longitudinally using in vivo microcomputed tomography at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The trabecular bone structure at two and four months and the trabecular BMD at four months were compromised at the proximal tibia in mice exposed to HSP and NAR compared to the control diet (p < 0.001). At six months of age, these differences in trabecular structure and BMD at the proximal tibia had disappeared. At 6 months of age, the tibia midpoint peak load, BMD, structure, and the peak load of lumbar vertebrae and femurs were similar (p > 0.05) between the HSP + NAR and control groups. In conclusion, maternal consumption of HSP and NAR does not enhance bone development in female CD‐1 offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle Antiosteoporotic Activity of Genistein Aglycone in Postmenopausal Women: Evidence from a Post-Hoc Analysis of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 179; doi:10.3390/nu9020179
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
Genistein has a preventive role against bone mass loss during menopause. However, experimental data in animal models of osteoporosis suggest an anti-osteoporotic potential for this isoflavone. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a previously published trial investigating the effects of genistein in postmenopausal
[...] Read more.
Genistein has a preventive role against bone mass loss during menopause. However, experimental data in animal models of osteoporosis suggest an anti-osteoporotic potential for this isoflavone. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a previously published trial investigating the effects of genistein in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. The parent study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving postmenopausal women with a femoral neck (FN) density <0.795 g/cm2. A cohort of the enrolled women was, in fact, identified at the baseline as osteoporotic (n = 121) on the basis of their T-score and analyzed thereafter for the 24 months’ treatment with either 1000 mg of calcium and 800 IU vitamin D3 (placebo; n = 59); or calcium, vitamin D3, and Genistein aglycone (54 mg/day; genistein; n = 62). According to the femoral neck T-scores, 31.3% of the genistein and 30.9% of the placebo recipients were osteoporotic at baseline. In the placebo and genistein groups, the 10-year hip fracture probability risk assessed by Fracture Risk Assessment tool (FRAX) was 4.1 ± 1.9 (SD) and 4.2 ± 2.1 (SD), respectively. Mean bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck increased from 0.62 g/cm2 at baseline to 0.68 g/cm2 at 1 year and 0.70 g/cm2 at 2 years in genistein recipients, and decreased from 0.61 g/cm2 at baseline to 0.60 g/cm2 at 1 year and 0.57 g/cm2 at 2 years in placebo recipients. At the end of the study only 18 postmenopausal women had osteoporosis in the genistein group with a prevalence of 12%, whereas in the placebo group the number of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was unchanged, after 24 months. This post-hoc analysis is a proof-of concept study suggesting that genistein may be useful not only in postmenopausal osteopenia but also in osteoporosis. However, this proof-of concept study needs to be confirmed by a large, well designed, and appropriately focused randomized clinical trial in a population at high risk of fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Tocotrienol and Lovastatin Co-Supplementation on Bone Dynamic Histomorphometry and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Expression in Rats with Estrogen Deficiency
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 143; doi:10.3390/nu9020143
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
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Abstract
Both tocotrienol and statins are suppressors of the mevalonate pathway. Supplementation of tocotrienol among statin users could potentially protect them against osteoporosis. This study aimed to compare the effects of tocotrienol and lovastatin co-supplementation with individual treatments on bone dynamic histomorphometric indices and
[...] Read more.
Both tocotrienol and statins are suppressors of the mevalonate pathway. Supplementation of tocotrienol among statin users could potentially protect them against osteoporosis. This study aimed to compare the effects of tocotrienol and lovastatin co-supplementation with individual treatments on bone dynamic histomorphometric indices and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) gene expression in ovariectomized rats. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized equally into six groups. The baseline was sacrificed upon receipt. All other groups were ovariectomized, except for the sham group. The ovariectomized groups were administered orally daily with (1) lovastatin 11 mg/kg/day alone; (2) tocotrienol derived from annatto bean (annatto tocotrienol) 60 mg/kg/day alone; (3) lovastatin 11 mg/kg/day, and annatto tocotrienol 60 mg/kg/day. The sham and ovariectomized control groups were treated with equal volume of vehicle. After eight weeks of treatment, the rats were sacrificed. Their bones were harvested for bone dynamic histomorphometry and BMP-2 gene expression. Rats supplemented with annatto tocotrienol and lovastatin concurrently demonstrated significantly lower single-labeled surface, but increased double-labeled surface, mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate compared to individual treatments (p < 0.05). There was a parallel increase in BMP-2 gene expression in the rats receiving combined treatment (p < 0.05). The combination of annatto tocotrienol and lovastatin exerted either additively or synergistically on selected bone parameters. In conclusion, tocotrienol can augment the bone formation and mineralization in rats receiving low-dose statins. Supplementation of tocotrienol in statin users can potentially protect them from osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 658; doi:10.3390/nu8100658
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract
The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal
[...] Read more.
The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview Dried Plums, Prunes and Bone Health: A Comprehensive Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 401; doi:10.3390/nu9040401
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of
[...] Read more.
The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of Americans age 50+ have either osteoporosis or low bone mass. Dried plums, also commonly referred to as prunes, have a unique nutrient and dietary bioactive profile and are suggested to exert beneficial effects on bone. To further elucidate and summarize the potential mechanisms and effects of dried plums on bone health, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature was conducted. The PubMed database was searched through 24 January 2017 for all cell, animal, population and clinical studies that examined the effects of dried plums and/or extracts of the former on markers of bone health. Twenty-four studies were included in the review and summarized in table form. The beneficial effects of dried plums on bone health may be in part due to the variety of phenolics present in the fruit. Animal and cell studies suggest that dried plums and/or their extracts enhance bone formation and inhibit bone resorption through their actions on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. These studies are consistent with clinical studies that show that dried plums may exert beneficial effects on bone mineral density (BMD). Long-term prospective cohort studies using fractures and BMD as primary endpoints are needed to confirm the effects of smaller clinical, animal and mechanistic studies. Clinical and prospective cohort studies in men are also needed, since they represent roughly 29% of fractures, and likewise, diverse race and ethnic groups. No adverse effects were noted among any of the studies included in this comprehensive review. While the data are not completely consistent, this review suggests that postmenopausal women may safely consume dried plums as part of their fruit intake recommendations given their potential to have protective effects on bone loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
Open AccessReview Phytomedicine in Joint Disorders
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 70; doi:10.3390/nu9010070
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 16 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated
[...] Read more.
Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even though many of them have been proven effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available scientific information on the following joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswellia spp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytum procumbens, Salix spp., Sesamum indicum, Symphytum officinalis, Zingiber officinalis, Panax notoginseng, and Whitania somnifera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
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