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Special Issue "Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Xiangzheng Deng

Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (CCAP), Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS,China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: large scale hydrology; environmental and natural resource economics; ecosystem services and functions; urbanization and global environment change; sustainability-based decision making

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Arid regions occupy about 20% of the world’s land area (except for the Antarctic), where desertification is developing rapidly over large areas and oasis areas have increased significantly. Water scarcity hinders the sustainable development of social-economy and the health of ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions. Addressing the issue of water scarcity requires knowledge of the factors that drive hydrological changes and the related effects on water resources, such as climate change, urbanization and agricultural intensification. In terms of global warming and extreme weather frequency and intensity, climate change has been identified as being related to the reductions in global water resources and the exacerbation of water scarcity, which will consequently increase the vulnerability of ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions. Additionally, urbanization and agricultural intensification have led to extensive ecosystem degradation, species extinctions, and, consequently, a reduction in biodiversity. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct an integrative water management system at the catchment scale to guarantee the sustainable development and ecological security of river basins in arid and semi-arid regions.

Prof. Dr. Xiangzheng Deng
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • water scarcity
  • water use efficiency
  • water productivity
  • hydrological cycles
  • climate change
  • ecosystem degradation
  • integrated water resources management

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Trade-off Analysis of Ecosystem Services in a Mountainous Karst Area, China
Water 2018, 10(3), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030300
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
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Abstract
Diversity in ecosystem services and variation in land use by humans leads to reciprocal trade-offs or synergistic relationships between different ecosystem services. To achieve the dual goals of improving human welfare and developing sustainable ecosystems, understanding and clarifying these relationships is an important
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Diversity in ecosystem services and variation in land use by humans leads to reciprocal trade-offs or synergistic relationships between different ecosystem services. To achieve the dual goals of improving human welfare and developing sustainable ecosystems, understanding and clarifying these relationships is an important step. This study selected a mountainous karst area of China as a study area and used the InVEST (Integrate Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs) model and the production possibility frontier analysis method to evaluate the spatio-temporal variations in ecosystem services and analyze the trade-off or synergic relationship between different services. The results showed that from 1990 to 2010, the percentage variations in annual mean water yield, soil conservation, carbon storage, and nutrient retention in the mountainous karst area were 2.47, 39.43, −0.34, and −1.16%, respectively. Water yield had trade-off relationships with soil conservation, nutrient retention, and carbon storage, increasing water yields were correlated with decreases in soil conservation, nutrient retention, and carbon storage. Soil conservation and nutrient retention also showed a trade-off relationship, decreasing soil conservation was correlated with gradually increasing nutrient retention. Carbon storage had synergic relationships with nutrient retention and soil conservation, continuous increases in carbon storage were correlated with incremental increases in nutrient retention and gradual decreases in soil conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Agricultural Water Use Sustainability Assessment in the Tarim River Basin under Climatic Risks
Water 2018, 10(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020170
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
Proper agricultural water management in arid regions is the key to tackling climatic risks. However, an effective assessment of the current response to climate change in agricultural water use is the precondition for a group adaptation strategy. The paper, taking the Tarim River
[...] Read more.
Proper agricultural water management in arid regions is the key to tackling climatic risks. However, an effective assessment of the current response to climate change in agricultural water use is the precondition for a group adaptation strategy. The paper, taking the Tarim River basin (TRB) as an example, aims to examine the agricultural water use sustainability of water resource increase caused by climatic variability. In order to describe the response result, groundwater change has been estimated based on the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)–Noah land surface model (NOAH) data. In order to better understand the relationship between water resource increase and agricultural water consumption, an agricultural water stress index has been established. Agricultural water stress has been in a severe state during the whole period, although it alleviated somewhat in the mid–late period. This paper illustrates that an increase in water supply could not satisfy agricultural production expansion. Thus, seasonal groundwater loss and a regional water shortage occurred. Particularly in 2008 and 2009, the sharp shortage of water supply in the Tarim River basin directly led to a serious groundwater drop by nearly 20 mm from the end of 2009 to early 2010. At the same time, a regional water shortage led to water scarcity for the whole basin, because the water consumption, which was mainly distributed around Source Rivers, resulted in break-off discharge in the mainstream. Therefore, current agricultural development in the Tarim River basin is unsustainable in the context of water supply under climatic risks. Under the control of irrigation, spatial and temporal water allocation optimization is the key to the sustainable management of the basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Hydroclimatic Projections over Southeast Spain by Applying a Novel RCM Ensemble Approach
Water 2018, 10(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010052
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
Climate model outputs can be used as climate forcing for hydrological models to study the impact of climate change on the water cycle. This usually propagates cumulative uncertainties, transferring the errors from the climate models to the hydrological models. Then, methodologies are needed
[...] Read more.
Climate model outputs can be used as climate forcing for hydrological models to study the impact of climate change on the water cycle. This usually propagates cumulative uncertainties, transferring the errors from the climate models to the hydrological models. Then, methodologies are needed to evaluate the impact of climate change at basin scale by reducing the uncertainties involved in the modeling chain. The paper aims to assess the impact of climate change on the runoff, considering a novel approach to build a Regional Climate Model (RCM) ensemble as climate forcing for a parsimonious spatially distributed hydrological model. A semiarid basin of southeast of Spain was selected for the study. The RCM ensembles were built based on seasonal and annual variability of rainfall and temperature. If the runoff projections for 2021–2050 are compared to the 1961–1990 observed period, a significant decrease in runoff equal to −20% (p-value t-test 0.05) was projected. However, by changing the observed period to 1971–2000, a despicable change (2.5%) is identified. This fact demonstrates that trends based on short records are very sensitive to the beginning and end dates, due to the natural variability. Special attention should be paid to the selection of the period for impact studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Irrigation Water Demand and Economic Returns of Water in Zhangye Basin
Water 2018, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010019
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to provide estimates of price elasticities of irrigation water demands in Zhangye Basin (ZB), an inland river basin in China, with the most recent data and to compare the values of marginal product (VMPs) of water to
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The objective of this study is to provide estimates of price elasticities of irrigation water demands in Zhangye Basin (ZB), an inland river basin in China, with the most recent data and to compare the values of marginal product (VMPs) of water to the prices of water farmers are currently paying. With a set of village and household survey data collected in 2009 and 2014, household fixed effects models are used to estimate water demand and crop production functions. The estimation results are then used to estimate price elasticities and VMPs. Results show that demands for surface water, groundwater, and conjunctive irrigation water are all in the inelastic range. The results imply that water prices may need to be increased significantly to induce sizable water savings. Another significant finding is that for a large share of the sample households, VMPs of water are higher than the prices of water. The estimated VMPs provide policy makers with some guidelines on the minimum level of water prices required to achieve any water savings among those households. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Runoff Simulation by SWAT Model Using High-Resolution Gridded Precipitation in the Upper Heihe River Basin, Northeastern Tibetan Plateau
Water 2017, 9(11), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110866
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
The scarcity and uneven distribution of precipitation stations in the inland river basins of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau restrict the application of the distributed hydrological model and spatial analysis of water balance component characteristics. This study used the upper Heihe River Basin as
[...] Read more.
The scarcity and uneven distribution of precipitation stations in the inland river basins of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau restrict the application of the distributed hydrological model and spatial analysis of water balance component characteristics. This study used the upper Heihe River Basin as a case study, and daily gridded precipitation data with 3 km resolution based on the spatial interpolation of gauged stations and a regional climate model were used to construct a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. The aim was to validate the precision of high-resolution gridded precipitation for hydrological simulation in data-scarce regions; a scale transformation method was proposed by building virtual stations and calculating the lapse rate to overcome the defects of the SWAT model using traditional precipitation station data. The gridded precipitation was upscaled from the grid to the sub-basin scale to accurately represent sub-basin precipitation input data. A satisfactory runoff simulation was achieved, and the spatial variability of water balance components was analysed. Results show that the precipitation lapse rate ranges from 40 mm/km to 235 mm/km and decreases from the southeastern to the northwestern areas. The SWAT model achieves monthly runoff simulation compared with gauged runoff from 2000 to 2014; the determination coefficients are higher than 0.71, the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiencies are higher than 0.76, and the percentage bias is controlled within ±15%. Meadow and sparse vegetation are the major water yield landscapes, and the elevation band from 3500 m to 4500 m is the major water yield area. Precipitation and evapotranspiration present a slightly increasing trend, whereas water yield and soil water content present a slightly decreasing trend. This finding indicates that the high-resolution gridded precipitation data fully depict its spatial heterogeneity, and scale transformation significantly promotes the application of the distributed hydrological model in inland river basins. The spatial variability of water balance components can be quantified to provide references for the integrated assessment and management of basin water resources in data-scarce regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Incorporating Temporal and Spatial Variations of Groundwater into the Construction of a Water-Based Ecological Network: A Case Study in Denko County
Water 2017, 9(11), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110864
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
It is of great practical significance to construct a water-based ecological network in arid and semi-arid areas. The spatial distribution of water resources is one of the most important factors in determining the ecological stability of such areas. In this study, groundwater level
[...] Read more.
It is of great practical significance to construct a water-based ecological network in arid and semi-arid areas. The spatial distribution of water resources is one of the most important factors in determining the ecological stability of such areas. In this study, groundwater level trends were analyzed with a model called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). The temporal and spatial evolution of groundwater depth data from 1990 to 2016 were analyzed. The surface water bodies were analyzed using a point pattern analysis method. Based on this, a water-based ecological network was constructed with a minimum cumulative resistance surface model. The study indicated that the trend lines for the groundwater tables of 17 wells could be divided into five types in Denko County. The landscape types that changed from a desert landscape to an oasis landscape had a positive impact on groundwater. Precipitation trend was related to the spatial distribution of the groundwater depth, and the spatial pattern of the water nodes was characterized by a small-scale highly aggregated distribution and a large-scale uniform distribution in Denko County. These results suggest that for the stability of arid and semi-arid ecological environments, the appropriate human intervention (such as construction of an artificial oasis) is of great significance. Based on the analysis of groundwater and surface water bodies, a water-based ecological network in Denko County, which consisted of 391 ecological sources and 7360 ecological corridors, was constructed in 2016. The water-based ecological network constructed in this study was more sustainable and stable, and also suitable for arid and semi-arid areas, which is of great practical significance and application value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Participatory Irrigation Management and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency in Maize Production: Evidence from Zhangye City, Northwestern China
Water 2017, 9(11), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110822
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Water has become increasingly scarce in northwestern China due to climate change, economic growth and burgeoning population. Improving agriculture water use efficiency is of strategic significance in promoting socio-economic water productivity for arid and semi-arid inland river basins. Based on the household-level data
[...] Read more.
Water has become increasingly scarce in northwestern China due to climate change, economic growth and burgeoning population. Improving agriculture water use efficiency is of strategic significance in promoting socio-economic water productivity for arid and semi-arid inland river basins. Based on the household-level data collected in Zhangye City, which is located in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin (HRB) in northwestern China, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) of maize is estimated based on stochastic frontier analysis. The impacts of influential factors, especially the participatory irrigation management (PIM) through water user associations (WUAs), on IWUE were further examined. Results show that the estimated average Technical efficiency (TE) and IWUE of maize production are 0.74 and 0.24, respectively. The participation level in irrigation management is very low, with only 40% of the respondents participating in WUA meetings. In addition, most have a relatively superficial understanding of the roles and management scheme of WUAs. Empirical results show that though significantly positive, the magnitude of the impact of PIM on IWUE is relatively small. Households that participated in WUA meetings achieved only 0.002% higher IWUEs than those have never participated in. WUAs are not operating with their designed objectives. Consequently, reform of the traditional management form of WUAs to make them more transparent, fair, and extensively participated in among farmers is in urgently need. In addition, we also find that water price, source of irrigation water, irrigation technology adoption and famers’ education level and farming experience also have significant positive impacts on IWUE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Hydrological Model PRMS to Simulate Daily Rainfall Runoff in Zamask-Yingluoxia Subbasin of the Heihe River Basin
Water 2017, 9(10), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100769
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Abstract
The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) has been applied to simulate rainfall runoff in Zamask-Yingluoxia subbasin of the Heihe River Basin in this study. By using observed data in the subbasin, the model has been calibrated by comparing model simulations of daily stream flow
[...] Read more.
The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) has been applied to simulate rainfall runoff in Zamask-Yingluoxia subbasin of the Heihe River Basin in this study. By using observed data in the subbasin, the model has been calibrated by comparing model simulations of daily stream flow to observed data at Yinglouxia station for the period of summer in 2004. Then model verification was conducted by keeping the same model parameters for the simulation of the period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006. Results from model verification indicate that the model is able to provide good accuracy of simulations of daily rainfall runoff and river flow at Yinglouxia station, with a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient of 0.90 and the root-mean-square error of 15.7 m3/s. The error of maximum peak flow is 6.9 m3/s (1.8%) and the error of mean flow is 1.4 m3/s (2.5%). Comparing to previous studies, results indicate the improvement of model accuracy in simulations of daily rainfall runoff. The calibrated and verified hydrological model can be used to support flood hazard mitigations and water resource management in the Zamask-Yingluoxia subbasin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Adapting to Variable Water Supply in the Truckee-Carson River System, Western USA
Water 2017, 9(10), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100768
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Abstract
In snow-fed inland river systems in the western United States, water supply depends upon timing, form, and amount of precipitation. In recent years, this region has experienced unprecedented drought conditions due to decreased snowpack, exacerbated by exceptionally warmer winter temperatures averaging 3–4 °C
[...] Read more.
In snow-fed inland river systems in the western United States, water supply depends upon timing, form, and amount of precipitation. In recent years, this region has experienced unprecedented drought conditions due to decreased snowpack, exacerbated by exceptionally warmer winter temperatures averaging 3–4 °C above normal. In the snow-fed Truckee-Carson River System, two sets of interviews were conducted as part of a larger collaborative modeling case study with local water managers to examine local adaptation to current drought conditions. A comparative analysis of these primary qualitative data, collected during the fourth and fifth consecutive years of continued warmer drought conditions, identifies shifts in adaptation strategies and emergent adaptation barriers. That is, under continuous exposure to climate stressors, managers shifted their adaptation focus from short-term efforts to manage water demand toward long-term efforts to enhance water supply. Managers described the need to: improve forecasts and scientific assessments of snowmelt timing, groundwater levels, and soil moisture content; increase flexibility of prior appropriation water allocation rules based on historical snowpack and streamflow timing; and foster collaboration and communication among water managers across the river system. While water scarcity and insufficient water delivery infrastructure remain significant impediments in this arid region, climate uncertainty emerged as a barrier surrounding adaptation to variable water supply. Existing prior appropriation based water institutions were also described as an adaptation barrier, meriting objective evaluation to assess how to best modify these historical institutions to support dynamic adaptation to climate-induced water supply variability. This study contributes to a growing body of research that assesses drought adaptation in snow-fed inland river systems, and contributes a unique report concerning how adaptation strategies and barriers encountered by local water managers change over time under continuous exposure to climate stressors. These locally identified adaptation strategies forward a larger collaborative modeling case study by informing alternative water management scenarios simulated through a suite of hydrologic and operations models tailored to this river system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Hydrochemical Groundwater Processes in an Inland Agricultural Area with Limited Data: A Clustering Approach
Water 2017, 9(9), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090723
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Groundwater chemistry data are normally scarce in remote inland areas. Effective statistical approaches are highly desired to extract important information about hydrochemical processes from the limited data. This study applied a clustering approach based on the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to a hydrochemical
[...] Read more.
Groundwater chemistry data are normally scarce in remote inland areas. Effective statistical approaches are highly desired to extract important information about hydrochemical processes from the limited data. This study applied a clustering approach based on the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to a hydrochemical dataset of groundwater collected in the middle Heihe River Basin (HRB) of northwestern China. Independent hydrological data were introduced to examine whether the clustering results led to an appropriate interpretation on the hydrochemical processes. The main findings include the following. First, in the middle HRB, although groundwater chemistry reflects primarily a natural salinization process, there are evidence for significant anthropogenic influence such as irrigation and fertilization. Second, the regional hydrological cycle, particularly surface water-groundwater interaction, has a profound and spatially variable impact on groundwater chemistry. Third, the interaction between the regional agricultural development and the groundwater quality is complicated. Overall, this study demonstrates that the GMM clustering can effectively analyze hydrochemical datasets and that these clustering results can provide insights into hydrochemical processes, even with a limited number of observations. The clustering approach introduced in this study represents a cost-effective way to investigate groundwater chemistry in remote inland areas where groundwater monitoring is difficult and costly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Water Policy Reforms in South Korea: A Historical Review and Ongoing Challenges for Sustainable Water Governance and Management
Water 2017, 9(9), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090717
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
This study aims to provide an opinion on the state-of-the-art of changes and reforms of water policies in South Korea, as well as the challenges along with their implications for sustainable water governance and management. In parallel with change in water resource characteristics
[...] Read more.
This study aims to provide an opinion on the state-of-the-art of changes and reforms of water policies in South Korea, as well as the challenges along with their implications for sustainable water governance and management. In parallel with change in water resource characteristics generated by physical, environmental and socio-economic challenges such as: (1) uncertainties about climate change (flooding and drought) including seasonal and regional variation in precipitation; (2) significant increase in water use caused by rapid urbanization and population growth in industrialized urban areas; (3) inadequate water pricing mechanism which covers only around 80% of the production cost and makes it harder to maintain water systems; and (4) recursive water quality degradation and conflicts over water rights between regions resulting from non-point source pollution in highland versus lowland areas, Korean water policies have been developed through diverse reforms over 100 years. Nevertheless, new challenges for sustainable water management are continuously emerging. To meet those challenges we provide two ideas: (i) provider-gets-principle (payment for ecosystem services) of cost-benefit sharing among stakeholders who benefit from water use; and (ii) water pricing applying full-cost pricing-principle internalizing environmental externalities caused by the intensive water use. Funds secured from the application of those methods would facilitate: (1) support for upstream (rural) low income householders suffering from economic restrictions; (2) improvement in water facilities; and (3) efficient water use and demand management in South Korea’s water sectors. We expect that this paper can examine the lessons relevant to challenges that South Korea faces and offer some implications on the formulation of new integration and further reforms of the institutions, laws and organizations responsible for managing water resources in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Virtual Water Flows at the County Level in the Heihe River Basin, China
Water 2017, 9(9), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090687
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Water scarcity in arid regions can be addressed by using the virtual water concept in water resources management. This research used a compiled county-level input–output table to analyze virtual water flows for the Heihe River Basin in 2012 by applying a multi-regional input–output
[...] Read more.
Water scarcity in arid regions can be addressed by using the virtual water concept in water resources management. This research used a compiled county-level input–output table to analyze virtual water flows for the Heihe River Basin in 2012 by applying a multi-regional input–output (MRIO) model. The results showed that the Heihe River Basin is a net virtual water exporter at a scale of 1.05 billion m3, which accounts for one third of the total amount of the basin’s water resources. The midstream area of the basin imports 96.31% of virtual water (2.04 billion m3) and exports 88.84% of virtual water (0.94 billion m3). In contrast, the upstream and downstream parts have limited virtual water flows. The agricultural sector largely consumes water in each county; maize or wheat production accounts for approximately 50% of the total water consumption. For most sectors, the virtual water content from surface water is greater than that from groundwater. The ratio of virtual surface water to virtual groundwater ranges from 1.20 to 2.91. The results for the water stress index indicated that most counties experienced water stress due to maize production. Greater attention needs to be paid to the adaptation and assessment of virtual water strategies in arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting of Industrial Water Demand Using Case-Based Reasoning—A Case Study in Zhangye City, China
Water 2017, 9(8), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080626
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Forecasting the industrial water demand accurately is crucial for sustainable water resource management. This study investigates industrial water demand forecasting by case-based reasoning (CBR) in an arid area, with a case study of Zhangye, China. We constructed a case base with 420 original
[...] Read more.
Forecasting the industrial water demand accurately is crucial for sustainable water resource management. This study investigates industrial water demand forecasting by case-based reasoning (CBR) in an arid area, with a case study of Zhangye, China. We constructed a case base with 420 original cases of 28 cities in China, extracted six attributes of the industrial water demand, and employed a back propagation neural network (BPN) to weight each attribute, as well as the grey incidence analysis (GIA) to calculate the similarities between target case and original cases. The forecasting values were calculated by weighted similarities. The results show that the industrial water demand of Zhangye in 2030, which is the t arget case, will reach 11.9 million tons. There are 10 original cases which have relatively high similarities to the target case. Furthermore, the case of Yinchuan, 2010, has the largest similarity, followed by Yinchuan, 2009, and Urumqi, 2009. We also made a comparison experiment in which case-based reasoning is more accurate than the grey forecast model and BPN in water demand forecasting. It is expected that the results of this study will provide references to water resources management and planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Cropland Balance Policy on Ecosystem Service of Water Purification—A Case Study of Wuhan, China
Water 2017, 9(8), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080620
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Urbanization has been responsible for the loss of cropland worldwide, especially in China. Since this trend is expected to continue in the near future, China has implemented the strictest cropland protection policies in the world, to guarantee its national food security. However, the
[...] Read more.
Urbanization has been responsible for the loss of cropland worldwide, especially in China. Since this trend is expected to continue in the near future, China has implemented the strictest cropland protection policies in the world, to guarantee its national food security. However, the negative impact of cropland protection policies on ecosystem services has always been ignored. In this paper, we used LANDSCAPE (Land System Cellular Automata model for Potential Effects) model to assess the ecological lands loss under different scenarios in Wuhan, China during S2010–2020. Our scenarios differ in whether or not the cropland protection policy is imposed. Then, the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) model was used to calculate the amount of nutrient export under two different scenarios and to analyze the mechanism of impact of Cropland Balance Policy on water purification. Results show that the scenarios with strict cropland protection (CP) will lead to more losses of ecological lands compared with scenarios without cropland protection (NCP). Besides, the nitrogen export in the CP scenario is average 8.6% higher than the NCP scenario, which indicates that the Cropland Balance Policy has a negative impact on water purification. The nitrogen export is transported mainly by subsurface, which is 1.73 times higher than the surface averaged over the two scenarios. Accordingly, this study proposed that reasonable land use planning, and lowering the nutrient delivery ratio would be more beneficial to the ecosystem service of water purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Defining Runoff Indices and Analyzing Their Relationships with Associated Precipitation and Temperature Indices for Upper River Basins in the Northwest Arid Region of China
Water 2017, 9(8), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080618
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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The northwest arid region (NAR) of China, located in a cold region, has been experiencing extreme weather and runoff events for years. Summer (from June to August) is the main season for forming runoff in this region. Summer runoff is contributed by glacial
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The northwest arid region (NAR) of China, located in a cold region, has been experiencing extreme weather and runoff events for years. Summer (from June to August) is the main season for forming runoff in this region. Summer runoff is contributed by glacial runoff in addition to precipitation in glacierized basins. The upper basins of Hei River, Shule River, Kaidu River, and Manas River with different glacier coverage and available daily average discharge data were selected in this study. Two runoff indices—maximum discharge difference (MDD) and accumulated direct discharge (ADD)—were defined and calculated for each runoff event in the time series of daily average discharge during 1961–2007. To provide scientific knowledge for managing water resources and preventing disasters, the relationships between summer runoff indices and their associated precipitation and temperature variables were obtained by linear regression analysis. Results suggest that the regulation of glacier on runoff is more significant with the increase of glacier coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Different Irrigation Water Requirements of Seed Corn and Field Corn in the Heihe River Basin
Water 2017, 9(8), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080606
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
The Heihe River is the second largest river in arid areas of China, and the irrigation water of oasis agriculture in its middle reaches accounts for almost 80% of the water resources in the whole watershed. Corn is the most important crop in
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The Heihe River is the second largest river in arid areas of China, and the irrigation water of oasis agriculture in its middle reaches accounts for almost 80% of the water resources in the whole watershed. Corn is the most important crop in the middle reaches of the Heihe River, and its water consumption is about 50% of the total agriculture water consumption of the middle reaches. Therefore, in order to effectively use the water resources in the watershed, it is crucial to improve the efficiency of corn irrigation. In this paper, using the Ganzhou District in the middle reaches of the Heihe River as the study region, we carried out a field survey to obtain characteristics of seed and field corn. Based on our results, we conducted parameter calibration using the CROPWAT model and calculated the irrigation water requirements (IWR) of these two corn types. The irrigation water requirements of seed and field corn in the growing seasons were 470.1 and 488.5 mm, respectively. However, we observed big differences in the water consumption sequences of these two corn types. Prior to mid-July, evapotranspiration and IWR of seed corn were 14.3% and 20.1% higher, respectively, than those of field corn. In September, IWR of the two corn types started to decrease, with a value of 82.3 mm for seed corn, which was 32.1% lower than the IWR of field corn (108.7 mm) during the same period. However, there were no significant differences in the irrigation time and single irrigation amount for seed and field corn in the study area. Since corn is widely cultivated in the Zhangye Region, there is a considerable water-saving potential in agriculture if the irrigation water consumption can be adjusted according to the IWR of the two corn types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Patterns of Crop Irrigation Water Requirements in the Heihe River Basin, China
Water 2017, 9(8), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080616
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (21371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agricultural expansion, population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate change have all significantly impacted global water supply and demand and have led to a number of negative consequences including ecological degradation and decreases in biodiversity, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. The agricultural sector
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Agricultural expansion, population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate change have all significantly impacted global water supply and demand and have led to a number of negative consequences including ecological degradation and decreases in biodiversity, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. The agricultural sector consumes the most water globally; crop irrigation alone uses up more than 80% of available agricultural water. Thus, to maintain sustainable development of the global economy and ecosystems, it is crucial to effectively manage crop irrigation water. We focus on the arid and semi-arid Heihe River Basin (HRB), China, as a case study in this paper, extracting spatiotemporal information on the distribution of crop planting using multi-temporal Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) remote sensing (RS) images. We estimate the spatiotemporal crop irrigation water requirements (IWRc) using the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method and reveal variations in IWRc. We also analyze the impact of changes in crop planting structure on IWRc and discuss strategies for the rational allocation of irrigation water as well as policies to alleviate imbalance between water supply and demand. The results of this study show that effective rainfall (ER) decreases upstream-to-downstream within the HRB, while crop evapotranspiration under standard conditions (ETc) increases, leading to increasing spatial variation in IWRc from zero up to 150 mm and between 300 and 450 mm. Data show that between 2007 and 2012, annual mean ER decreased from 139.49 to 106.29 mm, while annual mean ETc increased from 483.87 to 500.38 mm, and annual mean IWRc increased from 339.95 to 370.11 mm. Data show that monthly mean IWRc initially increased before decreasing in concert with crop growth. The largest values for this index were recorded during the month of June; results show that IWRc for May and June decreased by 8.14 and 11.67 mm, respectively, while values for July increased by 5.75 mm between 2007 and 2012. These variations have helped to ease the temporal imbalance between water supply and demand. Mean IWRc values for oilseed rape, corn, barley, and other crops all increased over the study period, from 208.43, 349.35, 229.26, and 352.85 mm, respectively, in 2007, to 241.81, 393.10, 251.17, and 378.86 mm, respectively, in 2012. At the same time, the mean IWRc of wheat decreased from 281.53 mm in 2007 to 266.69 mm in 2012. Mainly because of changes in planting structure, the total IWRc for the HRB in 2012 reached 2692.58 × 106 m3, an increase of 332.16 × 106 m3 (14.07%) compared to 2007. Data show that 23.11% (76.77 × 106 m3) of this increase is due to crop transfers, while the remaining 76.89% (255.39 × 106 m3) is the result of the rapid expansion of cultivated land. Thus, to maintain both the sustainable development and ecological security of the HRB, it is crucial to efficiently manage and utilize agricultural water in light of spatiotemporal patterns in IWRc changes as well as IWRc variations between different crops. The cultivation of water-demanding crops and the further expansion of agricultural land should also be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Trade-Offs and Synergies in Ecosystem Service within the Three-Rivers Headwater Region, China
Water 2017, 9(8), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080588
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (16017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Three-Rivers Headwaters region (TRHR) is an ecological shelter located in the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau, China, that provides environmental protection and regional sustainable development. This region also provides ecosystem services including water supply and soil conservation and exerts major impacts on
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The Three-Rivers Headwaters region (TRHR) is an ecological shelter located in the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau, China, that provides environmental protection and regional sustainable development. This region also provides ecosystem services including water supply and soil conservation and exerts major impacts on both its surroundings, as well as the whole of China. A number of ecological restoration projects have been initiated within the TRHR since 2000, including the creation of a natural reserve. Analyses of trends in land use/land cover (LULC), net primary productivity (NPP), water yield and soil conservation within the TRHR are presented based on regional climate and land use datasets and utilizing the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model in tandem with the double mass curve (DMC) approach. The results of this study reveal a series of correlations between ecosystem services and lead to four distinct conclusions. First, the amount of variation between 2000 and 2012 in each LULC type within the TRHR was small. In particular, grassland substitution occurred in high-altitude areas and increased in central areas. Second, NPP, water yield, soil conservation amount and the volume of exported phosphorus (P) decreased along an east-west gradient with values of 64.44%, 38.81%, 7.37% and −49.98% recorded, respectively, between 2000 and 2012. The ecosystem services of the Yellow River basin to the east of the TRHR generally improved over the study period, while those of the Yangtze River and Lancang River basins where enhanced to a lesser extent, and obvious degradation was observed in some local areas. Third, the ecosystem services provided by forested land were highest, followed by grassland and cultivated land, respectively. Fourth, synergistic relationships were observed within the TRHR between NPP, water yield and soil conservation amount, indicating that increasing NPP simultaneously increased the values for these related factors. Synergistic relationships were also recorded between water yield and the amount of exported P, suggesting that increases in the former cause a reduction in water purity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Sources and Dynamics of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus in a Large Agricultural River Basin in Arid Northwestern China
Water 2017, 9(6), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060415
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study assessed the export of inorganic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus within a large agricultural basin in arid northwestern China. Groundwater of various depths and river water along a 160 km reach were sampled during contrasting flow conditions. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)
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The present study assessed the export of inorganic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus within a large agricultural basin in arid northwestern China. Groundwater of various depths and river water along a 160 km reach were sampled during contrasting flow conditions. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations and δ13C-DIC values indicate that lithogenic carbonate weathering was the main source of DIC in the basin. Discharge played an important role in regulating the amount and flowpath of nutrients mobilized from soils to the river. Ammonium was mobilized mostly by storm flows whereas the other nutrients were exported through both storm and groundwater flows. Hydrological events, occurring on only about 10% of the days for a year, were responsible for more than 40% of annual nutrient exports. Shallow groundwater was an important source of DIC and nitrate in river water within the alluvial plain, where groundwater discharges regulated their longitudinal variability along the river. According to a mixing model using δ13C-DIC and chloride, groundwater comprised 9–34% and 39–60% of river water at high discharge and baseflow, respectively. Together, our data highlight the importance of reducing storm runoffs and monitoring nutrient pollution within this large basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on Wetland Hydraulic Characteristics of Vegetated Drainage Ditches
Water 2017, 9(5), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9050311
Received: 5 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Small vegetated drainage ditches play an important role in water and nutrient removal, but may cause water blocking problems. The aim of this study was to investigate vegetated drainage ditches’ hydraulic and wetland hydraulic characters. Field experiment were carried out, small drainage ditches
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Small vegetated drainage ditches play an important role in water and nutrient removal, but may cause water blocking problems. The aim of this study was to investigate vegetated drainage ditches’ hydraulic and wetland hydraulic characters. Field experiment were carried out, small drainage ditches with Juncus, Zizania latifolia, and Acorus calamus were selected under different water flows, and a tracer experiment was also conducted. Research findings suggested that with increased water flow, vegetation roughness coefficient declined, vegetation resistance rose, and drag coefficient declined. Small drainage ditches with emergent vegetation showed a high roughness coefficient value, which was most significant in Juncus, followed by Zizania latifolia, and Acorus calamus. Plants each took on a unique eigenvalue k that was a relative coefficient between the drag coefficient and stem Reynolds number. As small ditches for drainage showed longer residence time and smaller surface hydraulic loading, they featured excellent wetland hydraulic characteristics that could be weakened rapidly as rainfall or flood intensified. This study indicates that the small vegetated drainage ditch shows favorable wetland hydraulic characteristics with good discharge capacity and can be extensively used in irrigated districts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Alpine Precipitation and Their Vertical Differentiation: A Case Study from the Upper Shule River
Water 2017, 9(4), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040284
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
Alpine precipitation is an important component of the mountain hydrological cycle and may also be a determinant of water resources in inland river basins. In this study, based on field observation data of the upper Shule River and daily precipitation records of the
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Alpine precipitation is an important component of the mountain hydrological cycle and may also be a determinant of water resources in inland river basins. In this study, based on field observation data of the upper Shule River and daily precipitation records of the Tuole weather station during 2009–2015, temporal distribution characteristics of alpine precipitation and their vertical differentiation were evaluated mainly using percentages of precipitation anomalies (Pa), coefficient of variation (Cv), precipitation concentration degree (PCD) and concentration period (PCP). The results indicated that the inter-annual variability of annual precipitation was generally small, with a Pa that was only somewhat larger in low altitude zones for individual years; the inter-annual fluctuation of monthly precipitation increased noticeably, but the Cv and precipitation can be described as a power function. Annual distribution was basically consistent; more than 85.6% of precipitation was concentrated during the period from May to September; PCD ranged between 0.71 and 0.83 while the PCP was located within the 37th–41st pentads. Diurnal variation of precipitation was defined, mainly occurring from 1500 to 0100 Local Standard Time, and displayed a vertical change that was dominated by precipitation intensity or precipitation frequency. The temporal distribution of alpine precipitation has a noticeable vertical differentiation, and this is likely to originate from the diversity of precipitation mechanisms in mountainous terrain areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of Groundwater Dynamics for Sustainable Water Resource Management in Bogra District, Northwest Bangladesh
Water 2017, 9(4), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040238
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The green revolution in the northwest region of Bangladesh over the past three decades has based on groundwater irrigation. For sustainable agricultural accretion, groundwater dynamics play a vital role in this region. In this study, the groundwater level dynamics have been analyzed with
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The green revolution in the northwest region of Bangladesh over the past three decades has based on groundwater irrigation. For sustainable agricultural accretion, groundwater dynamics play a vital role in this region. In this study, the groundwater level dynamics have been analyzed with a model named “MAKESENS” and with geographical information systems (GIS). The study indicates that, in most of the wells, the water table (WT) depth and the rainfall intensity are declining slowly. The prediction of WT depth during the period of 2020, 2040, and 2060 indicate that, in some cases, the WT depth will approximately double by the year 2060, considering the present declining trend. This result suggests that, for the sustainable management of groundwater, necessary measures should be adopted to avoid or reduce the severe ecological, social, and economic impacts of groundwater mining. Moreover, crop diversification, conservation techniques, increasing irrigation efficiency, rainwater harvesting, etc. can be adopted to avoid groundwater declination and consequently to enhance the sustainable use of groundwater resources in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessReview Review of River Basin Water Resource Management in China
Water 2018, 10(4), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040425
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Water resources are the basis for supporting the entire life system of the Earth. However, with the frequent global water crises—especially in the river basins of China—the issue of water resources has become a bottleneck that limits its development. Therefore, it is necessary
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Water resources are the basis for supporting the entire life system of the Earth. However, with the frequent global water crises—especially in the river basins of China—the issue of water resources has become a bottleneck that limits its development. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out relevant research. In this paper, we systematically analyzed different classification methods of the service functions of water ecosystems as well as factors that affect it. Results showed that climate, land cover, human activities, and their own endowment conditions were the main factors affecting the service functions of water ecosystems. Based on these, water resource management in China river basins was expounded from three aspects: water resources protection, allocation, and utilization. At the same time, the impacts of water resource management on land use in China were also summarized. Finally, the key trends of the next study were summarized as follows: improvement of the classification system of basin water ecosystem service functions, improvement of the mechanism of the basin water market; comprehensive tradeoff of water resource exploitation and protection in basins; and basin water resource management from the perspective of multidisciplinary crossing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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