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Special Issue "Managing Water in a Changing World: Selected Papers from the 7th Conference of the Commission on Water Sustainability"

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A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Claudio Cassardo (Website)

Department of General Physics “Amedeo Avogadro”, Faculty of Sciences, University of Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy
Phone: +39 011 6707407
Fax: +39 011 658444
Interests: study of exchange processes in the surface boundary layer; influence on present and future climate of the land surface processes; simulation of extremal meteorological events with mesoscale models; measurements of physical and meteorological parameters in the surface layer; study of distribution of sources of major tropospheric pollutants
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. J. Anthony A. Jones (Website)

Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, UK
Phone: +44 (0)1970 622 595
Fax: +44 (0)1970 622 659
Interests: hydrological processes; water resources;climate change impacts

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Managing Water in a Changing World
Water 2011, 3(2), 618-628; doi:10.3390/w3020618
Received: 30 May 2011 / Accepted: 30 May 2011 / Published: 10 June 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water, being a primary element in the diet and a necessary resource for the agriculture, can be considered a basic need for humans. In addition, also industrial practices need a growing amount of water. Since human population is continuously growing at a [...] Read more.
Water, being a primary element in the diet and a necessary resource for the agriculture, can be considered a basic need for humans. In addition, also industrial practices need a growing amount of water. Since human population is continuously growing at a rate that, in the last two centuries, approximates well the exponential, water demand is increasing. However, the water resources on the Earth are finite. For this reason, even disregarding the potential threats due to the climate change, this situation appears as one of the biggest challenges of the current era. Actually, several small-scale regions already face water sustainability problems, and the scarcity of water resources is expected to spread to wider areas in the near future, if the actual trends of development and population growth do not change. The situation is exacerbated as the climate is already changing, due to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and its rate is expected to increase by the end of this century. The effects of these changes will increase the natural variability of the climate, exacerbating the extreme climatic phenomena (drought and flood events) and increasing the difficulty of managing water resources, especially in the most vulnerable regions. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin
Water 2011, 3(3), 718-736; doi:10.3390/w3030718
Received: 3 May 2011 / Revised: 8 June 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 27 June 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a [...] Read more.
The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle) Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic) scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) problems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Present Characteristics of Northwestern Patagonia (Argentina)
Water 2011, 3(2), 576-589; doi:10.3390/w3020576
Received: 13 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 May 2011 / Published: 13 May 2011
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Abstract
Changes experienced in temperature, precipitation, demography and land coverage are the main themes studied in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which includes part of Neuquén, Río Negro and Chubut provinces. The precipitation shows important interannual variability and decreases during the warm semester. The mean [...] Read more.
Changes experienced in temperature, precipitation, demography and land coverage are the main themes studied in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which includes part of Neuquén, Río Negro and Chubut provinces. The precipitation shows important interannual variability and decreases during the warm semester. The mean minimum temperature in January in Neuquén city increased with statistical significance. Forests and steppe are the more important ecosystems of the area and the native forests of Nothofagus sp. are located mainly in protected areas like National or Provincial Parks. Twenty-eight percent of the Andean—patagonic forests are in the Río Negro province, while Neuquén province has 9% and Chubut province has 26%. The censuses of 1991 and 2001 showed that Los Lagos, Lacar, Picún Leufú and Cushamen are the counties with increasing population. Full article
Open AccessArticle Peatlands as Filters for Polluted Mine Water?—A Case Study from an Uranium-Contaminated Karst System in South Africa—Part I: Hydrogeological Setting and U Fluxes
Water 2011, 3(1), 291-322; doi:10.3390/w3010291
Received: 12 February 2011 / Accepted: 10 March 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Located downstream of goldfields of the Witwatersrand basin, the Gerhard Minnebron (GMB) Eye—as major water source for downstream community of some 300,000 people—may be impacted on by mining-related water pollution especially with uranium (U). Containing up to 5 m-thick deposits of peat [...] Read more.
Located downstream of goldfields of the Witwatersrand basin, the Gerhard Minnebron (GMB) Eye—as major water source for downstream community of some 300,000 people—may be impacted on by mining-related water pollution especially with uranium (U). Containing up to 5 m-thick deposits of peat that is frequently reported to act as a filter for U and other heavy metals, this paper is the first part of a series that aims to quantify the ability of the GMB peatland to act as buffer against current and future U pollution. In a first step, this paper outlines the geohydrological conditions and discusses how deep–level gold mining impacted on the dolomitic aquifers. Subsequently, the potential influx of U into the wetland is estimated and associated sources and pathways analyzed. Finally, a model is proposed explaining the significant differences in degree and dynamics of U observed within a single groundwater compartment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Peatlands as Filters for Polluted Mine Water?—A Case Study from an Uranium-Contaminated Karst System in South Africa—Part II: Examples from Literature and a Conceptual Filter Model
Water 2011, 3(1), 323-355; doi:10.3390/w3010323
Published: 15 March 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the second part of a series of four, this paper reviews a number of case studies of natural uranium attenuation in peat, as well as underlying chemical mechanisms reported in literature. Based on this review, a generic, conceptual, model for peat [...] Read more.
As the second part of a series of four, this paper reviews a number of case studies of natural uranium attenuation in peat, as well as underlying chemical mechanisms reported in literature. Based on this review, a generic, conceptual, model for peat to act as filter for dissolved uranium (U) is developed for guiding subsequent field investigations. The model consists of a chemical and an hydraulic component which is derived largely from data reported in literature as well as from limited field observations. For the chemical model component 10 different processes, each controlled by factors relating to water chemistry, have been identified to govern the attenuation of U in peat via a net balance of immobilization and remobilization. For the hydraulic aspect of the filter model, five different principal modes of U polluted water coming in contact with peat are discussed, focusing on the associated peat-water contact time as a crucial parameter controlling chemical U attenuation. Moreover, links between the two model components are discussed and, based on the integrated conceptual model, possible effects of natural and anthropogenic events on U attenuation in peatlands are outlined. Guided by the model, various site-specific field and laboratory investigations are finally designed to verify how far the identified generic factors and processes are indeed applicable to the Gerhard Minnebron Peatland. Full article
Open AccessArticle Peatlands as Filters for Polluted Mine Water?—A Case Study from an Uranium-Contaminated Karst System in South Africa—Part III: Quantifying the Hydraulic Filter Component
Water 2011, 3(1), 356-390; doi:10.3390/w3010356
Received: 12 February 2011 / Accepted: 10 March 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3591 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As Part III of a four-part series on the filter function of peat for uranium (U), this paper focuses on the hydraulic component of a conceptual filter model introduced in Part II. This includes the quantification of water flow through the wetland [...] Read more.
As Part III of a four-part series on the filter function of peat for uranium (U), this paper focuses on the hydraulic component of a conceptual filter model introduced in Part II. This includes the quantification of water flow through the wetland as a whole, which was largely unknown and found to be significantly higher that anticipated. Apart from subaquatic artesian springs associated with the underlying karst aquifer the higher flow volumes were also caused by plumes of polluted groundwater moving laterally into the wetland. Real-time, quasi-continuous in situ measurements of porewater in peat and non-peat sediments indicate that rising stream levels (e.g., during flood conditions) lead to the infiltration of stream water into adjacent peat deposits and thus allow for a certain proportion of flood water to be filtered. However, changes in porewater quality triggered by spring rains may promote the remobilization of possibly sorbed U. Full article
Open AccessArticle Soil Water Surplus in Salado River Basin and Its Variability during the Last Forty Years (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina)
Water 2011, 3(1), 132-145; doi:10.3390/w3010132
Received: 11 November 2010 / Accepted: 30 December 2010 / Published: 18 January 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil water surplus and deficit occur frequently in Buenos Aires province in Argentina. This paper analyses the soil water surplus in a sub-area, the Salado River basin, in the period 1968–2008. This basin is divided in seven drainage areas, delimitated according to [...] Read more.
Soil water surplus and deficit occur frequently in Buenos Aires province in Argentina. This paper analyses the soil water surplus in a sub-area, the Salado River basin, in the period 1968–2008. This basin is divided in seven drainage areas, delimitated according to the National Water Resources. The series of soil water surplus data were adjusted by means of the theoretical normal cubic-root probability distribution, and the mean areal soil water surplus value of 300 mm was considered as a threshold above which floods can cause severe damage. An increase in the frequency of extreme events and in their tendency exists during the recent years, coherent with the increase of precipitation recorded in the region. The statistical significance of the results was assessed using the Mann Kendall and MAKESENS tests. The results showed a relevant temporal variability, but did not show significant tendencies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of Factors Influencing Evapotranspiration Processes in Vineyards
Water 2010, 2(4), 916-937; doi:10.3390/w2040916
Received: 7 October 2010 / Revised: 20 October 2010 / Accepted: 29 November 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper summarizes the preliminary results from the analysis of data collected during the 2008 and 2009 vegetative seasons in a northern Italy vineyard (Vitis vinifera L., Barbera variety) and the simulations carried out in the same period with the land surface [...] Read more.
The paper summarizes the preliminary results from the analysis of data collected during the 2008 and 2009 vegetative seasons in a northern Italy vineyard (Vitis vinifera L., Barbera variety) and the simulations carried out in the same period with the land surface model UTOPIA. The aim of the work is to study the influence of the meteorological factors on the plant conditions. We collected a set of standard and advanced meteorological, physiological and physical data and we investigated the performance of UTOPIA in describing the different components of the energy and hydrological processes (in particular the evapotranspiration), with a special focus on the vegetation and soil. The comparison between observed data and UTOPIA simulations showed satisfactory results for the soil variables (RRMSE ranging between 15% and 40%, and correlation coefficients of 0.9). Net radiation and sensible heat fluxes RRMSE (30% and 63% respectively) suggest that both the calibration of the vegetation parameters (including the influence of the grass among vine rows) and the availability of more specific measurements are very important. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Heavy Rainfall Monitoring by Polarimetric C-Band Weather Radars
Water 2010, 2(4), 838-848; doi:10.3390/w2040838
Received: 8 October 2010 / Accepted: 8 November 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piemonte region, in the north-western Italy, is characterized by complex orography and Mediterranean influence that often causes extreme rainfall event, during the warm season. Although the region is monitored by a dense gauge network (more than one gauge per 100 km2 [...] Read more.
Piemonte region, in the north-western Italy, is characterized by complex orography and Mediterranean influence that often causes extreme rainfall event, during the warm season. Although the region is monitored by a dense gauge network (more than one gauge per 100 km2), the ground measurements are often inadequate to properly observe intense and highly variable precipitations. Polarimetric weather radars provide a unique way to monitor rainfall over wide areas, with the required spatial detail and temporal resolution. Nevertheless, most European weather radar networks are operating at C-band, which may seriously limit quantitative precipitation estimation in heavy rainfall due to relevant power signal attenuation. Phase measurements, unlike power measurements, are not affected by signal attenuation. For this reason, polarimetric radars, for which the differential phase shift measurements are available, provide an additional way in which to estimate precipitation, which is immune to signal attenuation. In this work differential phase based rainfall estimation techniques are applied to analyze two flash-floods: the first one occurred on the Ligurian Apennines on 16 August 2006 and the second occurred on 13 September 2008, causing rain accumulations above 270 mm in few hours. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Role of Geohydrology in the Determination of a Spatial Development Framework in the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site
Water 2010, 2(4), 742-772; doi:10.3390/w2040742
Received: 3 September 2010 / Revised: 28 September 2010 / Accepted: 12 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface water resources (the Vaal River and its tributaries) in the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site (VDWHS), South Africa, have been over extended and future development will rely solely on groundwater. Hence, being at a critical point in the water balance, groundwater [...] Read more.
Surface water resources (the Vaal River and its tributaries) in the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site (VDWHS), South Africa, have been over extended and future development will rely solely on groundwater. Hence, being at a critical point in the water balance, groundwater resources in the VDWHS require careful management and protection to ensure sustainability and equitable access. An assessment of the geohydrological character of the VDWHS was therefore done in order to develop a groundwater resource management plan. Five groundwater resource management units were delineated and resource measures for each management unit were developed based on physical and anthropogenic attributes. Due to the importance of groundwater in the VDWHS, it was determined that geohydrology should play a major role in the alignment of the environmental, spatial and statutory development frameworks, in order to ensure good governance. A geohydrological-based land use management guideline and spatial development framework was developed to optimize the integration between the water sector, the environmental sector and land use and spatial planning sector. It was concluded that a geohydrological assessment needs to form the basis of all future land use management and spatial planning activities in the VDWHS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Snow Precipitation and Snow Cover Climatic Variability for the Period 1971–2009 in the Southwestern Italian Alps: The 2008–2009 Snow Season Case Study
Water 2010, 2(4), 773-787; doi:10.3390/w2040773
Received: 8 September 2010 / Revised: 7 October 2010 / Accepted: 17 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Snow cover greatly influences the climate in the Alpine region and is one of the most relevant parameters for the climate change analysis. Nevertheless, snow precipitation variability is a relatively underexplored field of research because of the lack of long-term, continuous and [...] Read more.
Snow cover greatly influences the climate in the Alpine region and is one of the most relevant parameters for the climate change analysis. Nevertheless, snow precipitation variability is a relatively underexplored field of research because of the lack of long-term, continuous and homogeneous time series. After a historical research aiming to recover continuous records, three high quality time series of snow precipitation and snow depth recorded in the southwestern Italian Alps were analyzed. The comparison between the climatological indices over the 30 years reference period 1971–2000 and the decade 2000–2009 outlined a general decrease in the amount of snow precipitation, and a shift in the seasonal distribution of the snow precipitation in the most recent period. In the analysis of the last decade snow seasons characteristics, the attention was focused on the heavy snowfalls that occurred in Piedmont during the 2008–2009 snow season: MODerate resolution Imager Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover products were used to evaluate snow cover extension at different times during the snow season, and the results were set in relation to the temperatures. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents
Water 2010, 2(3), 550-565; doi:10.3390/w2030550
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 19 August 2010 / Accepted: 24 August 2010 / Published: 31 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass [...] Read more.
Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Different Freezing/Thawing Parameterizations using the UTOPIA Model
Water 2010, 2(3), 468-483; doi:10.3390/w2030468
Received: 17 July 2010 / Revised: 17 August 2010 / Accepted: 18 August 2010 / Published: 20 August 2010
PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil moisture changes are generally due to external factors (precipitation, evaporation, etc.) and internal forces (gravitational force, capillarity, transpiration, etc.). When soil temperatures remain below 0 °C for a long time (hours or even entire consecutive days), part of the [...] Read more.
Soil moisture changes are generally due to external factors (precipitation, evaporation, etc.) and internal forces (gravitational force, capillarity, transpiration, etc.). When soil temperatures remain below 0 °C for a long time (hours or even entire consecutive days), part of the liquid water content of the soil can freeze, thus freezing/thawing effects must be taken into account in those conditions. The present work is devoted to the numerical modeling of the water phase change in the soil. The model used in this study for the land surface processes is UTOPIA (University of TOrino land Process Interaction in Atmosphere) model, which is the updated version of LSPM (Land Surface Process Model). Scientific literature proposes some formulations to account for freezing/thawing processes. Three different parameterizations have been compared using a synthetic dataset in order to assess which one performs best from a physical point of view. Parameterizing freezing/thawing processes creates numerical instability and water overproduction in the UTOPIA model. These problems have been solved and described in the paper by means of synthetic data created to test the new parameterizations. The results show that UTOPIA is able to capture the freezing/thawing physical processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Water Property Models as Sovereignty Prerogatives: European Legal Perspectives in Comparison
Water 2010, 2(3), 429-438; doi:10.3390/w2030429
Received: 7 July 2010 / Revised: 14 August 2010 / Accepted: 18 August 2010 / Published: 18 August 2010
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Abstract
Water resources in European legal systems have always been vested in sovereign power, regardless of their legal nature as goods vested in State property or as res communes omnium not subject to ownership. The common legal foundation of sovereign power over water [...] Read more.
Water resources in European legal systems have always been vested in sovereign power, regardless of their legal nature as goods vested in State property or as res communes omnium not subject to ownership. The common legal foundation of sovereign power over water resources departed once civil law jurisdictions leveled the demesne on ownership model, by introducing public ownership in the French codification of 1804, while common law jurisdiction developed a broader legal concept of property that includes even the rights to use res communes. The models led respectively to the establishment of administrative systems of water rights and markets of water rights. According to the first, public authorities’ power to manage and preserve water resources is grounded in a derogatory regime, whereby water rights, grounded on licenses or concessions, are neither transferable nor tradeable. On the contrary, environmental and social concerns in water market schemes must be enforced by means of regulation, thus limiting private property rights on water, in compliance with the constitutional and common law constraints set out to protect the minimum content of property as a fundamental human right. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Occurrence of Cold Spells in the Alps Related to ClimateChange
Water 2010, 2(3), 363-380; doi:10.3390/w2030363
Received: 23 June 2010 / Revised: 27 July 2010 / Accepted: 27 July 2010 / Published: 2 August 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate change is not only a likely prospect for the end of this century, but it is already occurring. Part of the changes will include global warming and increasing temperature variability, both at global and regional scales. This increased variability was investigated [...] Read more.
Climate change is not only a likely prospect for the end of this century, but it is already occurring. Part of the changes will include global warming and increasing temperature variability, both at global and regional scales. This increased variability was investigated in this paper from the point of view of the occurrence of cold spells in the Alps in the future climate (2071–2100), compared with the present climate (1961–1990). For this purpose, a regionalisation of the climate change effects was performed within the Alps. To avoid possible errors in the estimate of the 2m air temperature, the analysis was performed on the soil surface temperature. To get realistic values for this variable, a land surface scheme, UTOPIA, has been run on the selected domain, using the output of the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) simulations as the driving force. The results show that, in general, the number of cold breaks is decreasing over the Alps, due to the temperature increment. However, there are certain zones where the behaviour is more complicated. The analysis of the model output also allowed a relationship to be found between the number of cold breaks and their duration. The significance of these results over the whole area was assessed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Attribution of Precipitation Changes on a Regional Scale by Neural Network Modeling: A Case Study
Water 2010, 2(3), 321-332; doi:10.3390/w2030321
Received: 24 May 2010 / Revised: 19 June 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 6 July 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On a regional scale, climate variability masks any direct link between external forcings and precipitation values. Thus, the problem of attribution of precipitation changes splits into two distinct steps: understanding how forcings influence circulation patterns and finding relationships between these patterns and [...] Read more.
On a regional scale, climate variability masks any direct link between external forcings and precipitation values. Thus, the problem of attribution of precipitation changes splits into two distinct steps: understanding how forcings influence circulation patterns and finding relationships between these patterns and the behavior of precipitation. Here, we deal with this second step, by analyzing data about eight circulation indices and their influence on precipitation anomalies in an extended Italian Alpine region. The methods used are bivariate nonlinear analysis and neural network modeling. We identify the most influential circulation patterns in each season and work out neural network models that are able to substantially describe the climate variability of precipitation at this regional scale. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Nepal—An Overview
Water 2011, 3(1), 1-20; doi:10.3390/w3010001
Received: 26 November 2010 / Accepted: 23 December 2010 / Published: 29 December 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Nepal, arsenic (As) contamination is a major issue of current drinking water supply systems using groundwater and has recently been one of the major environmental health management issues especially in the plain region, i.e., in the Terai districts, where the [...] Read more.
In Nepal, arsenic (As) contamination is a major issue of current drinking water supply systems using groundwater and has recently been one of the major environmental health management issues especially in the plain region, i.e., in the Terai districts, where the population density is very high. The Terai inhabitants still use hand tube and dug wells (with hand held pumps that are bored at shallow to medium depth) for their daily water requirements, including drinking water. The National Sanitation Steering Committee (NSSC), with the help of many other organizations, has completed arsenic blanket test in 25 districts of Nepal by analysing 737,009 groundwater samples. Several organizations, including academic institutions, made an effort to determine the levels of arsenic concentrations in groundwater and their consequences in Nepal. The results of the analyses on 25,058 samples tested in 20 districts, published in the status report of arsenic in Nepal (2003), demonstrated that the 23% of the samples were containing 10–50 µg/L of As, and the 8% of the samples were containing more than 50 µg/L of As. Recent status of over 737,009 samples tested, the 7.9% and 2.3% were contaminated by 10–50 µg/L and >50 µg/L, respectively of As. The present paper examines the various techniques available for the reduction of arsenic concentrations in Nepal in combination with the main results achieved, the socio-economic status and the strategies. This paper aims to comprehensively compile all existing data sets and analyze them scientifically, by trying to suggest a common sustainable approach for identifying the As contamination in the nation, that can be easily adopted by local communities for developing a sustainable society. The paper aims also to find probable solutions to quantify and mitigate As problem without any external support. The outcome of this paper will ultimately help to identify various ways for: identify risk areas; develop awareness; adopt the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline; identify alternative safe water sources and assess their sustainability; give priorities to water supply and simple eco-friendly treatment techniques; investigate impacts of arsenic on health and agriculture; strengthen the capability of government, public, Non-governmental Organization (NGO) and research institutions. Full article

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