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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 8 (August 2012), Pages 9400-10659

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Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms of Oligodendrocyte Injury in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10647-10659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810647
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New evidence has emerged over the last decade indicating that oligodendrocyte injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not a single unified phenomenon but rather a spectrum of processes ranging from massive immune destruction to a subtle cell death in the absence of significant
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New evidence has emerged over the last decade indicating that oligodendrocyte injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not a single unified phenomenon but rather a spectrum of processes ranging from massive immune destruction to a subtle cell death in the absence of significant inflammation. Experimentally, protection of oligodendrocytes against inflammatory injury results in protection against experimental autoimmune encephalitis, the animal model of multiple sclerosis. In this review, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms regulating oligodendrocyte injury and inflammatory demyelination. We draw attention to the injurious role of IFN-γ signaling in oligodendrocytes and the pro-inflammatory effect of their death. In conclusion, studying the molecular mechanisms of oligodendrocyte injury is likely to provide new perspective on the pathogenesis of MS and a rationale for cell protective therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Research of Multiple Sclerosis)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Xylanase Production from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 by a Two-Step Statistical Strategy: Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken Experimental Design
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10630-10646; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810630
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to optimize the nutrition sources in a culture medium for the production of xylanase from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 using Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design. The Plackett-Burman multifactorial design was first employed to screen the important nutrient sources in
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The objective of the study was to optimize the nutrition sources in a culture medium for the production of xylanase from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 using Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design. The Plackett-Burman multifactorial design was first employed to screen the important nutrient sources in the medium for xylanase production by Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 and subsequent use of the response surface methodology (RSM) was further optimized for xylanase production by Box-Behnken design. The important nutrient sources in the culture medium, identified by the initial screening method of Placket-Burman, were wheat bran, yeast extract, NaNO3, MgSO4, and CaCl2. The optimal amounts (in g/L) for maximum production of xylanase were: wheat bran, 32.8; yeast extract, 1.02; NaNO3, 12.71; MgSO4, 0.96; and CaCl2, 1.04. Using this statistical experimental design, the xylanase production under optimal condition reached 46.50 U/mL and an increase in xylanase activity of 1.34-fold was obtained compared with the original medium for fermentation carried out in a 30-L bioreactor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Optimization and Immobilization)
Open AccessReview Recent Advances on the Neuroprotective Potential of Antioxidants in Experimental Models of Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10608-10629; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810608
Received: 26 July 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the midbrain. Although the etiology of PD is not completely understood and is
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Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the midbrain. Although the etiology of PD is not completely understood and is believed to be multifactorial, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are widely considered major consequences, which provide important clues to the disease mechanisms. Studies have explored the role of free radicals and oxidative stress that contributes to the cascade of events leading to dopamine cell degeneration in PD. In general, in-built protective mechanisms consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the CNS play decisive roles in preventing neuronal cell loss due to free radicals. But the ability to produce these antioxidants decreases with aging. Therefore, antioxidant therapy alone or in combination with current treatment methods may represent an attractive strategy for treating or preventing the neurodegeneration seen in PD. Here we summarize the recent discoveries of potential antioxidant compounds for modulating free radical mediated oxidative stress leading to neurotoxicity in PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessArticle Antisense Oligonucleotide Against Clusterin Regulates Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invasion Through Transcriptional Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and E-Cadherin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10594-10607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810594
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Secreted clusterin (sCLU) has been shown to be overexpressed in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue, and its overexpression in HCC cells increases cell migration and the formation of liver metastatic tumor nodules in vivo. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that
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Secreted clusterin (sCLU) has been shown to be overexpressed in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue, and its overexpression in HCC cells increases cell migration and the formation of liver metastatic tumor nodules in vivo. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sCLU plays a role in the invasiveness of human HCC and may be associated with its metastatic spread. HCCLM3, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, was transiently transfected with an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) against sCLU (OGX-011). HepG2 liver hepatocellular cells were transiently transfected with the pc.DNA3.1-sCLU plasmid to overexpress sCLU, and subsequently evaluated for effects on invasion and the expression of molecules involved in invasion. We observed that suppression of the sCLU gene significantly reduced the invasive capability of the highly invasive HCCLM3 cells, and vice versa in the low invasive HepG2 cell line. The results revealed that knockdown of sCLU by OGX-011 resulted in a significant increase in the expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene transcription. Overexpression of sCLU by transfection with pc.DNA3.1-sCLU significantly decreased the expression of E-cadherin and increased MMP-2 gene transcription. These data were further verified by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis. A significant reduction in MMP-2 expression and an increase in E-cadherin expression in sCLU-knockdown HCCLM3 cells were observed, as well as a significant increase in MMP-2 expression and a decrease in E-cadherin expression in HepG2 cells overexpressing sCLU. These data indicate a role for sCLU in augmenting MMP-2 transcription and decreasing E-cadherin expression. Our data show the involvement of sCLU in human HCC invasion, and demonstrate that silencing sCLU gene expression inhibits the invasion of human HCC cells by inhibiting MMP-2 expression and promoting E-cadherin expression. Thus, OGX-011 could be an effective therapeutic agent for HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
Open AccessArticle Development of Microsatellite Markers for the Korean Mussel, Mytilus coruscus (Mytilidae) Using Next-Generation Sequencing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10583-10593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810583
Received: 5 June 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mytilus coruscus (family Mytilidae) is one of the most important marine shellfish species in Korea. During the past few decades, this species has become endangered due to the loss of habitats and overfishing. Despite this species’ importance, information on its genetic background is
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Mytilus coruscus (family Mytilidae) is one of the most important marine shellfish species in Korea. During the past few decades, this species has become endangered due to the loss of habitats and overfishing. Despite this species’ importance, information on its genetic background is scarce. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers for M. coruscus using next-generation sequencing. A total of 263,900 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on the 454 GS-FLX titanium platform, and 176,327 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 381 bp; 2569 (1.45%) sequences contained a minimum of five di- to tetra-nucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 51 loci screened, 46 were amplified successfully, and 22 were polymorphic among 30 individuals, with seven of trinucleotide repeats and three of tetranucleotide repeats. All loci exhibited high genetic variability, with an average of 17.32 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.67 and 0.90, respectively. In addition, cross-amplification was tested for all 22 loci in another congener species, M. galloprovincialis. None of the primer pairs resulted in effective amplification, which might be due to their high mutation rates. Our work demonstrated the utility of next-generation 454 sequencing as a method for the rapid and cost-effective identification of microsatellites. The high degree of polymorphism exhibited by the 22 newly developed microsatellites will be useful in future conservation genetic studies of this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview Deciphering the Molecular Nature of Ovarian Cancer Biomarker CA125
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10568-10582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810568
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ovarian cancer biomarker CA125 has been extensively investigated over the last 30 years. The knowledge about the exact molecular nature of this protein, however, remains fragmented. This review provides an overview of the structural research regarding CA125, and presents an orthogonal verification
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The ovarian cancer biomarker CA125 has been extensively investigated over the last 30 years. The knowledge about the exact molecular nature of this protein, however, remains fragmented. This review provides an overview of the structural research regarding CA125, and presents an orthogonal verification method to confirm the identity of this molecule. The need for independent identification of CA125 is exemplified by several reports where mutually exclusive data concerning the existence of isoforms and the glycan moieties is presented. Mass spectrometry can overcome the pitfalls of a single detection/identification method such as antibody probing. Independent verification of CA125 identity in characterization studies will help establish a refined model of its molecular structure that will promote the development of new approaches for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer 2012)
Open AccessArticle Direct Observation of Protein Microcrystals in Crystallization Buffer by Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10553-10567; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810553
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 2 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (4962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
X-ray crystallography requires high quality crystals above a given size. This requirement not only limits the proteins to be analyzed, but also reduces the speed of the structure determination. Indeed, the tertiary structures of many physiologically important proteins remain elusive because of the
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X-ray crystallography requires high quality crystals above a given size. This requirement not only limits the proteins to be analyzed, but also reduces the speed of the structure determination. Indeed, the tertiary structures of many physiologically important proteins remain elusive because of the so-called “crystallization bottleneck”. Once microcrystals have been obtained, crystallization conditions can be optimized to produce bigger and better crystals. However, the identification of microcrystals can be difficult due to the resolution limit of optical microscopy. Electron microscopy has sometimes been utilized instead, with the disadvantage that the microcrystals usually must be observed in vacuum, which precludes the usage for crystal screening. The atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) allows samples to be observed in solution. Here, we report the use of this instrument in combination with a special thin-membrane dish with a crystallization well. It was possible to observe protein crystals of lysozyme, lipase B and a histone chaperone TAF-Iβ in crystallization buffers, without the use of staining procedures. The smallest crystals observed with ASEM were a few µm in width, and ASEM can be used with non-transparent solutions. Furthermore, the growth of salt crystals could be monitored in the ASEM, and the difference in contrast between salt and protein crystals made it easy to distinguish between these two types of microcrystals. These results indicate that the ASEM could be an important new tool for the screening of protein microcrystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallography in Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessReview Characterization of Aptamer-Protein Complexes by X-ray Crystallography and Alternative Approaches
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10537-10552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810537
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aptamers are oligonucleotide ligands, either RNA or ssDNA, selected for high-affinity binding to molecular targets, such as small organic molecules, proteins or whole microorganisms. While reports of new aptamers are numerous, characterization of their specific interaction is often restricted to the affinity of
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Aptamers are oligonucleotide ligands, either RNA or ssDNA, selected for high-affinity binding to molecular targets, such as small organic molecules, proteins or whole microorganisms. While reports of new aptamers are numerous, characterization of their specific interaction is often restricted to the affinity of binding (KD). Over the years, crystal structures of aptamer-protein complexes have only scarcely become available. Here we describe some relevant technical issues about the process of crystallizing aptamer-protein complexes and highlight some biochemical details on the molecular basis of selected aptamer-protein interactions. In addition, alternative experimental and computational approaches are discussed to study aptamer-protein interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallography in Molecular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Gender Related Differences in Kidney Injury Induced by Mercury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10523-10536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810523
Received: 30 June 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine if there are sex-related differences in the acute kidney injury induced by HgCl2 since female rats express lower levels of renal Oat1 and Oat3 (transporters involved in renal uptake of mercury) as compared with
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The aim of this study was to determine if there are sex-related differences in the acute kidney injury induced by HgCl2 since female rats express lower levels of renal Oat1 and Oat3 (transporters involved in renal uptake of mercury) as compared with males. Control males and females and Hg-treated male and female Wistar rats were employed. Animals were treated with HgCl2 (4 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneal (i.p.)) 18 h before the experiments. HgCl2 induced renal impairment both in male and female rats. However, female rats showed a lower renal impairment than male rats. The observed increase in kidney weight/body weight ratio seen in male and female rats following HgCl2 treatment was less in the female rats. Urine volume and creatinine clearance decreased and Oat5 urinary excretion increased in both males and females, but to a lesser degree in the latter. Urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and histological parameters were modified in male but not in female rats after HgCl2 administration. These results indicate that the lower Oat1 and Oat3 expression in the kidney of females restricts Hg uptake into renal cells protecting them from this metal toxicity. These gender differences in renal injury induced by mercury are striking and also indicate that Oat1 and Oat3 are among the main transporters responsible for HgCl2-induced renal injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase from Alkaliphilic Amphibacillus sp. NPST-10: Purification and Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10505-10522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810505
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 5 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Screening for cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase)-producing alkaliphilic bacteria from samples collected from hyper saline soda lakes (Wadi Natrun Valley, Egypt), resulted in isolation of potent CGTase producing alkaliphilic bacterium, termed NPST-10. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified the isolate as Amphibacillus sp. CGTase was purified
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Screening for cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase)-producing alkaliphilic bacteria from samples collected from hyper saline soda lakes (Wadi Natrun Valley, Egypt), resulted in isolation of potent CGTase producing alkaliphilic bacterium, termed NPST-10. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified the isolate as Amphibacillus sp. CGTase was purified to homogeneity up to 22.1 fold by starch adsorption and anion exchange chromatography with a yield of 44.7%. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with an estimated molecular weight of 92 kDa using SDS-PAGE. Catalytic activities of the enzyme were found to be 88.8 U mg−1 protein, 20.0 U mg−1 protein and 11.0 U mg−1 protein for cyclization, coupling and hydrolytic activities, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a wide pH range from pH 5.0 to 11.0, with a maximal activity at pH 8.0. CGTase exhibited activity over a wide temperature range from 45 °C to 70 °C, with maximal activity at 50 °C and was stable at 30 °C to 55 °C for at least 1 h. Thermal stability of the purified enzyme could be significantly improved in the presence of CaCl2. Km and Vmax values were estimated using soluble starch as a substrate to be 1.7 ± 0.15 mg/mL and 100 ± 2.0 μmol/min, respectively. CGTase was significantly inhibited in the presence of Co2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ba2+, Cd2+, and 2-mercaptoethanol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CGTase production by Amphibacillus sp. The achieved high conversion of insoluble raw corn starch into cyclodextrins (67.2%) with production of mainly β-CD (86.4%), makes Amphibacillus sp. NPST-10 desirable for the cyclodextrin production industry. Full article
Open AccessReview The Role of Free Radicals in the Aging Brain and Parkinson’s Disease: Convergence and Parallelism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10478-10504; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810478
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Free radical production and their targeted action on biomolecules have roles in aging and age-related disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). There is an age-associated increase in oxidative damage to the brain, and aging is considered a risk factor for PD. Dopaminergic neurons
[...] Read more.
Free radical production and their targeted action on biomolecules have roles in aging and age-related disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). There is an age-associated increase in oxidative damage to the brain, and aging is considered a risk factor for PD. Dopaminergic neurons show linear fallout of 5–10% per decade with aging; however, the rate and intensity of neuronal loss in patients with PD is more marked than that of aging. Here, we enumerate the common link between aging and PD at the cellular level with special reference to oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Oxidative damage includes mitochondrial dysfunction, dopamine auto-oxidation, α-synuclein aggregation, glial cell activation, alterations in calcium signaling, and excess free iron. Moreover, neurons encounter more oxidative stress as a counteracting mechanism with advancing age does not function properly. Alterations in transcriptional activity of various pathways, including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, mitogen activated protein kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, and reduced activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione with aging might be correlated with the increased incidence of PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
Open AccessReview Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Induced Protein (TGFBI)/(βig-H3): A Matrix Protein with Dual Functions in Ovarian Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10461-10477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810461
Received: 30 June 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (3264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBI, also known as βig-H3 and keratoepithelin) is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions including diabetes, corneal dystrophy and tumorigenesis. Many reports indicate that βig-H3 functions as a
[...] Read more.
Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBI, also known as βig-H3 and keratoepithelin) is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions including diabetes, corneal dystrophy and tumorigenesis. Many reports indicate that βig-H3 functions as a tumor suppressor. Loss of βig-H3 expression has been described in several cancers including ovarian cancer and promoter hypermethylation has been identified as an important mechanism for the silencing of the TGFBI gene. Our recent findings that βig-H3 is down-regulated in ovarian cancer and that high concentrations of βig-H3 can induce ovarian cancer cell death support a tumor suppressor role. However, there is also convincing data in the literature reporting a tumor-promoting role for βig-H3. We have shown βig-H3 to be abundantly expressed by peritoneal cells and increase the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells by promoting cell motility, invasion, and adhesion to peritoneal cells. Our findings suggest that βig-H3 has dual functions and can act both as a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on the tumor microenvironment. This article reviews the current understanding of βig-H3 function in cancer cells with particular focus on ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer 2012)
Open AccessArticle Species Differentiation of Chinese Mollitrichosiphum (Aphididae: Greenideinae) Driven by Geographical Isolation and Host Plant Acquirement
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10441-10460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810441
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 2 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The impact of both the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the separation of the Taiwan and Hainan Islands on the evolution of the fauna and flora in adjacent regions has been a topic of considerable interest. Mollitrichosiphum is a polyphagous insect
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The impact of both the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the separation of the Taiwan and Hainan Islands on the evolution of the fauna and flora in adjacent regions has been a topic of considerable interest. Mollitrichosiphum is a polyphagous insect group with a wide range of host plants (14 families) and distributions restricted to Southeast Asia. Based on the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI) and Cytochrome b (Cytb) genes, the nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) gene, and the detailed distribution and host plant data, we investigated the species differentiation modes of the Chinese Mollitrichosiphum species. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Mollitrichosiphum. The divergence time of Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus (c. 11.0 mya (million years ago)), Mollitrichosiphum nandii and Mollitrichosiphum montanum (c. 10.6 mya) was within the time frame of the uplift of the QTP. Additionally, basal species mainly fed on Fagaceae, while species that fed on multiple plants diverged considerably later. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that Fagaceae may be the first acquired host, and the acquisition of new hosts and the expansion of host range may have promoted species differentiation within this genus. Overall, it can be concluded that geographical isolation and the expansion of the host plant range may be the main factors driving species differentiation of Mollitrichosiphum. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Efficient Total Synthesis of a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Benzocamphorin F, and Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10432-10440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810432
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A naturally occurring enynyl-benzenoid, benzocamphorin F (1), from the edible fungus Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) was characterized by comprehensive spectral analysis. It displays anti-inflammatory bioactivity and is valuable for further biological studies. The present study is the first total synthesis of
[...] Read more.
A naturally occurring enynyl-benzenoid, benzocamphorin F (1), from the edible fungus Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) was characterized by comprehensive spectral analysis. It displays anti-inflammatory bioactivity and is valuable for further biological studies. The present study is the first total synthesis of benzocamphorin F and the developed strategy described is a more efficient procedure that allowe the large-scale production of benzocamphorin F for further research of the biological activity both in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle An iRGD Based Strategy to Study Electrochemically the Species Inside a Cell
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10424-10431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810424
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 27 June 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports a method for electrical communication between the inner part of cells and an electrode with the help of iRGD peptide. Due to the enhancement of the cell penetration caused by iRGD peptide, DNA molecules, previously modified on a gold electrode
[...] Read more.
This paper reports a method for electrical communication between the inner part of cells and an electrode with the help of iRGD peptide. Due to the enhancement of the cell penetration caused by iRGD peptide, DNA molecules, previously modified on a gold electrode surface, can be easily transfected into the cells. At the same time, doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, can also be transfected into cells with high penetration. Consequently, doxorubicin binds to DNA chains through electrostatic interaction, and the redox reaction is transferred out of the cell across the cell membrane. As a result, this work may provide a novel way to get information from inside of cells. Full article
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