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Energies, Volume 7, Issue 3 (March 2014), Pages 1098-1851

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Open AccessArticle Biofuels from the Fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV) for Diesel Engines
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1829-1851; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031829
Received: 19 February 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (1243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work aims to investigate biofuels for diesel engines produced on a lab-scale from the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV). The impact of growing conditions on the properties of biodiesel produced from FWM-CV was evaluated. The properties of FWM-CV biodiesel were found
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This work aims to investigate biofuels for diesel engines produced on a lab-scale from the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV). The impact of growing conditions on the properties of biodiesel produced from FWM-CV was evaluated. The properties of FWM-CV biodiesel were found to be within the ASTM standards for biodiesel. Due to the limited amount of biodiesel produced on the lab-scale, the biomass of dry cells of FWM-CV was used to yield emulsified water fuel. The preparation of emulsion fuel with and without FWM-CV cells was conducted using ultrasound to overcome the problems of large size microalgae colonies and to form homogenized emulsions. The emulsified water fuels, prepared using ultrasound, were found to be stable and the size of FWM-CV colonies were effectively reduced to pass through the engine nozzle safely. Engine tests at 3670 rpm were conducted using three fuels: cottonseed biodiesel CS-B100, emulsified cottonseed biodiesel water fuel, water and emulsifier (CS-E20) and emulsified water containing FWM-CV cells CS-ME20. The results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was increased by about 41% when the engine was fueled with emulsified water fuels compared to CS-B100. The engine power, exhaust gas temperature, NOx and CO2 were significantly lower than that produced by CS-B100. The CS-ME20 produced higher power than CS-E20 due to the heating value improvement as a result of adding FWM-CV cells to the fuel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy for Agriculture)
Open AccessArticle Inter-Seasonal Variations of Surface Temperature in the Urbanized Environment of Delhi Using Landsat Thermal Data
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1811-1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031811
Received: 29 January 2014 / Revised: 13 March 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Complex land use/cover patterns in urban areas significantly influence their prevailing surface temperature conditions. As a result of differential cooling and heating of various land use/cover, large temperature ranges are associated with bare land, built-up land, etc. and low ranges are found in
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Complex land use/cover patterns in urban areas significantly influence their prevailing surface temperature conditions. As a result of differential cooling and heating of various land use/cover, large temperature ranges are associated with bare land, built-up land, etc. and low ranges are found in vegetation cover and water bodies. Extremely high and low temperature conditions in built-up land have direct and negative impacts on health conditions, and therefore are imperative to study. Thus, an attempt has been made in this research to analyze seasonal variations in surface temperature in city of Delhi. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) 5 satellite images for the four seasons, viz., 16 January (winter), 5 March (spring), 8 May (summer) and 29 September (autumn) 2011 have been used to interpret the distribution and changes in surface temperature. A total of 80 samples from all land use/cover categories were taken to generalize the patterns along with north-south and west-east profiles. The extracted surface temperature patterns reflect the spatial and temporal dynamics of temperature over different land use/cover. The north-south and west-east gradient of temperature demonstrates that the core of Delhi has a much lower temperature and weak urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle DVP: A Novel High-Availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) Protocol Traffic-Reduction Algorithm for a Substation Automation System Network
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1792-1810; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031792
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR) protocol, a potential candidate for substation automation system (SAS) networks, provides duplicated frame copies of each sent frame, with zero fault-recovery time. This means that even in the case of node or link failure, the destination node will
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The high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR) protocol, a potential candidate for substation automation system (SAS) networks, provides duplicated frame copies of each sent frame, with zero fault-recovery time. This means that even in the case of node or link failure, the destination node will receive at least one copy of the sent frame. Consequently, there is no network operation down time. However, the forwarding process of the QuadBox node in HSR is not smart and relies solely on duplication and random forwarding of all received frames. Thus, if a unicast frame is sent in any closed-loop network, the frame copies will be spread through most of all the links in both directions until they reach the destination node, which inevitably results in significant, unnecessary network traffic. In this paper, we present an algorithm called the dual virtual paths (DVP) algorithm to solve such an HSR excessive traffic issue. The idea behind our DVP algorithm is to establish automatic DVP between each HSR node and all the other nodes in the network, except for the QuadBox node. These virtual paths will be used for DVP unicast traffic transmission, rather than using the standard HSR transmission process. Therefore, the DVP algorithm results in less traffic, because there is no duplication or random forwarding, contrary to standard HSR. For the sample networks selected in this paper, the DVP algorithm shows more than a 70% reduction in network traffic and about an 80% reduction in the discarded traffic compared to the standard HSR protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System)
Open AccessArticle Localized Climate and Surface Energy Flux Alterations across an Urban Gradient in the Central U.S.
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1770-1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031770
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long-term urban and rural climate data spanning January 1995 through October 2013 were analyzed to investigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in a representative mid-sized city of the central US. Locally distributed climate data were also collected at nested low density urban,
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Long-term urban and rural climate data spanning January 1995 through October 2013 were analyzed to investigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in a representative mid-sized city of the central US. Locally distributed climate data were also collected at nested low density urban, recently developed, and high density urban monitoring sites from June through September 2013 to improve mechanistic understanding of spatial variability of the UHI effect based upon urban land use intensity. Long-term analyses (1995–2013) indicate significant differences (p < 0.001) between average air temperature (13.47 and 12.89 °C, at the urban and rural site respectively), relative humidity (69.11% and 72.51%, urban and rural respectively), and average wind speed (2.05 and 3.15 m/s urban and rural respectively). Significant differences (p < 0.001) between urban monitoring sites indicate an urban microclimate gradient for all climate variables except precipitation. Results of analysis of net radiation and soil heat flux data suggest distinct localized alterations in urban energy budgets due to land use intensity. Study results hold important implications for urban planners and land managers seeking to improve and implement better urban management practices. Results also reinforce the need for distributed urban energy balance investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
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Open AccessArticle H Fault Tolerant Control of WECS Based on the PWA Model
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1750-1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031750
Received: 26 January 2014 / Revised: 13 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main contribution of this paper is the development of H∞ fault tolerant control for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on the stochastic piecewise affine (PWA) model. In this paper the normal and fault stochastic PWA models for WECS including
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The main contribution of this paper is the development of H∞ fault tolerant control for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on the stochastic piecewise affine (PWA) model. In this paper the normal and fault stochastic PWA models for WECS including multiple working points at different wind speeds are established. A reliable piecewise linear quadratic regulator state feedback is designed for the fault tolerant actuator and sensor. A sufficient condition for the existence of the passive fault tolerant controller is derived based on some linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). It is shown that the H∞ fault tolerant controller of WECS can control the wind turbine exposed to multiple simultaneous sensor faults or actuator faults; that is, the reliability of wind turbines can be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Day-Ahead Energy Planning with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration in the Nordic Region by 2050
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1733-1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031733
Received: 8 January 2014 / Revised: 8 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the day-ahead energy planning of passenger cars with 100% electric vehicle (EV) penetration in the Nordic region by 2050. EVs will play an important role in the future energy systems which can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from
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This paper presents the day-ahead energy planning of passenger cars with 100% electric vehicle (EV) penetration in the Nordic region by 2050. EVs will play an important role in the future energy systems which can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector and provide the demand side flexibility required by smart grids. On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. In order to quantify the electricity consumption increase due to the 100% EV penetration in the Nordic region to facilitate the power system planning studies, the day-ahead energy planning of EVs has been investigated with different EV charging scenarios. Five EV charging scenarios have been considered in the energy planning analysis which are: uncontrolled charging all day, uncontrolled charging at home, timed charging, spot price based charging all day and spot price based charging at home. The demand profiles of the five charging analysis show that timed charging is the least favorable charging option and the spot priced based EV charging might induce high peak demands. The EV charging demand will have a considerable share of the energy consumption in the future Nordic power system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Preparation of Polybenzimidazole-Based Membranes and Their Potential Applications in the Fuel Cell System
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1721-1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031721
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Various polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based ion-exchange films were prepared and thoroughly characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, proton conductivity, and water uptake for possible use as fuel cell membranes. Upon the increase in the flexibility of the PBI-based polymer films (e.g., poly(oxyphenylene benzimidazole) (OPBI)
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Various polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based ion-exchange films were prepared and thoroughly characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, proton conductivity, and water uptake for possible use as fuel cell membranes. Upon the increase in the flexibility of the PBI-based polymer films (e.g., poly(oxyphenylene benzimidazole) (OPBI) and sulfonated OPBI (s-OPBI)), the membranes exhibited slightly improved proton conductivity, but significantly increased dimensional changes. To reduce the dimensional changes (i.e., increase the stability), the cross-linking of the polymer films (e.g., cross-linked OPBI (c-OPBI) and sulfonated c-OPBI (sc-OPBI)) was accomplished using phosphoric acid. Interestingly, the sc-OPBI membrane possessed a greatly increased proton conductivity (0.082 S/cm), which is comparable to that of the commercially available Nafion membrane (0.09 S/cm), while still maintaining slightly better properties regarding the dimensional change and water uptake than those of the Nafion membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Study on Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control of the Chaos Embedded Particle Swarm Optimization for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Wind Power Systems
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1706-1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031706
Received: 26 January 2014 / Revised: 23 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a sliding mode extremum seeking control (SMESC) of chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO) Algorithm, applied to the design of maximum power point tracking in wind power systems. Its features are that the control parameters in SMESC are optimized by
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This paper proposes a sliding mode extremum seeking control (SMESC) of chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO) Algorithm, applied to the design of maximum power point tracking in wind power systems. Its features are that the control parameters in SMESC are optimized by CEPSO, making it unnecessary to change the output power of different wind turbines, the designed in-repetition rate is reduced, and the system control efficiency is increased. The wind power system control is designed by simulation, in comparison with the traditional wind power control method, and the simulated dynamic response obtained by the SMESC algorithm proposed in this paper is better than the traditional hill-climbing search (HCS) and extremum seeking control (ESC) algorithms in the transient or steady states, validating the advantages and practicability of the method proposed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Visitor Counting Technologies and Their Energy Saving Potential through Demand-Controlled Ventilation
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1685-1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031685
Received: 8 February 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Direction-sensitive visitor counting sensors can be used in demand-controlled ventilation (DCV). The counting performance of two light beam sensors and three camera sensors, all direction sensitive, was simultaneously evaluated at an indoor location. Direction insensitive sensors (two mat sensors and one light beam
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Direction-sensitive visitor counting sensors can be used in demand-controlled ventilation (DCV). The counting performance of two light beam sensors and three camera sensors, all direction sensitive, was simultaneously evaluated at an indoor location. Direction insensitive sensors (two mat sensors and one light beam sensor) were additionally tested as a reference. Bidirectional counting data of free people flow was collected for 36 days in one-hour resolution, including five hours of manual counting. Compared to the manual results, one of the light beam sensors had the most equally balanced directional overall counting errors (4.6% and 5.2%). The collected data of this sensor was used to model the air transportation energy consumption of visitor counting sensor-based DCV and constant air volume ventilation (CAV). The results suggest that potential savings in air transportation energy consumption could be gained with the modeled DCV as its total daily airflow during the test period was 54% of the total daily airflow of the modeled CAV on average. A virtually real-time control of ventilation could be realized with minute-level counting resolution. Site-specific calibration of the visitor counting sensors is advisable and they could be complemented with presence detectors to avoid unnecessary ventilation during unoccupied periods of the room. A combination of CO2 and visitor counting sensors could be exploited in DCV to always guarantee sufficient ventilation with a short response time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design and Operation 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Stage Control of Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Slags Based on Time Temperature Transformation Curves
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1673-1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031673
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a significant method and a basic idea of waste heat recovery from high temperature slags based on Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) curves. Three samples with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1.05 and different levels of Al2O3
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This paper presents a significant method and a basic idea of waste heat recovery from high temperature slags based on Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) curves. Three samples with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1.05 and different levels of Al2O3 were designed and isothermal experiments were performed using a Single Hot Thermocouple Technique (SHTT). The TTT curves established through SHTT experiments described well the variation of slag properties during isothermal processes. In this study, we propose a multi-stage control method for waste heat recovery from high temperature slags, in which the whole temperature range from 1500 °C to 25 °C was divided into three regions, i.e., Liquid region, Crystallization region and Solid region, based on the TTT curves. Accordingly, we put forward an industrial prototype plant for the purpose of waste heat recovery and the potential of waste heat recovery was then calculated. The multi-stage control method provided not only a significant prototype, but also a basic idea to simultaneously extract high quality waste heat and obtain glassy phases on high temperature slags, which may fill the gap between slag properties and practical waste heat recovery processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Heat Recovery—Strategy and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison between Underground Cable and Overhead Line for a Low-Voltage Direct Current Distribution Network Serving Communication Repeater
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1656-1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031656
Received: 6 November 2013 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper compares the differences in economic feasibility and dynamic characteristics between underground (U/G) cable and overhead (O/H) line for low-voltage direct current (LVDC) distribution. Numerous low loaded long-distance distribution networks served by medium-voltage alternative current (MVAC) distribution lines exist in the Korean
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This paper compares the differences in economic feasibility and dynamic characteristics between underground (U/G) cable and overhead (O/H) line for low-voltage direct current (LVDC) distribution. Numerous low loaded long-distance distribution networks served by medium-voltage alternative current (MVAC) distribution lines exist in the Korean distribution network. This is an unavoidable choice to compensate voltage drop, therefore, excessive cost is expended for the amount of electrical power load. The Korean Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) is consequently seeking a solution to replace the MVAC distribution line with a LVDC distribution line, reducing costs and providing better quality direct current (DC) electricity. A LVDC distribution network can be installed with U/G cables or O/H lines. In this paper, a realistic MVAC distribution network in a mountainous area was selected as the target model to replace with LVDC. A 30 year net present value (NPV) analysis of the economic feasibility was conducted to compare the cost of the two types of distribution line. A simulation study compared the results of the DC line fault with the power system computer aided design/electro-magnetic transient direct current (PSCAD/EMTDC). The economic feasibility evaluation and simulation study results will be used to select the applicable type of LVDC distribution network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System)
Open AccessArticle Some Aspects of Ice-Hydropower Interaction in a Changing Climate
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1641-1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031641
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ice formation and related processes in rivers and lakes/reservoirs influence the operation of hydropower plants in cold regions. It is a matter of interest to the scientific community and hydropower operators alike how existing ice effects and problems will manifest themselves in a
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Ice formation and related processes in rivers and lakes/reservoirs influence the operation of hydropower plants in cold regions. It is a matter of interest to the scientific community and hydropower operators alike how existing ice effects and problems will manifest themselves in a future changed climate. In this paper, we use different modeling results to investigate future freshwater ice conditions. The modeling approaches include using temperature derived winter indices, using one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and ice cover model on three case study reservoirs, and using a 1D river hydrodynamic and ice cover model for a river reach. The analysis shows that changes in river and reservoir ice regimes due to climate change scenarios may have both positive and negative consequences for hydropower operation. Positive consequences emerge from reduction in ice season and reduced static ice loads. Negative consequences or challenges are attributed to unstable winters that may lead to increased frequency of freeze-thaw episodes with a shortened winter season. These aspects are discussed in more detail in the paper. Full article
Open AccessArticle Methods to Increase the Robustness of Finite-Volume Flow Models in Thermodynamic Systems
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1621-1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031621
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper addresses the issues linked to simulation failures during integration in finite-volume flow models, especially those involving a two-phase state. This kind of model is particularly useful when modeling 1D heat exchangers or piping, e.g., in thermodynamic cycles involving a phase change.
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This paper addresses the issues linked to simulation failures during integration in finite-volume flow models, especially those involving a two-phase state. This kind of model is particularly useful when modeling 1D heat exchangers or piping, e.g., in thermodynamic cycles involving a phase change. Issues, such as chattering or stiff systems, can lead to low simulation speed, instabilities and simulation failures. In the particular case of two-phase flow models, they are usually linked to a discontinuity in the density derivative between the liquid and two-phase zones. In this work, several methods to tackle numerical problems are developed, described, implemented and compared. In addition, methods available in the literature are also implemented and compared to the proposed approaches. Results suggest that the robustness of the models can be significantly increased with these different methods, at the price of a small increase of the error in the mass and energy balances. Full article
Open AccessArticle Coordinated Control of Distributed and Bulk Energy Storage for Alleviation of Post-Contingency Overloads
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1599-1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031599
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 9 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 March 2014 / Published: 17 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel corrective control strategy that can effectively coordinate distributed and bulk energy storage to relieve post-contingency overloads. Immediately following a contingency, distributed batteries are implemented to provide fast corrective actions to reduce power flows below their short-term emergency ratings.
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This paper presents a novel corrective control strategy that can effectively coordinate distributed and bulk energy storage to relieve post-contingency overloads. Immediately following a contingency, distributed batteries are implemented to provide fast corrective actions to reduce power flows below their short-term emergency ratings. During the long-term period, Pumped Hydro Storage units work in pumping or generation mode to aid conventional generating units keep line flows below the normal ratings. This problem is formulated as a multi-stage Corrective Security-constrained OPF (CSCOPF). An algorithm based on Benders decomposition was proposed to find the optimal base case solution and seek feasible corrective actions to handle all contingencies. Case studies based on a modified RTS-96 system demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System)
Open AccessArticle Artificial Neural Network for Short-Term Load Forecasting in Distribution Systems
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1576-1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7031576
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 17 March 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The new paradigms and latest developments in the Electrical Grid are based on the introduction of distributed intelligence at several stages of its physical layer, giving birth to concepts such as Smart Grids, Virtual Power Plants, microgrids, Smart Buildings and
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The new paradigms and latest developments in the Electrical Grid are based on the introduction of distributed intelligence at several stages of its physical layer, giving birth to concepts such as Smart Grids, Virtual Power Plants, microgrids, Smart Buildings and Smart Environments. Distributed Generation (DG) is a philosophy in which energy is no longer produced exclusively in huge centralized plants, but also in smaller premises which take advantage of local conditions in order to minimize transmission losses and optimize production and consumption. This represents a new opportunity for renewable energy, because small elements such as solar panels and wind turbines are expected to be scattered along the grid, feeding local installations or selling energy to the grid depending on their local generation/consumption conditions. The introduction of these highly dynamic elements will lead to a substantial change in the curves of demanded energy. The aim of this paper is to apply Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF) in microgrid environments with curves and similar behaviours, using two different data sets: the first one packing electricity consumption information during four years and six months in a microgrid along with calendar data, while the second one will be just four months of the previous parameters along with the solar radiation from the site. For the first set of data different STLF models will be discussed, studying the effect of each variable, in order to identify the best one. That model will be employed with the second set of data, in order to make a comparison with a new model that takes into account the solar radiation, since the photovoltaic installations of the microgrid will cause the power demand to fluctuate depending on the solar radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System)
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