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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 7 (July 2012), Pages 7872-9399

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Open AccessArticle Secretome Survey of Human Plexiform Neurofibroma Derived Schwann Cells Reveals a Secreted form of the RARRES1 Protein
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9380-9399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079380
Received: 11 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To bring insights into neurofibroma biochemistry, a comprehensive secretome analysis was performed on cultured human primary Schwann cells isolated from surgically resected plexiform neurofibroma and from normal nerve tissue. Using a combination of SDS-PAGE and high precision LC-MS/MS, 907 proteins were confidently identified
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To bring insights into neurofibroma biochemistry, a comprehensive secretome analysis was performed on cultured human primary Schwann cells isolated from surgically resected plexiform neurofibroma and from normal nerve tissue. Using a combination of SDS-PAGE and high precision LC-MS/MS, 907 proteins were confidently identified in the conditioned media of Schwann cell cultures combined. Label free proteome profiling revealed consistent release of high levels of 22 proteins by the four biological replicates of NF1 Schwann cell cultures relative to the two normal Schwann cell cultures. Inversely, 9 proteins displayed decreased levels in the conditioned media of NF1 relative to normal Schwann cells. The proteins with increased levels included proteins involved in cell growth, angiogenesis and complement pathway while proteins with decreased levels included those involved in cell adhesion, plasminogen pathway and extracellular matrix remodeling. Retinoic acid receptor responder protein-1 (RARRES1), previously described as an integral membrane tumor suppressor, was found exclusively secreted by NF1 Schwann cells but not by normal Schwann cells. All-trans retinoic acid modulated secretion of RARRES1 in a dose dependent manner. This study shows altered secretion of key proteins in NF1 derived Schwann cells. The potential implication of these proteins in neurofibroma biology is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Proteomic Research)
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Open AccessArticle The Apoptotic Volume Decrease Is an Upstream Event of MAP Kinase Activation during Staurosporine-Induced Apoptosis in HeLa Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9363-9379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079363
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Persistent cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), is a pivotal event of apoptosis. Activation of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl channel (VSOR) is involved in the AVD induction. On the other hand, activation of the MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade is also
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Persistent cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), is a pivotal event of apoptosis. Activation of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl channel (VSOR) is involved in the AVD induction. On the other hand, activation of the MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade is also known to play a critical role in apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the AVD induction and the stress-responsive MAPK cascade activation during the apoptosis process induced by staurosporine (STS) in HeLa cells. STS was found to induce AVD within 2–5 min and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK after over 20–30 min. VSOR blockers suppressed not only STS-induced AVD but also phosphorylation of JNK and p38 as well as activation of caspase-3/7. Moreover, a p38 inhibitor, SB203580, and a JNK inhibitor, SP600125, failed to affect STS-induced AVD, whereas these compounds reduced STS-induced activation of caspase-3/7. Also, treatment with ASK1-specific siRNA suppressed STS-induced caspase-3/7 activation without affecting the AVD induction. Furthermore, sustained osmotic cell shrinkage per se was found to trigger phosphorylation of JNK and p38, caspase activation, and cell death. Thus, it is suggested that activation of p38 and JNK is a downstream event of AVD for the STS-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Characterization and Comparative Sequence Analysis of Defense-Related Gene, Oryza rufipogon Receptor-Like Protein Kinase 1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9343-9362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079343
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Many of the plant leucine rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) have been found to regulate signaling during plant defense processes. In this study, we selected and sequenced an LRR-RLK gene, designated as Oryza rufipogon receptor-like protein kinase 1 (OrufRPK1), located within
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Many of the plant leucine rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) have been found to regulate signaling during plant defense processes. In this study, we selected and sequenced an LRR-RLK gene, designated as Oryza rufipogon receptor-like protein kinase 1 (OrufRPK1), located within yield QTL yld1.1 from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon (accession IRGC105491). A 2055 bp coding region and two exons were identified. Southern blotting determined OrufRPK1 to be a single copy gene. Sequence comparison with cultivated rice orthologs (OsI219RPK1, OsI9311RPK1 and OsJNipponRPK1, respectively derived from O. sativa ssp. indica cv. MR219, O. sativa ssp. indica cv. 9311 and O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare) revealed the presence of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with five non-synonymous substitutions, and 23 insertion/deletion sites. The biological role of the OrufRPK1 as a defense related LRR-RLK is proposed on the basis of cDNA sequence characterization, domain subfamily classification, structural prediction of extra cellular domains, cluster analysis and comparative gene expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Open AccessArticle A Theoretical Study on Reductive Debromination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9332-9342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079332
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 8 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recent progress has been made in the reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). To better understand the mechanism of this reaction, seven selected BDE congeners and their anions were investigated at the density functional theory (DFT) level
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Recent progress has been made in the reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). To better understand the mechanism of this reaction, seven selected BDE congeners and their anions were investigated at the density functional theory (DFT) level using four different methods, including B3LYP/6-31G(d), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). The cleaved C–Br bonds observed in the equilibrium structures of anionic PBDEs were adopted as the probe of the susceptible debromination position of PBDEs in the presence of nZVI, and the proposed major reaction pathways based on our calculations can satisfactorily conform to the reported experimental results. The debromination preference is theoretically evaluated as meta-Br > ortho-Br > para-Br. In addition, both the calculated frontier orbital energies and adiabatic electronic affinities were found to be highly related to their experimental reductive debromination rate constants. The highest linear regression coefficient was observed in the case using the energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital as the molecular descriptor obtained from B3LYP/6-31G(d) (R2 = 0.961, n = 7) or B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) (R2 = 0.961, n = 7). The results clearly showed the evidence of an electron transfer mechanism associated with this reductive debromination reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessReview The Immunomodulatory and Neuroprotective Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE): A Model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9298-9331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079298
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 11 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that differentiate into the mesenchymal lineages of adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. MSCs can also transdifferentiate and thereby cross lineage barriers, differentiating for example into neurons under certain experimental conditions. MSCs have anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that differentiate into the mesenchymal lineages of adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. MSCs can also transdifferentiate and thereby cross lineage barriers, differentiating for example into neurons under certain experimental conditions. MSCs have anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on neurons. Therefore, MSCs were tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), for their effectiveness in modulating the pathogenic process in EAE to develop effective therapies for MS. The data in the literature have shown that MSCs can inhibit the functions of autoreactive T cells in EAE and that this immunomodulation can be neuroprotective. In addition, MSCs can rescue neural cells via a mechanism that is mediated by soluble factors, which provide a suitable environment for neuron regeneration, remyelination and cerebral blood flow improvement. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of MSCs in modulating the immunopathogenic process and in providing neuroprotection in EAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Research of Multiple Sclerosis)
Open AccessArticle Activation of Propane C-H and C-C Bonds by Gas-Phase Pt Atom: A Theoretical Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9278-9297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079278
Received: 7 May 2012 / Revised: 20 June 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (959 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The reaction mechanism of the gas-phase Pt atom with C3H8 has been systematically investigated on the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces at CCSD(T)//BPW91/6-311++G(d, p), Lanl2dz level. Pt atom prefers the attack of primary over secondary C-H bonds in propane.
[...] Read more.
The reaction mechanism of the gas-phase Pt atom with C3H8 has been systematically investigated on the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces at CCSD(T)//BPW91/6-311++G(d, p), Lanl2dz level. Pt atom prefers the attack of primary over secondary C-H bonds in propane. For the Pt + C3H8 reaction, the major and minor reaction channels lead to PtC3H6 + H2 and PtCH2 + C2H6, respectively, whereas the possibility to form products PtC2H4 + CH4 is so small that it can be neglected. The minimal energy reaction pathway for the formation of PtC3H6 + H2, involving one spin inversion, prefers to start at the triplet state and afterward proceed along the singlet state. The optimal C-C bond cleavages are assigned to C-H bond activation as the first step, followed by cleavage of a C-C bond. The C-H insertion intermediates are kinetically favored over the C-C insertion intermediates. From C-C to C-H oxidative insertion, the lowering of activation barrier is mainly caused by the more stabilizing transition state interaction ΔEint, which is the actual interaction energy between the deformed reactants in the transition state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle Correlation among Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Hemolytic, and Antiproliferative Properties of Leiothrix spiralis Leaves Extract
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9260-9277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079260
Received: 20 April 2012 / Revised: 15 July 2012 / Accepted: 20 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biological activities of a plant extract depend on a complex sum of individual properties including the antioxidant activity. Several biological activities protect against the harmful action of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and here we focused our attention on the relationship between the
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The biological activities of a plant extract depend on a complex sum of individual properties including the antioxidant activity. Several biological activities protect against the harmful action of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and here we focused our attention on the relationship between the biological activities tested and the antioxidant properties. In this study, the total flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant, antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities of the methanolic extract of Leitothrix spiralis leaves were evaluated. The extract showed a total flavonoid content of 19.26% and the chemical characterization by HPLC-PAD confirmed the presence of flavonoids as the major secondary metabolite compounds. Significant antioxidant activity (IC50 = 1.743 µg/mL ± 0.063) was demonstrated and was effective against Gram-negative organisms and all Candida strains tested, and showed an ability to inhibit hyphal formation. Non-hemolytic and antiproliferative activity could be demonstrated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9240-9259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079240
Received: 22 May 2012 / Revised: 11 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid
[...] Read more.
This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bacterial Motility Measured by a Miniature Chamber for High-Pressure Microscopy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9225-9239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079225
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrostatic pressure is one of the physical stimuli that characterize the environment of living matter. Many microorganisms thrive under high pressure and may even physically or geochemically require this extreme environmental condition. In contrast, application of pressure is detrimental to most life on
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Hydrostatic pressure is one of the physical stimuli that characterize the environment of living matter. Many microorganisms thrive under high pressure and may even physically or geochemically require this extreme environmental condition. In contrast, application of pressure is detrimental to most life on Earth; especially to living organisms under ambient pressure conditions. To study the mechanism of how living things adapt to high-pressure conditions, it is necessary to monitor directly the organism of interest under various pressure conditions. Here, we report a miniature chamber for high-pressure microscopy. The chamber was equipped with a built-in separator, in which water pressure was properly transduced to that of the sample solution. The apparatus developed could apply pressure up to 150 MPa, and enabled us to acquire bright-field and epifluorescence images at various pressures and temperatures. We demonstrated that the application of pressure acted directly and reversibly on the swimming motility of Escherichia coli cells. The present technique should be applicable to a wide range of dynamic biological processes that depend on applied pressures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Machines and Nanomachines)
Open AccessShort Note Development of 20 Microsatellite Markers for Solenocera crassicornis and Their Cross-Species Application in Solenocera melantho
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9218-9224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079218
Received: 28 June 2012 / Revised: 11 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (90 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Twenty microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized for Solenocera crassicornis from a (GT)13-enriched genomic library. Their polymorphisms were investigated using 44 wild individuals from the South Yellow Sea. Our investigation revealed that all the markers were polymorphic. The number of alleles
[...] Read more.
Twenty microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized for Solenocera crassicornis from a (GT)13-enriched genomic library. Their polymorphisms were investigated using 44 wild individuals from the South Yellow Sea. Our investigation revealed that all the markers were polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus varied from 6 to 19 with an average of 12.35. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.400 to 0.977 and from 0.609 to 0.940, with averages of 0.788 and 0.859, respectively. Four loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni’s correction. Cross-species amplification was also conducted in Solenocera melantho collected from the East China Sea. The result showed that 14 loci could be amplified from Solenocera melantho DNAs. These polymorphic markers would be useful for assessment of genetic variation and population structure of S. crassicornis and S. melantho. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Open AccessArticle 3D Structure Elucidation of Thermostable L2 Lipase from Thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9207-9217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079207
Received: 16 May 2012 / Revised: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The crystallization of proteins makes it possible to determine their structure by X-ray crystallography, and is therefore important for the analysis of protein structure-function relationships. L2 lipase was crystallized by using the J-tube counter diffusion method. A crystallization consisting of 20% PEG 6000,
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The crystallization of proteins makes it possible to determine their structure by X-ray crystallography, and is therefore important for the analysis of protein structure-function relationships. L2 lipase was crystallized by using the J-tube counter diffusion method. A crystallization consisting of 20% PEG 6000, 50 mM MES pH 6.5 and 50 mM NaCl was found to be the best condition to produce crystals with good shape and size (0.5 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm). The protein concentration used for the crystallization was 3 mg/mL. L2 lipase crystal has two crystal forms, Shape 1 and Shape 2. Shape 2 L2 lipase crystal was diffracted at 1.5 Å and the crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.0, b = 81.8, c = 83.4 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit and the solvent content of the crystals is 56.9%, with a Matthew’s coefficient of 2.85 Å Da−1. The 3D structure of L2 lipase revealed topological organization of α/β-hydrolase fold consisting of 11 β-strands and 13 α-helices. Ser-113, His-358 and Asp-317 were assigned as catalytic triad residues. One Ca2+ and one Zn2+ were found in the L2 lipase molecule. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallography in Molecular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9194-9206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079194
Received: 22 May 2012 / Revised: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1
[...] Read more.
The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1'-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20µg/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin on Inhibition of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth in Vitro and in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9184-9193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079184
Received: 28 May 2012 / Revised: 2 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In traditional Chinese medicine, shikonin and its derivatives, has been used in East Asia for several years for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including cancer. We previously identified that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DA) could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth. In the present study, we
[...] Read more.
In traditional Chinese medicine, shikonin and its derivatives, has been used in East Asia for several years for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including cancer. We previously identified that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DA) could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of DA on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line HCT-116 in vitro and in vivo. A viability assay showed that DA could inhibit tumor cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that DA blocks the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Western blotting results demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis by DA correlated with the induction of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, and Bid, and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Furthermore, treatment of HCT-116 bearing nude mice with DA significantly retarded the growth of xenografts. Consistent with the results in vitro, the DA-mediated suppression of HCT-116 xenografts correlated with Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, these results suggest that DA could be a novel and promising approach to the treatment of CRC. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reduction–Oxidation Photocycle Dynamics of Flavins in Starch Films
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9157-9183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079157
Received: 10 May 2012 / Revised: 2 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (718 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The blue-light photo-reduction (conversion of oxidized flavin quinone via flavin semiquinone to fully reduced flavin hydroquinone) and dark re-oxidation of the flavins riboflavin and lumiflavin in starch (α-amylose) films was studied by absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. Blue-light photo-excitation caused an absorption, fluorescence, and
[...] Read more.
The blue-light photo-reduction (conversion of oxidized flavin quinone via flavin semiquinone to fully reduced flavin hydroquinone) and dark re-oxidation of the flavins riboflavin and lumiflavin in starch (α-amylose) films was studied by absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. Blue-light photo-excitation caused an absorption, fluorescence, and phosphorescence decrease which recovered in the dark. The photo-reduction dark-oxidation cycle could be repeated. The efficiency of photo-reduction decreased with exposed excitation energy, and the speed of re-oxidation in the dark slowed down with time after excitation. The absorption did not fully recover. The fluorescence efficiency after a long time of storage in the dark increased beyond the initial flavin quinone fluorescence efficiency. Flavin photo-excitation is thought to cause starch-flavin restructuring (static fluorescence quenching center formation), enabling enhanced photo-induced starch to flavin electron transfer with subsequent flavin reduction and starch oxidation. In the dark, after light switch-off, thermal reversion of flavin reduction and starch oxidation occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavins)
Open AccessArticle TRAIL and Paclitaxel Synergize to Kill U87 Cells and U87-Derived Stem-Like Cells in Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9142-9156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079142
Received: 5 March 2012 / Revised: 11 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 20 July 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
U87-derived stem-like cells (U87-SLCs) were cultured using serum-free stem cell media and identified by both biological behaviors and markers. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and paclitaxel (PX), in combination or alone, was used to treat U87-MG human glioma cells (U87 cells)
[...] Read more.
U87-derived stem-like cells (U87-SLCs) were cultured using serum-free stem cell media and identified by both biological behaviors and markers. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and paclitaxel (PX), in combination or alone, was used to treat U87-MG human glioma cells (U87 cells) or U87-SLCs. The results showed that TRAIL/PX cannot only synergistically inhibit U87 cells but also U87-SLCs. We observed a significantly higher apoptotic rate in U87 cells simultaneously treated with TRAIL/PX for 24 h compared to cells treated with either drug alone. Furthermore, there was a remarkably higher apoptosis rate in U87-SLCs induced by the TRAIL/PX combination compared with either drug alone. Unlike the simultaneous treatment in U87 cells, U87-SLCs were pretreated for 24 h with 1 μmol/L of PX followed by 1000 ng/mL of TRAIL. Protein assays revealed that TRAIL/PX synergy was related to DR4, cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3 upregulation, whereas the mitochondrial pathway was not involved in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The present study indicates that PX can sensitize U87 cells and U87-SLCs to TRAIL treatment through an extrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. The combined treatment of TRAIL and PX may be a promising glioma chemotherapy because of its successful inhibition of U87-SLCs, which are hypothesized to influence chemotherapeutic outcomes of gliomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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