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Materials, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The combination of the characteristic luminescence properties of lanthanide ions with the [...] Read more.
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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: NextGen Materials for 3D Printing
Materials 2018, 11(4), 555; doi:10.3390/ma11040555
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Only a handful of materials are well-established in three-dimensional (3D) printing and well-accepted in industrial manufacturing applications. However, recent advances in 3D printable materials have shown potential for enabling numerous novel applications in the future. This special issue, consisting of 2 reviews and
[...] Read more.
Only a handful of materials are well-established in three-dimensional (3D) printing and well-accepted in industrial manufacturing applications. However, recent advances in 3D printable materials have shown potential for enabling numerous novel applications in the future. This special issue, consisting of 2 reviews and 10 research articles, intends to explore the possible materials that could define next-generation 3D printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NextGen Materials for 3D Printing)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Restoration of Worn Movable Bridge Props with Use of Bronze Claddings
Materials 2018, 11(4), 459; doi:10.3390/ma11040459
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
This article examined the possibility of using CuSn6P claddings in sliding bearing renovation of movable pontoon bridge props. The bronze layer was welded on cylinders of the high-strength steel S355J0WP EN 10155-93, in an inert atmosphere using an automated welding method (gas tungsten
[...] Read more.
This article examined the possibility of using CuSn6P claddings in sliding bearing renovation of movable pontoon bridge props. The bronze layer was welded on cylinders of the high-strength steel S355J0WP EN 10155-93, in an inert atmosphere using an automated welding method (gas tungsten arc welding). Pulsed arc welding was used to minimize the effects of heat on the cladding area, while also accounting for the differences in the physical properties of the joined metals. The sliding bearing was created in two layers. The quality of the cladding layer was evaluated by nondestructive and/or destructive tests. The quality of the surface was assessed by visual inspection (visual testing) in accordance with the EN ISO 17637 standard. The quality of the claddings was evaluated by metallographic analysis, performed using light microscopy. The microhardness values of a few weld areas were determined by Vickers tests, performed according to the EN ISO 9015–2 standard. The analyses confirmed that the welding parameters and filler material used resulted in high-quality weld joints with no internal (subsurface) or metallurgical defects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures Using Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy and Adsorption by Powdered Activated Carbon and Biochar
Materials 2018, 11(4), 460; doi:10.3390/ma11040460
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and water sources is a key part of environmental chemistry research, since most PAHs are well known to be associated with negative health impacts on humans. This study explores an approach for analyzing PAH mixtures
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Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and water sources is a key part of environmental chemistry research, since most PAHs are well known to be associated with negative health impacts on humans. This study explores an approach for analyzing PAH mixtures with advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques including high-resolution one-dimensional (1D) NMR spectroscopy and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY NMR). With this method, different kinds of PAHs can be detected and differentiated from a mixture with high resolution. The adsorption process of PAH mixtures by PAC and biochar was studied to understand the mechanism and assess the method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influences of Cutting Speed and Material Mechanical Properties on Chip Deformation and Fracture during High-Speed Cutting of Inconel 718
Materials 2018, 11(4), 461; doi:10.3390/ma11040461
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
The paper aims to investigate the influences of material constitutive and fracture parameters in addition to cutting speed on chip formation during high-speed cutting of Inconel 718. Finite element analyses for chip formation are conducted with Johnson–Cook constitutive and fracture models. Meanwhile, experiments
[...] Read more.
The paper aims to investigate the influences of material constitutive and fracture parameters in addition to cutting speed on chip formation during high-speed cutting of Inconel 718. Finite element analyses for chip formation are conducted with Johnson–Cook constitutive and fracture models. Meanwhile, experiments of high-speed orthogonal cutting are performed to verify the simulation results with cutting speeds ranging from 50 m/min to 7000 m/min. The research indicates that the chip morphology transforms from serrated to fragmented at the cutting speed of 7000 m/min due to embrittlement of the workpiece material under ultra-high cutting speeds. The parameter of shear localization sensitivity is put forward to describe the influences of material mechanical properties on serrated chip formation. The results demonstrate that the effects of initial yield stress and thermal softening coefficient on chip shear localization are much more remarkable than the other constitutive parameters. For the material fracture parameters, the effects of initial fracture strain and exponential factor of stress state on chip shear localization are more much prominent. This paper provides guidance for controlling chip formation through the adjustment of material mechanical properties and the selection of appropriate cutting parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a New Dental Implant Cervical Design in Comparison with a Conventional Design in an Experimental American Foxhound Model
Materials 2018, 11(4), 462; doi:10.3390/ma11040462
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration and crestal bone height in implants with a triangular cervical design in comparison with a standard rounded cervical design. The control group consisted of 24 implants with a standard cervical design, and the test
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The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration and crestal bone height in implants with a triangular cervical design in comparison with a standard rounded cervical design. The control group consisted of 24 implants with a standard cervical design, and the test group of 24 implants with a triangular cervical design. The implants were inserted in healed bone in six American Foxhounds. Crestal bone height and tissue thickness in the cervical portion were measured after 12 weeks healing. Data analysis found mean crestal bone loss of: 0.31 ± 0.24 mm on the buccal side, 0.35 ± 0.14 mm on the lingual in the test group, and 0.71 ± 0.28 mm buccal loss, and 0.42 ± 0.30 mm lingual in the control group; with statistically significant differences on the buccal aspect (p = 0.0019). Mean tissue thickness in the test group was 1.98 ± 0.17 mm on the buccal aspect, and 2.43 ± 0.93 mm in the lingual; in the control group it was 2.48 ± 0.61 mm buccal thickness, and 2.88 ± 0.14 mm lingual, with significant differences on both aspects (p = 0.0043; p = 0.0029). The results suggest that greater thickness of peri-implant tissue can be expected when the triangular cervical implant design is used rather than the standard cervical design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructure Evolution and Flow Stress Model of a 20Mn5 Hollow Steel Ingot during Hot Compression
Materials 2018, 11(4), 463; doi:10.3390/ma11040463
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft due to its good performance of strength, toughness and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under high temperature were not studied. In this study,
[...] Read more.
20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft due to its good performance of strength, toughness and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under high temperature were not studied. In this study, the hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850–1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01/s–1/s are conducted using Gleeble thermal and mechanical simulation machine. And the flow stress curves and microstructure after hot compression are obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relation and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 hollow steel ingot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICICE 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Stress Evolution of Amorphous Thermoplastic Plate during Forming Process
Materials 2018, 11(4), 464; doi:10.3390/ma11040464
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Amorphous thermoplastics, as a type of engineering plastic material, are used in various industrial sectors. In order to manufacture high-performance products, it is important to optimize their forming process to mitigate residual stresses. However, stress in a plate is difficult to measure, therefore,
[...] Read more.
Amorphous thermoplastics, as a type of engineering plastic material, are used in various industrial sectors. In order to manufacture high-performance products, it is important to optimize their forming process to mitigate residual stresses. However, stress in a plate is difficult to measure, therefore, modeling provides a powerful way to investigate and understand the evolution of stress. In this study, the forming process of a polyetherimide (PEI) plate was modelled using finite element analysis, and then validated through a comparison with a warpage experiment. This study reveals that the whole forming process can be divided into three stages by the glass transition temperature Tg of the PEI. The second stage, corresponding to the plate cooling from above Tg to below Tg, contributes a large portion of the residual stress in a short time. The final residual stress, the magnitude of which is affected by the cooling rate and plate thickness, shows a parabolic distribution through the thickness of the plate. These important conclusions are beneficial for improving the quality of an amorphous thermoplastic plate, while allowing highly efficient production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Combined Effect of Alternating Current Interference and Cathodic Protection on Pitting Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of X70 Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral pH Environment
Materials 2018, 11(4), 465; doi:10.3390/ma11040465
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Influence of alternating current (AC) on pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X70 pipeline steel in the near-neutral pH environment under cathodic protection (CP) was investigated. Both corrosion and SCC are inhibited by −0.775 VSCE CP without AC interference.
[...] Read more.
Influence of alternating current (AC) on pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X70 pipeline steel in the near-neutral pH environment under cathodic protection (CP) was investigated. Both corrosion and SCC are inhibited by −0.775 VSCE CP without AC interference. With the superimposition of AC current (1–10 mA/cm2), the direct current (DC) potential shifts negatively under the CP of −0.775 VSCE and the cathodic DC current decreases and shifts to the anodic direction. Under the CP potential of −0.95 VSCE and −1.2 VSCE, the applied AC current promotes the cathodic reaction and leads to the positive shift of DC potential and increase of cathodic current. Local anodic dissolution occurs attributing to the generated anodic current transients in the positive half-cycle of the AC current, resulting in the initiation of corrosion pits (0.6–2 μm in diameter). AC enhances the SCC susceptibility of X70 steel under −0.775 VSCE CP, attributing to the promotion of anodic dissolution and hydrogen evolution. Even an AC current as low as 1 mA/cm2 can enhance the SCC susceptibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Printing Parameters on Tensile, Dynamic Mechanical, and Thermoelectric Properties of FDM 3D Printed CABS/ZnO Composites
Materials 2018, 11(4), 466; doi:10.3390/ma11040466
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 25 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) has been widely used in medical appliances, automobile, aircraft and aerospace, household appliances, toys, and many other fields. The ease of processing, low cost and high flexibility of FDM technique are strong advantages compared to other techniques for thermoelectric
[...] Read more.
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) has been widely used in medical appliances, automobile, aircraft and aerospace, household appliances, toys, and many other fields. The ease of processing, low cost and high flexibility of FDM technique are strong advantages compared to other techniques for thermoelectric polymer composite fabrication. This research work focuses on the effect of two crucial printing parameters (infill density and printing pattern) on the tensile, dynamic mechanical, and thermoelectric properties of conductive acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/zinc oxide (CABS/ZnO composites fabricated by FDM technique. Results revealed significant improvement in tensile strength and Young’s modulus, with a decrease in elongation at break with infill density. Improvement in dynamic storage modulus was observed when infill density changed from 50% to 100%. However, the loss modulus and damping factor reduced gradually. The increase of thermal conductivity was relatively smaller compared to the improvement of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, therefore, the calculated figure of merit (ZT) value increased with infill density. Line pattern performed better than rectilinear, especially in tensile properties and electrical conductivity. From the results obtained, FDM-fabricated CABS/ZnO showed much potential as a promising candidate for thermoelectric application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Silica Modified with Polyaniline as a Potential Sorbent for Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) and Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (d-SPE) of Plant Samples
Materials 2018, 11(4), 467; doi:10.3390/ma11040467
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the best known conductive polymers with multiple applications. Recently, it was also used in separation techniques, mostly as a component of composites for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). In the present paper, sorbent obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline
[...] Read more.
Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the best known conductive polymers with multiple applications. Recently, it was also used in separation techniques, mostly as a component of composites for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). In the present paper, sorbent obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline directly on silica gel particles (Si-PANI) was used for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) and matrix solid–phase extraction (MSPD). The efficiency of both techniques was evaluated with the use of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) quantitative analysis. The quality of the sorbent was verified by Raman spectroscopy and microscopy combined with automated procedure using computer image analysis. For extraction experiments, triterpenes were chosen as model compounds. The optimal conditions were as follows: protonated Si-PANI impregnated with water, 160/1 sorbent/analyte ratio, 3 min of extraction time, 4 min of desorption time and methanolic solution of ammonia for elution of analytes. The proposed procedure was successfully used for pretreatment of plant samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers: Materials and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Related Structure Characters and Stability of Structural Defects in a Metallic Glass
Materials 2018, 11(4), 468; doi:10.3390/ma11040468
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Structural defects were investigated by a recently proposed structural parameter, quasi-nearest atom (QNA), in a modeled Zr50Cu50 metallic glass through molecular dynamics simulations. More QNAs around an atom usually means that more defects are located near the atom. Structural analysis
[...] Read more.
Structural defects were investigated by a recently proposed structural parameter, quasi-nearest atom (QNA), in a modeled Zr50Cu50 metallic glass through molecular dynamics simulations. More QNAs around an atom usually means that more defects are located near the atom. Structural analysis reveals that the spatial distribution of the numbers of QNAs displays to be clearly heterogeneous. Furthermore, QNA is closely correlated with cluster connections, especially four-atom cluster connections. Atoms with larger coordination numbers usually have less QNAs. When two atoms have the same coordination number, the atom with larger five-fold symmetry has less QNAs. The number of QNAs around an atom changes rather frequently and the change of QNAs might be correlated with the fast relaxation metallic glasses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Carbon Foam from Waste Artificial Marble Powder and Carboxymethyl Cellulose via Electron Beam Irradiation and Its Characterization
Materials 2018, 11(4), 469; doi:10.3390/ma11040469
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Carbon foams were prepared by carbonization of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/waste artificial marble powder (WAMP) composites obtained via electron beam irradiation (EBI); these composites were prepared by mixing eco-friendly CMC with WAMP as the fillers for improved their poor mechanical strength. Gel fractions of
[...] Read more.
Carbon foams were prepared by carbonization of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/waste artificial marble powder (WAMP) composites obtained via electron beam irradiation (EBI); these composites were prepared by mixing eco-friendly CMC with WAMP as the fillers for improved their poor mechanical strength. Gel fractions of the CMC/WAMP composites obtained at various EBI doses were investigated, and it was found that the CMC/WAMP composites obtained at an EBI dose of 80 kGy showed the highest gel fraction (95%); hence, the composite prepared at this dose was selected for preparing the carbon foam. The thermogravimetric analysis of the CMC/WAMP composites obtained at 80 kGy; showed that the addition of WAMP increased the thermal stability and carbon residues of the CMC/WAMP composites at 900 °C. SEM images showed that the cell walls of the CMC/WAMP carbon foams were thicker more than those of the CMC carbon foam. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the CMC/WAMP carbon foams contained small amounts of aluminum, derived from WAMP. The results confirmed that the increased WAMP content and hence increased aluminum content improved the thermal conductivity of the composites and their corresponding carbon foams. Moreover, the addition of WAMP increased the compressive strength of CMC/WAMP composites and hence the strength of their corresponding carbon foams. In conclusion, this synthesis method is encouraging, as it produces carbon foams of pore structure with good mechanical properties and thermal conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Characteristics of the Arcing Plasma Formation Effect in Spark-Assisted Chemical Engraving of Glass, Based on Machine Vision
Materials 2018, 11(4), 470; doi:10.3390/ma11040470
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) is a non-traditional machining technology that is used to machine electrically non-conducting materials including glass, ceramics, and quartz. The processing accuracy, machining efficiency, and reproducibility are the key factors in the SACE process. In the present study, a machine
[...] Read more.
Spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) is a non-traditional machining technology that is used to machine electrically non-conducting materials including glass, ceramics, and quartz. The processing accuracy, machining efficiency, and reproducibility are the key factors in the SACE process. In the present study, a machine vision method is applied to monitor and estimate the status of a SACE-drilled hole in quartz glass. During the machining of quartz glass, the spring-fed tool electrode was pre-pressured on the quartz glass surface to feed the electrode that was in contact with the machining surface of the quartz glass. In situ image acquisition and analysis of the SACE drilling processes were used to analyze the captured image of the state of the spark discharge at the tip and sidewall of the electrode. The results indicated an association between the accumulative size of the SACE-induced spark area and deepness of the hole. The results indicated that the evaluated depths of the SACE-machined holes were a proportional function of the accumulative spark size with a high degree of correlation. The study proposes an innovative computer vision-based method to estimate the deepness and status of SACE-drilled holes in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machining—Recent Advances, Applications and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Tuning of Schottky Barrier Height at NiSi/Si Contact by Combining Dual Implantation of Boron and Aluminum and Microwave Annealing
Materials 2018, 11(4), 471; doi:10.3390/ma11040471
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Dopant-segregated source/drain contacts in a p-channel Schottky-barrier metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (SB-MOSFET) require further hole Schottky barrier height (SBH) regulation toward sub-0.1 eV levels to improve their competitiveness with conventional field-effect transistors. Because of the solubility limits of dopants in silicon, the requirements
[...] Read more.
Dopant-segregated source/drain contacts in a p-channel Schottky-barrier metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (SB-MOSFET) require further hole Schottky barrier height (SBH) regulation toward sub-0.1 eV levels to improve their competitiveness with conventional field-effect transistors. Because of the solubility limits of dopants in silicon, the requirements for effective hole SBH reduction with dopant segregation cannot be satisfied using mono-implantation. In this study, we demonstrate a potential solution for further SBH tuning by implementing the dual implantation of boron (B) and aluminum (Al) in combination with microwave annealing (MWA). By using such a method, not only has the lowest hole SBH ever with 0.07 eV in NiSi/n-Si contacts been realized, but also the annealing duration of MWA was sharply reduced to 60 s. Moreover, we investigated the SBH tuning mechanisms of the dual-implanted diodes with microwave annealing, including the dopant segregation, activation effect, and dual-barrier tuning effect of Al. With the selection of appropriate implantation conditions, the dual implantation of B and Al combined with the MWA technique shows promise for the fabrication of future p-channel SB-MOSFETs with a lower thermal budget. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Growth and Brilliant Photo-Emission of Crystalline Hexagonal Column of Alq3 Microwires
Materials 2018, 11(4), 472; doi:10.3390/ma11040472
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
We report the growth and nanoscale luminescence characteristics of 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum (Alq3) with a crystalline hexagonal column morphology. Pristine Alq3 nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a conventional reprecipitation method. Crystal hexagonal columns of Alq3 were grown by using a
[...] Read more.
We report the growth and nanoscale luminescence characteristics of 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum (Alq3) with a crystalline hexagonal column morphology. Pristine Alq3 nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a conventional reprecipitation method. Crystal hexagonal columns of Alq3 were grown by using a surfactant-assisted self-assembly technique as an adjunct to the aforementioned reprecipitation method. The formation and structural properties of the crystalline and non-crystalline Alq3 NPs were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The nanoscale photoluminescence (PL) characteristics and the luminescence color of the Alq3 single NPs and their crystal microwires (MWs) were evaluated from color charge-coupled device images acquired using a high-resolution laser confocal microscope. In comparison with the Alq3 NPs, the crystalline MWs exhibited a very bright and sharp emission. This enhanced and sharp emission from the crystalline Alq3 single MWs originated from effective π-π stacking of the Alq3 molecules due to strong interactions in the crystalline structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Photoactive Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Temperature and Recognition Dual Responsive Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) and Poly(N,N-Dimethylacrylamide) with Adamantyl Side Group
Materials 2018, 11(4), 473; doi:10.3390/ma11040473
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
A series of copolymers with an adamantyl side group (poly(NIPAM-co-AdMA) and poly(DMAM-co-AdMA)) were prepared by radical copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAM) with a 2-methyl-2-adamantylmethacrylate (AdMA) monomer. The structure and composition of the as-synthesized copolymers were characterized by
[...] Read more.
A series of copolymers with an adamantyl side group (poly(NIPAM-co-AdMA) and poly(DMAM-co-AdMA)) were prepared by radical copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAM) with a 2-methyl-2-adamantylmethacrylate (AdMA) monomer. The structure and composition of the as-synthesized copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and elemental analysis. Temperature and recognition dual responsivity of the copolymers was investigated by cloud point (Tcp) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. The results show that the as-synthesized copolymers are a kind of temperature-responsive polymer with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Tcp was approximately consistent with the critical temperature of intermolecular copolymer association (Tass) from DLS. For these copolymers, Tcp decreases with increasing content of AdMA unit in the copolymers. After the addition of β-cyclodextrins (β-CD), Tcp increases, and the increment of Tcp values gradually became large with increasing content of AdMA in the copolymers. It is host-guest molecular recognition of β-CD and adamantyl groups that endows the as-synthesized copolymers with recognition-tunable thermosensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Temperature-Responsive Polymers)
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Open AccessCommunication Preparation and Sound Absorption Properties of a Barium Titanate/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber–Polyurethane Foam Composite with Multilayered Structure
Materials 2018, 11(4), 474; doi:10.3390/ma11040474
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Barium titanate/nitrile butadiene rubber (BT/NBR) and polyurethane (PU) foam were combined to prepare a sound-absorbing material with an alternating multilayered structure. The effects of the cell size of PU foam and the alternating unit number on the sound absorption property of the material
[...] Read more.
Barium titanate/nitrile butadiene rubber (BT/NBR) and polyurethane (PU) foam were combined to prepare a sound-absorbing material with an alternating multilayered structure. The effects of the cell size of PU foam and the alternating unit number on the sound absorption property of the material were investigated. The results show that the sound absorption efficiency at a low frequency increased when decreasing the cell size of PU foam layer. With the increasing of the alternating unit number, the material shows the sound absorption effect in a wider bandwidth of frequency. The BT/NBR-PU foam composites with alternating multilayered structure have an excellent sound absorption property at low frequency due to the organic combination of airflow resistivity, resonance absorption, and interface dissipation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Sintering Behavior of Er:SrF2 Transparent Ceramics using Chemically Derived Powder
Materials 2018, 11(4), 475; doi:10.3390/ma11040475
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we report the fabrication of high-quality 5 at. % Er3+ ions doped SrF2 transparent ceramics, the potential candidate materials for a mid-infrared laser-gain medium by hot-pressing at 700 °C for 40 h using a chemically-derived powder. The phase
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In this paper, we report the fabrication of high-quality 5 at. % Er3+ ions doped SrF2 transparent ceramics, the potential candidate materials for a mid-infrared laser-gain medium by hot-pressing at 700 °C for 40 h using a chemically-derived powder. The phase structure, densification, and microstructure evolution of the Er:SrF2 ceramics were systematically investigated. In addition, the grain growth kinetic mechanism of Er:SrF2 was clarified. The results showed lattice diffusion to be the grain growth mechanism in the Er:SrF2 transparent ceramic of which highest in-line transmittance reached 92% at 2000 nm, i.e., very close to the theoretical transmittance value of SrF2 single crystal. Furthermore, the emission spectra showed that the strongest emission band was located at 2735 nm. This means that it is possible to achieve a laser output of approximately 2.7 μm in the 5 at. % Er3+ ions doped SrF2 transparent ceramics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Selected Factors on the Relationship between the Dynamic Elastic Modulus and Compressive Strength of Concrete
Materials 2018, 11(4), 477; doi:10.3390/ma11040477
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, the relationship between the static and dynamic elastic modulus of concrete and the relationship between the static elastic modulus and compressive strength of concrete have been formulated. These relationships are based on investigations of different types of concrete and take
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In this paper, the relationship between the static and dynamic elastic modulus of concrete and the relationship between the static elastic modulus and compressive strength of concrete have been formulated. These relationships are based on investigations of different types of concrete and take into account the type and amount of aggregate and binder used. The dynamic elastic modulus of concrete was tested using impulse excitation of vibration and the modal analysis method. This method could be used as a non-destructive way of estimating the compressive strength of concrete. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Multiple Firings on the Shear Bond Strength of Porcelain to a New Millable Alloy and a Conventional Casting Alloy
Materials 2018, 11(4), 478; doi:10.3390/ma11040478
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
This study compared the effect of multiple firings on the shear bond strength (SBS) of porcelain to the new millable alloy (Ceramill Sintron) and a conventional casting alloy (4-all). Thirty-six cylindrical cores (6.8 × 9 mm) were made of millable and castable alloy
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This study compared the effect of multiple firings on the shear bond strength (SBS) of porcelain to the new millable alloy (Ceramill Sintron) and a conventional casting alloy (4-all). Thirty-six cylindrical cores (6.8 × 9 mm) were made of millable and castable alloy through CAD/CAM and casting techniques, respectively (n = 18). In the center of each bar, a 4 × 4 × 2-mm shot of porcelain was fused. Having divided each group into 3 subgroups based on the number of firing cycles (3, 5, 7), the specimens were fixed in a universal testing machine and underwent a shear force test (1.5 mm/min crosshead speed) until fractured. Then the SBS values (MPa) were calculated, and the failure patterns were microscopically characterized as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed that the number of porcelain firings had no significant effect on the SBS of any of the metal groups (p = 0.1); however, it was statistically higher in the millable group than the castable group (p < 0.05). Moreover, detecting the mixed failure pattern in all the specimens implied that the multiple firings had no significant effect on the failure pattern. The multiple porcelain firings had no significant effect on the SBS of porcelain to neither the millable nor castable alloys. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Corrosion Development of Carbon Steel Grids and Shear Connectors in Cracked Composite Beams Exposed to Wet–Dry Cycles in Chloride Environment
Materials 2018, 11(4), 479; doi:10.3390/ma11040479
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
The corrosion development of the reinforcement and shear stud connectors in the cracked steel–concrete composite beams under the salt-fog wet–dry cycles is presented in this investigation. Seven identical composite beams with load-induced concrete cracks were exposed to an aggressive chloride environment. The reinforcement
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The corrosion development of the reinforcement and shear stud connectors in the cracked steel–concrete composite beams under the salt-fog wet–dry cycles is presented in this investigation. Seven identical composite beams with load-induced concrete cracks were exposed to an aggressive chloride environment. The reinforcement and shear connectors were retrieved after specimens underwent a specified number of wet–dry cycles to obtain the corrosion pattern and the cross-section loss at different exposure times and their evolutions. The crack map, the corrosion pattern and the cross-section loss were measured and presented. Based on the experimental results, the influence of crack characteristics, including crack widths, orientations and positions on the corrosion rate and distribution, were accessed. Moreover, the effects of the connecting weldments on the corrosion initiations and patterns were analyzed. It was shown that the corrosion rate would increase with the number of wet–dry cycles. The characteristics of load-induced cracks could have different influences on the steel grids and shear stud connectors. The corrosion tended to initiate from the connecting weldments, due to the potential difference with the parent steel and the aggressive exposure environment, leading to a preferential weldment attack. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Magnesium Nickel Boride Aggregates via Borohydride Autogenous Pressure
Materials 2018, 11(4), 480; doi:10.3390/ma11040480
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
We demonstrate synthesis of the ternary intermetallic MgNi3B2 using autogenous pressure from the reaction of NaBH4 with Mg and Ni metal powder. The decomposition of NaBH4 to H2 and B2H6 commences at low temperatures
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We demonstrate synthesis of the ternary intermetallic MgNi3B2 using autogenous pressure from the reaction of NaBH4 with Mg and Ni metal powder. The decomposition of NaBH4 to H2 and B2H6 commences at low temperatures in the presence of Mg and/or Ni and promotes formation of Ni-borides and MgNi3B2 with the increase in temperature. MgNi3B2 aggregates with Ni-boride cores are formed when the reaction temperature is >670 °C and autogenous pressure is >1.7 MPa. Morphologies and microstructures suggest that solid–gas and liquid–gas reactions are dominant mechanisms and that Ni-borides form at a lower temperature than MgNi3B2. Magnetic measurements of the core-shell MgNi3B2 aggregates are consistent with ferromagnetic behaviour in contrast to stoichiometric MgNi3B2 which is diamagnetic at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Hierarchical Highly Ordered Porous Films of Brominated Poly(phenylene oxide) and Hydrophilic SiO2/C Membrane via the Breath Figure Method
Materials 2018, 11(4), 481; doi:10.3390/ma11040481
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Porous permeable films materials have very broad prospects in the treatment of sludge-containing waste water due to their large surface area and good microfiltration. In this work, highly ordered porous membranes have been prepared successfully on ice substrates using a poly(phenylene oxide) (BPPO)-SiO
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Porous permeable films materials have very broad prospects in the treatment of sludge-containing waste water due to their large surface area and good microfiltration. In this work, highly ordered porous membranes have been prepared successfully on ice substrates using a poly(phenylene oxide) (BPPO)-SiO2 nanoparticle (NP) mixture by the brePorous permeable films materials have very broad prospects in the treatment of sludge-containing waste water due to their large surface area and good microfiltration. In this work, highly ordered porous membranes have been prepared successfully on ice substrates using aath figure method. Based on the theory of Pickering emulsion system and capillary flow, particle assisted membrane formation was analyzed. Another two sorts of new membranes SiO2/C membrane and hierarchical porous polymer (HPP) membrane, which were obtained by modification of the BPPO-SiO2 membrane by calcination and etching, were set up in a further study. Their properties were investigated through the methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), ultraviolet spectrum (UV), capillary electrophoresis (CE), contact angle, and water flux tests. All these results demonstrate that both surface hydrophilicity and fouling resistance of the membrane would be improved by using SiO2 as a filler. The membranes with high permeability and antifouling properties were used for microfiltration applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Magnetron-Sputtered, Biodegradable FeMn Foils: The Influence of Manganese Content on Microstructure, Mechanical, Corrosion, and Magnetic Properties
Materials 2018, 11(4), 482; doi:10.3390/ma11040482
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
FeMn alloys show a great potential for the use as a biodegradable material for medical vascular implants. To optimize the material properties, with respect to the intended application, new fabrication methods also have to be investigated. In this work different Fe–FeMn32 multilayer films
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FeMn alloys show a great potential for the use as a biodegradable material for medical vascular implants. To optimize the material properties, with respect to the intended application, new fabrication methods also have to be investigated. In this work different Fe–FeMn32 multilayer films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The deposition was done on a substrate structured by UV lithography. This technique allows the fabrication of in-situ structured foils. In order to investigate the influence of the Mn content on the material properties foils with an overall Mn content of 5, 10, 15, and 17 wt % were fabricated. The freestanding foils were annealed post-deposition, in order to homogenize them and adjust the material properties. The material was characterized in terms of microstructure, corrosion, mechanical, and magnetic properties using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, electrochemical polarization, immersion tests, uniaxial tensile tests, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Due to the unique microstructure that can be achieved by the fabrication via magnetron sputtering, the annealed foils showed a high mechanical yield strength (686–926 MPa) and tensile strength (712–1147 MPa). Owing the stabilization of the non-ferromagnetic ε- and γ-phase, it was shown that even Mn concentrations of 15–17 wt % are sufficient to distinctly enhance the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility of FeMn alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Flame Retardant Polyacrylonitrile Fabric Based on Sol-Gel and Layer-by-Layer Assembly
Materials 2018, 11(4), 483; doi:10.3390/ma11040483
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper aims to develop a novel method, i.e., sol-gel combined with layer-by-layer assembly technology, to impart flame retardancy on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics. Silica-sol was synthesized via the sol-gel process and acted as cationic solution, and phytic acid (PA) was used as the
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This paper aims to develop a novel method, i.e., sol-gel combined with layer-by-layer assembly technology, to impart flame retardancy on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics. Silica-sol was synthesized via the sol-gel process and acted as cationic solution, and phytic acid (PA) was used as the anionic medium. Flame-retardant-treated PAN fabric (FR-PAN) could achieve excellent flame retardancy with 10 bilayer (10BL) coating through layer-by-layer assembly. The structure of the fabrics was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal stability and flame retardancy were evaluated by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, cone calorimetry (CC) and limiting oxygen index (LOI). The LOI value of the coated fabric was up to 33.2 vol % and the char residue at 800 °C also increased to 57 wt %. Cone calorimetry tests revealed that, compared to the control fabric, the peak of heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat release (THR) of FR-PAN decreased by 66% and 73%, respectively. These results indicated that sol-gel combined with layer-by-layer assembly technique could impart PAN fabric with satisfactory flame-retardant properties, showing an efficient flame retardant strategy for PAN fabric. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanism of Mercury Adsorption and Oxidation by Oxygen over the CeO2 (111) Surface: A DFT Study
Materials 2018, 11(4), 485; doi:10.3390/ma11040485
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
CeO2 is a promising catalytic oxidation material for flue gas mercury removal. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and periodic slab models are employed to investigate mercury adsorption and oxidation by oxygen over the CeO2 (111) surface. DFT calculations indicate that Hg
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CeO2 is a promising catalytic oxidation material for flue gas mercury removal. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and periodic slab models are employed to investigate mercury adsorption and oxidation by oxygen over the CeO2 (111) surface. DFT calculations indicate that Hg0 is physically adsorbed on the CeO2 (111) surface and the Hg atom interacts strongly with the surface Ce atom according to the partial density of states (PDOS) analysis, whereas, HgO is adsorbed on the CeO2 (111) surface in a chemisorption manner, with its adsorption energy in the range of 69.9–198.37 kJ/mol. Depending on the adsorption methods of Hg0 and HgO, three reaction pathways (pathways I, II, and III) of Hg0 oxidation by oxygen are proposed. Pathway I is the most likely oxidation route on the CeO2 (111) surface due to it having the lowest energy barrier of 20.7 kJ/mol. The formation of the HgO molecule is the rate-determining step, which is also the only energy barrier of the entire process. Compared with energy barriers of Hg0 oxidation on the other catalytic materials, CeO2 is more efficient at mercury removal in flue gas owing to its low energy barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Catalytic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Patternable Poly(chloro-p-xylylene) Film with Tunable Surface Wettability Prepared by Temperature and Humidity Treatment on a Polydimethylsiloxane/Silica Coating
Materials 2018, 11(4), 486; doi:10.3390/ma11040486
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Poly(chloro-p-xylylene) (PPXC) film has a water contact angle (WCA) of only about 84°. It is necessary to improve its hydrophobicity to prevent liquid water droplets from corroding or electrically shorting metallic circuits of semiconductor devices, sensors, microelectronics, and so on. Herein, we reported
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Poly(chloro-p-xylylene) (PPXC) film has a water contact angle (WCA) of only about 84°. It is necessary to improve its hydrophobicity to prevent liquid water droplets from corroding or electrically shorting metallic circuits of semiconductor devices, sensors, microelectronics, and so on. Herein, we reported a facile approach to improve its surface hydrophobicity by varying surface pattern structures under different temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions on a thermal curable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hydrophobic silica (SiO2) nanoparticle coating. Three distinct large-scale surface patterns were obtained mainly depending on the contents of SiO2 nanoparticles. The regularity of patterns was mainly controlled by the temperature and RH conditions. By changing the pattern structures, the surface wettability of PPXC film could be improved and its WCA was increased from 84° to 168°, displaying a superhydrophobic state. Meanwhile, it could be observed that water droplets on PPXC film with superhydrophobicity were transited from a “Wenzel” state to a “Cassie” state. The PPXC film with different surface patterns of 200 μm × 200 μm and the improved surface hydrophobicity showed wide application potentials in self-cleaning, electronic engineering, micro-contact printing, cell biology, and tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Photocatalytic Activity of Nanotubular TiO2 Films Obtained by Anodic Oxidation: A Comparison in Gas and Liquid Phase
Materials 2018, 11(4), 488; doi:10.3390/ma11040488
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
The availability of immobilized nanostructured photocatalysts is of great importance in the purification of both polluted air and liquids (e.g., industrial wastewaters). Metal-supported titanium dioxide films with nanotubular morphology and good photocatalytic efficiency in both environments can be produced by anodic oxidation, which
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The availability of immobilized nanostructured photocatalysts is of great importance in the purification of both polluted air and liquids (e.g., industrial wastewaters). Metal-supported titanium dioxide films with nanotubular morphology and good photocatalytic efficiency in both environments can be produced by anodic oxidation, which avoids release of nanoscale materials in the environment. Here we evaluate the effect of different anodizing procedures on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanostructures in gas and liquid phases, in order to identify the most efficient and robust technique for the production of TiO2 layers with different morphologies and high photocatalytic activity in both phases. Rhodamine B and toluene were used as model pollutants in the two media, respectively. It was found that the role of the anodizing electrolyte is particularly crucial, as it provides substantial differences in the oxide specific surface area: nanotubular structures show remarkably different activities, especially in gas phase degradation reactions, and within nanotubular structures, those produced by organic electrolytes lead to better photocatalytic activity in both conditions tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Photoactive Materials)
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Open AccessCommunication Label-Free Electrochemical Detection of Vanillin through Low-Defect Graphene Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles
Materials 2018, 11(4), 489; doi:10.3390/ma11040489
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
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Abstract
Graphene is an excellent modifier for the surface modification of electrochemical electrodes due to its exceptional physical properties and, for the development of graphene-based chemical and biosensors, is usually coated on glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) via drop casting. However, the ease of aggregation
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Graphene is an excellent modifier for the surface modification of electrochemical electrodes due to its exceptional physical properties and, for the development of graphene-based chemical and biosensors, is usually coated on glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) via drop casting. However, the ease of aggregation and high defect content of reduced graphene oxides degrade the electrical properties. Here, we fabricated low-defect graphene electrodes by catalytically thermal treatment of HPHT diamond substrate, followed by the electrodeposition of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) with an average size of ≈60 nm on the electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry. The Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes show a wide linear response range to vanillin from 0.2 to 40 µM with a low limit of detection of 10 nM. This work demonstrates the potential applications of graphene-based hybrid electrodes for highly sensitive chemical detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in 2D Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Osteogenic Potential of Pre-Osteoblastic Cells on a Chitosan-graft-Polycaprolactone Copolymer
Materials 2018, 11(4), 490; doi:10.3390/ma11040490
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
A chitosan-graft-polycaprolactone (CS-g-PCL) copolymer synthesized via a multi-step process was evaluated as a potential biomaterial for the adhesion and growth of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells. A strong adhesion of the MC3T3-E1 cells with a characteristic spindle-shaped morphology was observed from
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A chitosan-graft-polycaprolactone (CS-g-PCL) copolymer synthesized via a multi-step process was evaluated as a potential biomaterial for the adhesion and growth of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells. A strong adhesion of the MC3T3-E1 cells with a characteristic spindle-shaped morphology was observed from the first days of cell culture onto the copolymer surfaces. The viability and proliferation of the cells on the CS-g-PCL surfaces, after 3 and 7 days in culture, were significantly higher compared to the cells cultured on the tissue culture treated polystyrene (TCPS) control. The osteogenic potential of the pre-osteoblastic cells cultured on CS-g-PCL surfaces was evaluated by determining various osteogenic differentiation markers and was compared to the TCPS control surface. Specifically, alkaline phosphatase activity levels show significantly higher values at both time points compared to TCPS, while secreted collagen into the extracellular matrix was found to be higher on day 7. Calcium biomineralization deposited into the matrix is significantly higher for the CS-g-PCL copolymer after 14 days in culture, while the levels of intracellular osteopontin were significantly higher on the CS-g-PCL surfaces compared to TCPS. The enhanced osteogenic response of the MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts cultured on CS-g-PCL reveals that the copolymer underpins the cell functions towards bone tissue formation and is thus an attractive candidate for use in bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected papers from EUROMAT 2017 Conference—Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Photophysical and Photocatalytic Properties of BiSnSbO6 under Visible Light Irradiation
Materials 2018, 11(4), 491; doi:10.3390/ma11040491
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
BiSnSbO6 with strong photocatalytic activity was first fabricated by a high-temperature, solid-state sintering method. The resulting BiSnSbO6 was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
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BiSnSbO6 with strong photocatalytic activity was first fabricated by a high-temperature, solid-state sintering method. The resulting BiSnSbO6 was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that BiSnSbO6, with a pyrochlore structure and a cubic crystal system by a space group Fd3m, was well crystallized. The lattice parameter or the band gap of BiSnSbO6 was 10.234594 Å or 2.83 eV. Compared with N-doped TiO2, BiSnSbO6 showed higher photocatalytic activity in the degradation of benzotriazole and rhodamine B. The apparent first-order rate constant for BiSnSbO6 in the degradation of benzotriazole and rhodamine B was 0.0182 min−1 and 0.0147 min−1, respectively. On the basis of the scavenger experiment, during the photocatalytic process, the main active species were arranged in order of increasing photodegradation rate: •OH < •O2 < h+. The removal rate of benzotriazole or rhodamine B was approximately estimated to be 100% with BiSnSbO6 as a photocatalyst after 200 min visible-light irradiation. Plentiful CO2 produced by the experiment indicated that benzotriazole or rhodamine B was continuously mineralized during the photocatalytic process. Finally, the possible photodegradation pathways of benzotriazole and rhodamine B were deduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Sensitive Hydrogen (H2) Sensing Device Based on Ag Doped SnO2 Nanospheres
Materials 2018, 11(4), 492; doi:10.3390/ma11040492
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, pure and Ag-doped SnO2 nanospheres were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), respectively. The gas sensing performance of the
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In this paper, pure and Ag-doped SnO2 nanospheres were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), respectively. The gas sensing performance of the pure, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, and 5 at.% Ag-doped SnO2 sensing devices toward hydrogen (H2) were systematically evaluated. The results indicated that compared with pure SnO2 nanospheres, Ag-doped SnO2 nanospheres could not only decrease the optimum working temperature but also significantly improve H2 sensing such as higher gas response and faster response-recovery. Among all the samples, the 3 at.% Ag-doped SnO2 showed the highest response 39 to 100 μL/L H2 at 300 °C. Moreover, its gas sensing mechanism was discussed, and the results will provide reference and theoretical guidance for the development of high-performance SnO2-based H2 sensing devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Nanomaterials and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Curing Effects on Interfacial Adhesion between Recycled Carbon Fiber and Epoxy Resin Heated by Microwave Irradiation
Materials 2018, 11(4), 493; doi:10.3390/ma11040493
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
The interfacial adhesion of recycled carbon fiber (CF) reinforced epoxy composite heated by microwave (MW) irradiation were investigated by changing the curing state of the epoxy resin. The recycled CF was recovered from the composite, which was prepared by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding,
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The interfacial adhesion of recycled carbon fiber (CF) reinforced epoxy composite heated by microwave (MW) irradiation were investigated by changing the curing state of the epoxy resin. The recycled CF was recovered from the composite, which was prepared by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding, by thermal degradation at 500 or 600 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the heating at 600 °C caused rough damage to the CF surface, whereas recycled CF recovered at 500 °C have few defects. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between recycled CF and epoxy resin was measured by a single-fiber fragmentation test. The test specimen was heated by MW after mixing the epoxy resin with a curing agent or pre-curing, in order to investigate the curing effects on the matrix resin. The IFSSs of the MW-irradiated samples were significantly varied by the curing state of the epoxy resin and the surface condition of recycled CF, resulting that they were 99.5 to 131.7% of oven heated samples Furthermore, rheological measurements showed that the viscosity and shrinking behaviors of epoxy resin were affected based on the curing state of epoxy resin before MW irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers and Their Composite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Modification of Ti-35Nb-10Ta-1.5Fe by the Double Acid-Etching Process
Materials 2018, 11(4), 494; doi:10.3390/ma11040494
Received: 20 January 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Surface topography and composition influence the osteoblastic proliferation and osseointegration rates, which favor the biomechanical stability of bone anchoring and implants. In recent years, beta titanium alloys have been developed, and are composed of biocompatible elements, have low elastic modulus, high corrosion resistance,
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Surface topography and composition influence the osteoblastic proliferation and osseointegration rates, which favor the biomechanical stability of bone anchoring and implants. In recent years, beta titanium alloys have been developed, and are composed of biocompatible elements, have low elastic modulus, high corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties to improve the long performance behavior of biomaterials. In the present research, the influence of the acid-etching process was studied in Ti6Al4V ELI and Ti35Nb10Ta1.5Fe. Samples were etched in a two-step acid treatment. Surface roughness parameters were quantified under a confocal microscope, topography was studied by scanning electron microscopy, and surface composition was analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results revealed that the two-step acid treatment changes the topography of the β alloy, increases the surface area, and changes the chemical composition of the surface. Two differentiated regions were identified in the Ti35Nb10Ta1.5Fe alloy after the acid-etching process: The α + β region with higher values of mean roughness due to the lower chemical resistance of this region; and the β region with lower values of roughness parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structure and Chemical Bonding of the Li-Doped Polar Intermetallic RE2In1−xLixGe2 (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd; x = 0.13, 0.28, 0.43, 0.53) System
Materials 2018, 11(4), 495; doi:10.3390/ma11040495
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
PDF Full-text (37361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four polar intermetallic compounds belonging to the RE2In1−xLixGe2 (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd; x = 0.13(1), 0.28(1), 0.43(1), 0.53(1)) system have been synthesized by the traditional solid-state reaction method, and their crystal structures
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Four polar intermetallic compounds belonging to the RE2In1−xLixGe2 (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd; x = 0.13(1), 0.28(1), 0.43(1), 0.53(1)) system have been synthesized by the traditional solid-state reaction method, and their crystal structures have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) analyses. The isotypic crystal structures of four title compounds adopt the Mo2FeB2-type structure having the tetragonal space group P4/mbm (Z = 2, Pearson code tP40) with three crystallographically independent atomic sites and can be simply described as a pile of the identical 2-dimensioanl (2D) RE2In1-xLixGe2 slabs stacked along the c-axis direction. The substituting Li atom shows a particular site preference for replacing In at the Wyckoff 2a site rather than Ge at the Wyckoff 4g in this crystal structure. As the size of a used rare-earth metal decreases from La3+ to Gd3+ throughout the title system, the Ge-Ge and Ge-In/Li bond distances, both of which consist of the 2D anionic Ge2(In/Li) layer, gradually decrease resulting in the reduction of a unit cell volume. A series of theoretical investigations has been performed using a hypothetical structure model Gd2In0.5Li0.5Ge2 by tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) method. The resultant densities of states (DOS) value at the Fermi level (EF) suggests a metallic conductivity for this particular composition, and this calculation result is in a good agreement with the formal charge distribution assigning two extra valence electrons for a metal-metal bond in the conduction band. The thorough analyses of six crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) curves representing various interatomic interactions and an electron localization function (ELF) diagram indicating the locations of paired-electron densities are also provided in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Zintl Phases)
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Open AccessArticle Study of Adsorption Mechanism of Congo Red on Graphene Oxide/PAMAM Nanocomposite
Materials 2018, 11(4), 496; doi:10.3390/ma11040496
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Graphene oxide/poly(amidoamine) (GO/PAMAM) nanocomposite adsorbed high quantities of congo red (CR) anionic dye in 0.1 M NaCl solution, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 198 mg·g−1. The kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption were investigated to elucidate the effects of pH, temperature,
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Graphene oxide/poly(amidoamine) (GO/PAMAM) nanocomposite adsorbed high quantities of congo red (CR) anionic dye in 0.1 M NaCl solution, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 198 mg·g−1. The kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption were investigated to elucidate the effects of pH, temperature, shaking rate, ionic strength, and contact time. Kinetic data were analyzed by the KASRA model and the KASRA, ISO, and pore-diffusion equations. Adsorption adsorption isotherms were studied by the ARIAN model and the Henry, Langmuir, and Temkin equations. It was shown that adsorption sites of GO/PAMAM at experimental conditions were phenolic hydroxyl groups of GO sheets and terminal amine groups of PAMAM dendrimer. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that amine sites were located on the surface, and that hydroxyl sites were placed in the pores of adsorbent. CR molecules interacted with the adsorption sites via hydrogen bonds. The molecules were adsorbed firstly on the amine sites, and then on the internal hydroxyl sites. Adsorption kinetic parameters indicated that the interaction of CR to the –NH3+ sites was the rate-controlling step of adsorption of CR on this site and adsorption activation energies calculated for different parts of this step. On the other hand, kinetic parameters showed that the intraparticle diffusion was the rate-controlling step during the interaction of CR molecules to –OH sites and activation energy of this step was not calculable. Finally, the used GO/PAMAM was completely regenerated by using ethylenediamine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle FEM Modeling of In-Plane Stress Distribution in Thick Brittle Coatings/Films on Ductile Substrates Subjected to Tensile Stress to Determine Interfacial Strength
Materials 2018, 11(4), 497; doi:10.3390/ma11040497
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
The ceramic-metal interface is present in various material structures and devices that are vulnerable to failures, like cracking, which are typically due to their incompatible properties, e.g., thermal expansion mismatch. In failure of these multilayer systems, interfacial shear strength is a good measure
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The ceramic-metal interface is present in various material structures and devices that are vulnerable to failures, like cracking, which are typically due to their incompatible properties, e.g., thermal expansion mismatch. In failure of these multilayer systems, interfacial shear strength is a good measure of the robustness of interfaces, especially for planar films. There is a widely-used shear lag model and method by Agrawal and Raj to analyse and measure the interfacial shear strength of thin brittle film on ductile substrates. The use of this classical model for a type of polymer derived ceramic coatings (thickness ~18 μm) on steel substrate leads to high values of interfacial shear strength. Here, we present finite element simulations for such a coating system when it is subjected to in-plane tension. Results show that the in-plane stresses in the coating are non-uniform, i.e., varying across the thickness of the film. Therefore, they do not meet one of the basic assumptions of the classical model: uniform in-plane stress. Furthermore, effects of three significant parameters, film thickness, crack spacing, and Young’s modulus, on the in-plane stress distribution have also been investigated. ‘Thickness-averaged In-plane Stress’ (TIS), a new failure criterion, is proposed for estimating the interfacial shear strength, which leads to a more realistic estimation of the tensile strength and interfacial shear strength of thick brittle films/coatings on ductile substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Derived Ceramics and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Geometrically Nonlinear Field Fracture Mechanics and Crack Nucleation, Application to Strain Localization Fields in Al-Cu-Li Aerospace Alloys
Materials 2018, 11(4), 498; doi:10.3390/ma11040498
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
The displacement discontinuity arising between crack surfaces is assigned to smooth densities of crystal defects referred to as disconnections, through the incompatibility of the distortion tensor. In a dual way, the disconnections are defined as line defects terminating surfaces where the displacement encounters
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The displacement discontinuity arising between crack surfaces is assigned to smooth densities of crystal defects referred to as disconnections, through the incompatibility of the distortion tensor. In a dual way, the disconnections are defined as line defects terminating surfaces where the displacement encounters a discontinuity. A conservation statement for the crack opening displacement provides a framework for disconnection dynamics in the form of transport laws. A similar methodology applied to the discontinuity of the plastic displacement due to dislocations results in the concurrent involvement of dislocation densities in the analysis. Non-linearity of the geometrical setting is assumed for defining the elastic distortion incompatibility in the presence of both dislocations and disconnections, as well as for their transport. Crack nucleation in the presence of thermally-activated fluctuations of the atomic order is shown to derive from this nonlinearity in elastic brittle materials, without any algorithmic rule or ad hoc material parameter. Digital image correlation techniques applied to the analysis of tensile tests on ductile Al-Cu-Li samples further demonstrate the ability of the disconnection density concept to capture crack nucleation and relate strain localization bands to consistent disconnection fields and to the eventual occurrence of complex and combined crack modes in these alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen on Fracture Toughness of 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V Steel and Welds after Annealing
Materials 2018, 11(4), 499; doi:10.3390/ma11040499
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a critical issue that hinders the reliability of hydrogenation reactors. Hence, it is of great significance to investigate the effect of hydrogen on fracture toughness of 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V steel and weld. In this work, the fracture behavior of 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V steel
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Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a critical issue that hinders the reliability of hydrogenation reactors. Hence, it is of great significance to investigate the effect of hydrogen on fracture toughness of 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V steel and weld. In this work, the fracture behavior of 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V steel and welds was studied by three-point bending tests under hydrogen-free and hydrogen-charged conditions. The immersion charging method was employed to pre-charge hydrogen inside specimen and the fracture toughness of these joints was evaluated quantitatively. The microstructure and grain size of the specimens were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by metallurgical microscopy to investigate the HE mechanisms. It was found that fracture toughness for both the base metal (BM) and the weld zone (WZ) significantly decreased under hydrogen-charged conditions due to the coexistence of the hydrogen-enhanced decohesion (HEDE) and hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP) mechanisms. Moreover, the formation and growth of primary voids were observed in the BM, leading to a superior fracture toughness. In addition, the BM compared to the WZ shows superior resistance to HE because the finer grain size in the BM leads to a larger grain boundary area, thus distributing more of the diffusive hydrogen trapped in the grain boundary and reducing the hydrogen content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Effects of Fused-Deposition Modeling (FDM) Processing Parameters on Flexural Properties of ULTEM 9085 using Designed Experiment
Materials 2018, 11(4), 500; doi:10.3390/ma11040500
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Fused-deposition modeling (FDM), one of the additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, is an advanced digital manufacturing technique that produces parts by heating, extruding and depositing filaments of thermoplastic polymers. The properties of FDM-produced parts apparently depend on the processing parameters. These processing parameters have
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Fused-deposition modeling (FDM), one of the additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, is an advanced digital manufacturing technique that produces parts by heating, extruding and depositing filaments of thermoplastic polymers. The properties of FDM-produced parts apparently depend on the processing parameters. These processing parameters have conflicting advantages that need to be investigated. This article focuses on an investigation into the effect of these parameters on the flexural properties of FDM-produced parts. The investigation is carried out on high-performance ULTEM 9085 material, as this material is relatively new and has potential application in the aerospace, military and automotive industries. Five parameters: air gap, raster width, raster angle, contour number, and contour width, with a full factorial design of the experiment, are considered for the investigation. From the investigation, it is revealed that raster angle and raster width have the greatest effect on the flexural properties of the material. The optimal levels of the process parameters achieved are: air gap of 0.000 mm, raster width of 0.7814 mm, raster angle of 0°, contour number of 5, and contour width of 0.7814 mm, leading to a flexural strength of 127 MPa, a flexural modulus of 2400 MPa, and 0.081 flexural strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessCommunication Optical Third Harmonic Generation Using Nickel Nanostructure-Covered Microcube Structures
Materials 2018, 11(4), 501; doi:10.3390/ma11040501
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
We investigated the optical third harmonic generation (THG) signal from nanostructure-covered microcubes on Ni. We found that the hierarchical structures greatly change the third-order optical nonlinearity of the metallic surface. While the symmetry and lightning rod (LR) effects on microstructures did not significantly
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We investigated the optical third harmonic generation (THG) signal from nanostructure-covered microcubes on Ni. We found that the hierarchical structures greatly change the third-order optical nonlinearity of the metallic surface. While the symmetry and lightning rod (LR) effects on microstructures did not significantly influence the THG, the localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect on the nanostructures enhanced it. By removing the nanostructures on the hierarchical structures, THG intensity could be strongly suppressed. In the present paper, we also discuss the mechanism that enhances THG in nano/micro structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonics and its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Phase Transition of Single-Layer Molybdenum Disulfide Nanosheets under Mechanical Loading Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Materials 2018, 11(4), 502; doi:10.3390/ma11040502
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
The single-layer molybdenum disulfide (SLMoS2) nanosheets have been experimentally discovered to exist in two different polymorphs, which exhibit different electrical properties, metallic or semiconducting. Herein, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanoindentation and uniaxial compression were conducted to investigate the phase transition of SLMoS2
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The single-layer molybdenum disulfide (SLMoS2) nanosheets have been experimentally discovered to exist in two different polymorphs, which exhibit different electrical properties, metallic or semiconducting. Herein, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanoindentation and uniaxial compression were conducted to investigate the phase transition of SLMoS2 nanosheets. Typical load–deflection curves, stress–strain curves, and local atomic structures were obtained. The loading force decreases sharply and then increases again at a critical deflection under the nanoindentation, which is inferred to the phase transition. In addition to the layer thickness, some related bond lengths and bond angles were also found to suddenly change as the phase transition occurs. A bell-like hollow, so-called residual deformation, was found to form, mainly due to the lattice distortion around the waist of the bell. The effect of indenter size on the residual hollow was also analyzed. Under the uniaxial compression along the armchair direction, a different phase transition, a uniformly quadrilateral structure, was observed when the strain is greater than 27.7%. The quadrilateral structure was found to be stable and exhibit metallic conductivity in view of the first-principle calculation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Indentation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Tungsten/Chromium co-Doped Bismuth Titanate Ceramics Sintered at Different Temperatures
Materials 2018, 11(4), 503; doi:10.3390/ma11040503
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
A sort of tungsten/chromium(W/Cr) co-doped bismuth titanate (BIT) ceramics (Bi4Ti2.95W0.05O12.05 + 0.2 wt % Cr2O3, abbreviate to BTWC) are ordinarily sintered between 1050 and 1150 °C, and the indentation behavior and mechanical
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A sort of tungsten/chromium(W/Cr) co-doped bismuth titanate (BIT) ceramics (Bi4Ti2.95W0.05O12.05 + 0.2 wt % Cr2O3, abbreviate to BTWC) are ordinarily sintered between 1050 and 1150 °C, and the indentation behavior and mechanical properties of ceramics sintered at different temperatures have been investigated by both nanoindentation and microindentation technology. Firstly, more or less Bi2Ti2O7 grains as the second phase were found in BTWC ceramics, and the grain size of ceramics increased with increase of sintering temperatures. A nanoindentation test for BTWC ceramics reveals that the testing hardness of ceramics decreased with increase of sintering temperatures, which could be explained by the Hall–Petch equation, and the true hardness could be calculated according to the pressure-state-response (PSR) model considering the indentation size effect, where the value of hardness depends on the magnitude of load. While, under the application of microsized Vickers, the sample sintered at a lower temperature (1050 °C) gained four linearly propagating cracks, however, they were observed to shorten in the sample sintered at a higher temperature (1125 °C). Moreover, both the crack deflection and the crack branching existed in the latter. The hardness and the fracture toughness of BTWC ceramics presented a contrary variational tendency with increase of sintering temperatures. A high sintering tends to get a lower hardness and a higher fracture toughness, which could be attributed to the easier plastic deformation and the stronger crack inhibition of coarse grains, respectively, as well as the toughening effect coming from the second phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Dental Composites Cured with CAD/CAM Assisted Solid-State Laser
Materials 2018, 11(4), 504; doi:10.3390/ma11040504
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Over the last three decades, it has been frequently reported that the properties of dental restorative composites cured with argon laser are similar or superior to those achieved with conventional halogen and light emitting diode (LED) curing units. Whereas laser curing is not
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Over the last three decades, it has been frequently reported that the properties of dental restorative composites cured with argon laser are similar or superior to those achieved with conventional halogen and light emitting diode (LED) curing units. Whereas laser curing is not dependent on the distance between the curing unit and the material, such distance represents a drawback for conventional curing units. However, a widespread clinical application of this kind of laser remains difficult due to cost, heavy weight, and bulky size. Recently, with regard to the radiation in the blue region of the spectrum, powerful solid-state lasers have been commercialized. In the current research, CAD (computer-aided design)/CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) assisted solid-state lasers were employed for curing of different dental restorative composites consisting of micro- and nanoparticle-reinforced materials based on acrylic resins. Commercial LED curing units were used as a control. Temperature rise during the photopolymerisation process and bending properties were measured. By providing similar light energy dose, no significant difference in temperature rise was observed when the two light sources provided similar intensity. In addition, after 7 days since curing, bending properties of composites cured with laser and LED were similar. The results suggested that this kind of laser would be suitable for curing dental composites, and the curing process does not suffer from the tip-to-tooth distance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tribological Behavior and the Mild–Severe Wear Transition of Mg97Zn1Y2 Alloy with a LPSO Structure Phase
Materials 2018, 11(4), 505; doi:10.3390/ma11040505
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Dry friction and wear tests were performed on as-cast Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy using a pin-on-disc configuration. Coefficients of friction and wear rates were measured as a function of applied load at sliding speeds of 0.2, 0.8 and 3.0 m/s. The wear mechanisms were identified
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Dry friction and wear tests were performed on as-cast Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy using a pin-on-disc configuration. Coefficients of friction and wear rates were measured as a function of applied load at sliding speeds of 0.2, 0.8 and 3.0 m/s. The wear mechanisms were identified in the mild and severe wear regimes by means of morphological observation and composition analysis of worn surfaces using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Analyses of microstructure and hardness changes in subsurfaces verified the microstructure transformation from the deformed to the dynamically recrystallized, and properties changed from the strain hardening to dynamic crystallization (DRX) softening before and after the mild–severe wear transition. The mild–severe wear transition can be determined by a proposed contact surface DRX temperature criterion, from which the critical DRX temperatures at different sliding speeds are calculated using DRX dynamics; hence transition loads can also be calculated using a transition load model. The calculated transition loads are in good agreement with the measured ones, demonstrating the validity and applicability of the contact surface DRX temperature criterion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Subsurface Damage in Polishing Process of Silicon Carbide Ceramic
Materials 2018, 11(4), 506; doi:10.3390/ma11040506
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Subsurface damage (SSD) in the polishing process of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic presents one of the most significant challenges for practical applications. In this study, the theoretical models of SSD depth are established on the basis of the material removal mechanism and indentation
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Subsurface damage (SSD) in the polishing process of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic presents one of the most significant challenges for practical applications. In this study, the theoretical models of SSD depth are established on the basis of the material removal mechanism and indentation fracture mechanics in the SiC ceramic polishing process. In addition, the three-dimensional (3D) models of single grit polishing are also developed by using the finite element simulation; thereby, the dynamic effects of different process parameters on SSD depth are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the material removal was mainly in brittle mode when the cutting depth was larger than the critical depth of the brittle material. The SSD depth increased as the polishing depth and abrasive grain size increased, and decreased with respect to the increase in polishing speed. The experimental results suggested a good agreement with the theoretical simulation results in terms of SSD depth as a function of polishing depth, spindle speed, and abrasive grain size. This study provides a mechanistic insight into the dependence of SSD on key operational parameters in the polishing process of SiC ceramic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Time-Variant Reliability Model for Copper Bending Pipe under Seawater-Active Corrosion Based on the Stochastic Degradation Process
Materials 2018, 11(4), 507; doi:10.3390/ma11040507
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
In the degradation process, the randomness and multiplicity of variables are difficult to describe by mathematical models. However, they are common in engineering and cannot be neglected, so it is necessary to study this issue in depth. In this paper, the copper bending
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In the degradation process, the randomness and multiplicity of variables are difficult to describe by mathematical models. However, they are common in engineering and cannot be neglected, so it is necessary to study this issue in depth. In this paper, the copper bending pipe in seawater piping systems is taken as the analysis object, and the time-variant reliability is calculated by solving the interference of limit strength and maximum stress. We did degradation experiments and tensile experiments on copper material, and obtained the limit strength at each time. In addition, degradation experiments on copper bending pipe were done and the thickness at each time has been obtained, then the response of maximum stress was calculated by simulation. Further, with the help of one kind of Monte Carlo method we propose, the time-variant reliability of copper bending pipe was calculated based on the stochastic degradation process and interference theory. Compared with traditional methods and verified by maintenance records, the results show that the time-variant reliability model based on the stochastic degradation process proposed in this paper has better applicability in the reliability analysis, and it can be more convenient and accurate to predict the replacement cycle of copper bending pipe under seawater-active corrosion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Microwave Absorption and Surface Wave Attenuation Properties of Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 Fibers/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites
Materials 2018, 11(4), 508; doi:10.3390/ma11040508
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers with a diameter of about 270 nm and a length of about 10 μm were synthesized by a microemulsion-mediated solvothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. The Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4
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Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers with a diameter of about 270 nm and a length of about 10 μm were synthesized by a microemulsion-mediated solvothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. The Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite was prepared by a facile in-situ chemical reduction method. The crystalline structures and morphologies were investigated based on X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscopy. Magnetization measurements were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers/RGO composites achieve both a wider and stronger absorption and an adjustable surface wave attenuation compared with Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers, indicating the potential for application as advanced microwave absorbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of UV Curing Properties of Mixture Systems with Differently Sized Monomers
Materials 2018, 11(4), 509; doi:10.3390/ma11040509
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) curing is a photopolymerization technique resulting in a three-dimensional polymer network from monomers and oligomers after exposure to UV light, which is often used for fusion industry. However, shrinkage is an issue that needs to be resolved. Studies of single substances
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Ultraviolet (UV) curing is a photopolymerization technique resulting in a three-dimensional polymer network from monomers and oligomers after exposure to UV light, which is often used for fusion industry. However, shrinkage is an issue that needs to be resolved. Studies of single substances have been extensively conducted, but studies of mixture systems have not sufficiently been undertaken. In this study, we evaluate the shrinkage phenomenon by studying a monomer/monomer binary system and monomer/macromer composite systems. Shrinkage tends to increase when compounds varying in size are used. Similar to the shrinkage phenomenon, the curing rate is also relatively higher in such systems. These synergistic effects are evaluated to be due to the nano-porous effect, and vary with the composition ratio and material structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Controlled-Size Silica Nanoparticles from Sodium Metasilicate and the Effect of the Addition of PEG in the Size Distribution
Materials 2018, 11(4), 510; doi:10.3390/ma11040510
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Silica nanoparticles are widely studied in emerging areas of nanomedicine because they are biocompatible, and their surface can be modified to provide functionalization. The size is intrinsically related to the performance of the silica nanoparticles; therefore, it is important to have control over
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Silica nanoparticles are widely studied in emerging areas of nanomedicine because they are biocompatible, and their surface can be modified to provide functionalization. The size is intrinsically related to the performance of the silica nanoparticles; therefore, it is important to have control over the size. However, the silica nanoparticles obtained from sodium metasilicate are less studied than those obtained from tetraethyl orthosilicate. Moreover, the methods of surface modification involve several steps after the synthesis. In this work, the effect of different concentrations of sodium metasilicate on the size of silica nanoparticles was studied. In the same way, we studied the synthesis of organically modified silica nanoparticles in a one-step method, using poly(ethylene glycol). The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that the size distribution of the silica nanoparticles could be modified by changing the initial concentration of sodium metasilicate. The one-step surface-modification method caused a significant decrease in size distribution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance and Degradation Mechanism of Diclofenac Sodium under the System of Hetero-Structural CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 with H2O2
Materials 2018, 11(4), 511; doi:10.3390/ma11040511
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Two kinds of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 with different heterojunction structures were prepared based on the combination of hydrothermal and in-situ precipitation methods with surfactant additives (sodium citrate and sodium stearate), and their characteristics were systematically resolved by X-ray
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Two kinds of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 with different heterojunction structures were prepared based on the combination of hydrothermal and in-situ precipitation methods with surfactant additives (sodium citrate and sodium stearate), and their characteristics were systematically resolved by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)/ High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL). Meanwhile, the photocatalytic properties of the catalysts were determined for diclofenac sodium (DS) degradation and the photocatalytic mechanism was also explored. The results indicate that both of the two kinds of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 exhibit higher photocatalytic efficiency, mineralization rate, and stability than that of pure CuBi2O4 or Ag3PO4. Moreover, the catalytic activity of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 can be further enhanced by adding H2O2. The free radical capture experiments show that in the pure CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 photocatalytic system, the OH and O2•− are the main species participating in DS degradation; however, in the CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 photocatalytic system with H2O2, all OH, h+, and O2•− take part in the DS degradation, and the contribution order is OH > h+ > O2•−. Accordingly, the photocatalytic mechanism of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 could be explained by the Z-Scheme theory, while the catalysis of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 with H2O2 follows the heterojunction energy band theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Detection and Characterization of High Performance Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Graphene Quantum Dots-ZnS Nanocomposites with Improved Photoelectric Performances
Materials 2018, 11(4), 512; doi:10.3390/ma11040512
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
ZnS-graphene quantum dot (GQDs) composites were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method, in which GQDs were prepared by a hydrothermal cutting process. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results show that
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ZnS-graphene quantum dot (GQDs) composites were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method, in which GQDs were prepared by a hydrothermal cutting process. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results show that GQDs were obtained by size tailoring of 1–4 graphene layers and combined with cubic ZnS nanoparticles to form ZnS-GQDs composites. The photocurrent and electrochemical behavior of the products were evaluated by transient photocurrent responses and electrochemical impedance spectra. The photocurrent density of ZnS-GQDs achieves the value of 2.32 × 10−5 A/cm2, which is 2.4-times as high as that of ZnS-graphene. GQDs serve as an electrical conducting material, which decreases the conductive path and accelerates the electron transfer. The charge-transfer resistance of ZnS-GQDs is much lower than that of ZnS-graphene and pure ZnS due to the effective electron separation and transfer ability upon the incorporation of GQDs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ratcheting Strain and Microstructure Evolution of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy under a Tensile-Tensile Cyclic Loading
Materials 2018, 11(4), 513; doi:10.3390/ma11040513
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, studies were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and microstructure change in a hot-rolled AZ31B magnesium alloy during a tensile-tensile cyclic loading. The relationship between ratcheting effect and microstructure change was discussed. The ratcheting effect in the material during current
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In this paper, studies were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and microstructure change in a hot-rolled AZ31B magnesium alloy during a tensile-tensile cyclic loading. The relationship between ratcheting effect and microstructure change was discussed. The ratcheting effect in the material during current tensile-tensile fatigue loading exceeds the material’s fatigue limit and the development of ratcheting strain in the material experienced three stages: initial sharp increase stage (Stage I); steady stage (Stage II); and final abrupt increase stage (Stage III). Microstructure changes in Stage I and Stage II are mainly caused by activation of basal slip system. The Extra Geometrically Necessary Dislocations (GNDs) were also calculated to discuss the relationship between the dislocation caused by the basal slip system and the ratcheting strain during the cyclic loading. In Stage III, both the basal slip and the {11−20} twins are found active during the crack propagation. The fatigue crack initiation in the AZ31B magnesium alloy is found due to the basal slip and the {11−20} tensile twins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Selective Adsorption of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution by Triethylenetetramine-Grafted Polyacrylamide/Vermiculite
Materials 2018, 11(4), 514; doi:10.3390/ma11040514
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
PDF Full-text (30606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amine groups play significant roles in polymeric composites for heavy metals removal. However, generating a composite with a large number of functional and stable amine groups based on clay is still a challenge. In this work, a new amine-functionalized adsorbent based on acid-activated
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Amine groups play significant roles in polymeric composites for heavy metals removal. However, generating a composite with a large number of functional and stable amine groups based on clay is still a challenge. In this work, a new amine-functionalized adsorbent based on acid-activated vermiculite (a-Verm) was prepared by organic modification of silane coupling agent as bridge, followed by in situ polymerization of acrylamide (AM) and further grafting of triethylene tetramine (TETA). The obtained polymeric composite g-PAM/OVerm was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG/DTG), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, confirming that amine groups were successfully grafted onto the surface of Verm. The efficacy g-PAM/OVerm for removing Pb(II) was tested. The adsorption equilibrium data on g-PAM/OVerm was in good accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and the adsorption maximal value of Pb(II) was 219.4 mg·g−1. The adsorption kinetic data fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. Additionally, g-PAM/OVerm has better selectivity for Pb(II) ion in comparison with Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions. The present work shows that g-PAM/OVerm holds great potential for removing Pb(II) from wastewater, and provides a new and efficient method for the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Optimization and Characterization of Preceramic Inks for Direct Ink Writing of Ceramic Matrix Composite Structures
Materials 2018, 11(4), 515; doi:10.3390/ma11040515
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
In a previous work, an ink based on a preceramic polymer, SiC fillers, and chopped carbon fibers was proposed for the production of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) structures by Direct Ink Writing (DIW) and subsequent pyrolysis. Thanks to the shear stresses generated at
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In a previous work, an ink based on a preceramic polymer, SiC fillers, and chopped carbon fibers was proposed for the production of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) structures by Direct Ink Writing (DIW) and subsequent pyrolysis. Thanks to the shear stresses generated at the nozzle tip during extrusion, carbon fibers can be aligned along the printing direction. Fumed silica was added to the ink in order to enhance its rheological properties; however, the printed structures still showed some deformation in the Z direction. In this work, a second ink was successfully developed to limit deformation and at the same time avoid the addition of fumed silica, which limited the potential temperature of application of the composites. Instead, the positive role of the preceramic polymer on the ink rheology was exploited by increasing its concentration in the ink. Rheological characterization carried out on both inks confirmed that they possessed Bingham shear thinning behavior and fast viscosity recovery. Single filaments with different diameters (~310 µm and ~460 µm) were produced with the latter ink by DIW and subsequent pyrolysis. Tested under a four-point flexural test, the filaments showed a mean flexural strength above 30 MPa, graceful failure, and fiber pull-out. The results of this work suggest that CMC components can effectively be fabricated via DIW of a preceramic ink with embedded short fibers; the preceramic polymer is able to provide the desired rheology for the process and to develop a dense matrix capable of incorporating both fibers and ceramic particles, whereas the fibers addition contributes to an increase of the fracture toughness of the material and to the development of a graceful failure mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Derived Ceramics and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) (SPEEK) Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials
Materials 2018, 11(4), 516; doi:10.3390/ma11040516
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion) membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it
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As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion) membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG) was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Wood Derived Hierarchical Cellulose Scaffolds for Multifunctional Applications
Materials 2018, 11(4), 517; doi:10.3390/ma11040517
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Functional materials of high porosity and hierarchical structure, based on renewable building blocks, are highly demanded for material applications. In this regard, substantial progress has been made by functionalizing micro- and nano-sized cellulose followed by its reassembly via bottom-up approaches. However, bottom-up assembly
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Functional materials of high porosity and hierarchical structure, based on renewable building blocks, are highly demanded for material applications. In this regard, substantial progress has been made by functionalizing micro- and nano-sized cellulose followed by its reassembly via bottom-up approaches. However, bottom-up assembly processes are still limited in terms of upscaling and the utilization of these building blocks presupposes the disassembly of the plant feedstock inherit hierarchical cellulose scaffold. To maintain the three-dimensional structure, delignification processes from pulp and paper production were recently adapted for the treatment of bulk wood. Yet, a detailed chemical analysis and the determination of macroscopic swelling/shrinkage parameters for the scaffolds, necessary for a systematic design of cellulose scaffold based materials, are still missing. Here, acidic bleaching and soda pulping were used for producing cellulose scaffolds, for functional materials under retention of their inherent hierarchical structure. Spatially resolved chemical investigations on thin sections by Raman microscopy provided detailed information on the induced alterations at the cell wall level, revealing significant differences in dependence of the chemistry of the pre-treatment. An adaption to bulk wood samples proved the applicability of these treatments at larger scales and volumetric alterations at different atmospheric conditions indicated the effect of the altered porosity of the scaffolds on their hygroscopic behaviour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Core Level Spectra of Organic Molecules Adsorbed on Graphene
Materials 2018, 11(4), 518; doi:10.3390/ma11040518
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
We perform first principle calculations based on density functional theory to investigate the effect of the adsorption of core-excited organic molecules on graphene. We simulate Near Edge X-ray absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) at the N and C edges
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We perform first principle calculations based on density functional theory to investigate the effect of the adsorption of core-excited organic molecules on graphene. We simulate Near Edge X-ray absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) at the N and C edges for two moieties: pyridine and the pyridine radical on graphene, which exemplify two different adsorption characters. The modifications of molecular and graphene energy levels due to their interplay with the core-level excitation are discussed. We find that upon physisorption of pyridine, the binding energies of graphene close to the adsorption site reduce mildly, and the NEXAFS spectra of the molecule and graphene resemble those of gas phase pyridine and pristine graphene, respectively. However, the chemisorption of the pyridine radical is found to significantly alter these core excited spectra. The C 1s binding energy of the C atom of graphene participating in chemisorption increases by ∼1 eV, and the C atoms of graphene alternate to the adsorption site show a reduction in the binding energy. Analogously, these C atoms also show strong modifications in the NEXAFS spectra. The NEXAFS spectrum of the chemisorbed molecule is also modified as a result of hybridization with and screening by graphene. We eventually explore the electronic properties and magnetism of the system as a core-level excitation is adiabatically switched on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hard and Soft Hybrid Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Metakaolinite on the Development of Thermal Cracks in a Cement Matrix
Materials 2018, 11(4), 520; doi:10.3390/ma11040520
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
In the paper the cluster cracks of cement paste that has been modified with metakaolinite was analyzed. The samples were loaded with an elevated temperature based on a thermal shock. To describe the crack structure, three stereological parameters were proposed to measure: (i)
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In the paper the cluster cracks of cement paste that has been modified with metakaolinite was analyzed. The samples were loaded with an elevated temperature based on a thermal shock. To describe the crack structure, three stereological parameters were proposed to measure: (i) the cluster average area ( A ¯ ); (ii) the cluster average perimeter ( L ¯ ); and (iii) the crack average width ( I ¯ ). The computer image analysis was implemented in the study, and 4 series of samples were subjected to the examination. In two series, metakaolinite was used as a substitute for 10% of a cement’s mass. An assessment of the basic physico-mechanical characteristics of the cement matrix was also carried out. The structure of the cement paste was considered as a highly concentrated dispersion system, in which the interactions between the cement’s grains at the initial stage of the structure self-assembly affect the crack characteristics. The study has been supplemented with microstructural investigations using a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray microanalyzer. The conducted research indicated the direction of changes in the geometrical characteristics of thermal cracks if the technological variables of the material are subjected to modification. It was also confirmed that the cluster structures have fractal character and can be analyzed and observed on many levels of a structural heterogeneity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Porous Polyethylene Coated with Functionalized Hydroxyapatite Particles as a Bone Reconstruction Material
Materials 2018, 11(4), 521; doi:10.3390/ma11040521
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
In this study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were examined as bone substitutes in vitro and in vivo in critical-sized calvarial bone defects in transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats. A microscopic examination revealed that the pores appeared to be interconnected across the material, making them suitable for
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In this study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were examined as bone substitutes in vitro and in vivo in critical-sized calvarial bone defects in transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats. A microscopic examination revealed that the pores appeared to be interconnected across the material, making them suitable for cell growth. The creep recovery behavior of porous polyethylene at different loads indicated that the creep strain had two main portions. In both portions, strain increased with increased applied load and temperature. In terms of the thermographic behavior of the material, remarkable changes in melting temperature and heat fusion were revealed with increased the heating rates. The tensile strength results showed that the material was sensitive to the strain rate and that there was adequate mechanical strength to support cell growth. The in vitro cell culture results showed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells attached to the porous polyethylene scaffold. Calcium sulfate–hydroxyapatite (CS–HA) coating of the scaffold not only improved attachment but also increased the proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In vivo, histological analysis showed that the study groups had active bone remodeling at the border of the defect. Bone regeneration at the border was also evident, which confirmed that the polyethylene acted as an osteoconductive bone graft. Furthermore, bone formation inside the pores of the coated polyethylene was also noted, which would enhance the process of osteointegration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Nanomaterials and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Reversible Bis(Salamo)-Based Fluorescence Sensor for Selective Detection of Cd2+ in Water-Containing Systems and Food Samples
Materials 2018, 11(4), 523; doi:10.3390/ma11040523
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (67667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A novel, simple, highly selective, and sensitive fluorescence chemosensor for detecting Cd2+ that was constructed from a bis(salamo)-type compound (H4L) with two N2O2 chelating moieties as ionophore was successfully developed. Sensor H4L could show fluorescence
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A novel, simple, highly selective, and sensitive fluorescence chemosensor for detecting Cd2+ that was constructed from a bis(salamo)-type compound (H4L) with two N2O2 chelating moieties as ionophore was successfully developed. Sensor H4L could show fluorescence turn-on response rapidly and significant selectivity to Cd2+ over many other metallic ions (Cu2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, K+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Sr2+, Co2+, Na+, Li+, Ni2+, Ag+, and Zn2+), and a clear change in color from colorless to yellow that can be very easily observed via the naked eyes in the existence of Cd2+, while other metallic ions do not induce such a change. Interestingly, its fluorescent intensity was increased sharply with the increased concentration of Cd2+. The detection limit of sensor H4L towards Cd2+ was down to 8.61 × 10−7 M. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Characterization of Stress- and Strain-Dependent Stiffness in Grouted Rock Masses
Materials 2018, 11(4), 524; doi:10.3390/ma11040524
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Grouting of fractured rock mass prior to excavation results in grout-filled discontinuities that govern the deformation characteristics of a site. The influence of joint characteristics on the properties of grouted rocks is important in assessing the effects of grouting on jointed rock mass.
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Grouting of fractured rock mass prior to excavation results in grout-filled discontinuities that govern the deformation characteristics of a site. The influence of joint characteristics on the properties of grouted rocks is important in assessing the effects of grouting on jointed rock mass. However, grouting remains a predominantly empirical practice and the effects of grouting on rock joint behavior and material properties have yet to be accurately assessed. Granular materials, including jointed rocks, typically display nonlinear strain-dependent responses that can be characterized by the shear modulus degradation curve. In this study, the effects of grouting on the strain-dependent shear stiffness of jointed rock mass were investigated at the small-strain (below 10−5) and mid-strain (10−5 to 10−3) ranges using the quasi-static resonant column test and rock mass dynamic test devices. The effects of curing time, axial stress, initial joint roughness, and grouted joint thickness were examined. The results show that (1) grouting of rock joints leads to decreased stress sensitivity and increased small-strain shear stiffness for all tested samples; (2) the grouted rock samples display similar modulus degradation characteristics as the applied grout material; (3) the initial joint roughness determines the stress-dependent behaviors and general stiffness range of the jointed and grouted rocks, but the strain-dependent behaviors are dependent on the properties of the grout material; (4) increased grouted joint thickness results in larger contribution of the grout properties in the overall grouted rock mass. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ultra Uniform Pb0.865La0.09(Zr0.65Ti0.35)O3 Thin Films with Tunable Optical Properties Fabricated via Pulsed Laser Deposition
Materials 2018, 11(4), 525; doi:10.3390/ma11040525
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Ferroelectric thin films have been utilized in a wide range of electronic and optical applications, in which their morphologies and properties can be inherently tuned by a qualitative control during growth. In this work, we demonstrate the evolution of the Pb0.865La
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Ferroelectric thin films have been utilized in a wide range of electronic and optical applications, in which their morphologies and properties can be inherently tuned by a qualitative control during growth. In this work, we demonstrate the evolution of the Pb0.865La0.09(Zr0.65Ti0.35)O3 (PLZT) thin films on MgO (200) with high uniformity and optimized optical property via the controls of the deposition temperatures and oxygen pressures. The perovskite phase can only be obtained at the deposition temperature above 700 °C and oxygen pressure over 50 Pa due to the improved crystallinity. Meanwhile, the surface morphologies gradually become smooth and compact owing to spontaneously increased nucleation sites with the elevated temperatures, and the crystallization of PLZT thin films also sensitively respond to the oxygen vacancies with the variation of oxygen pressures. Correspondingly, the refractive indices gradually develop with variations of the deposition temperatures and oxygen pressures resulted from the various slight loss, and the extinction coefficient for each sample is similarly near to zero due to the relatively smooth morphology. The resulting PLZT thin films exhibit the ferroelectricity, and the dielectric constant sensitively varies as a function of electric filed, which can be potentially applied in the electronic and optical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thin Films)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Optical Biosensors Based on Photonic Crystals Supporting Bound States in the Continuum
Materials 2018, 11(4), 526; doi:10.3390/ma11040526
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
A novel optical label-free bio-sensing platform based on a new class of resonances supported in a photonic crystal metasurface is reported herein. Molecular binding is detected as a shift in the resonant wavelength of the bound states in the continuum of radiation modes.
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A novel optical label-free bio-sensing platform based on a new class of resonances supported in a photonic crystal metasurface is reported herein. Molecular binding is detected as a shift in the resonant wavelength of the bound states in the continuum of radiation modes. The new configuration is applied to the recognition of the interaction between protein p53 and its protein regulatory partner murine double minute 2 (MDM2). A detection limit of 66 nM for the protein p53 is found. The device provides an excellent interrogation stability and loss-free operation, requires minimal optical interrogation equipment and can be easily optimized to work in a wide wavelength range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Study of Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate/Polymer Nanocomposites Fabricated Using the Layer-By-Layer Method
Materials 2018, 11(4), 527; doi:10.3390/ma11040527
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 24 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH)/polymer nanocomposites were synthesized with the layer-by-layer (LBL) method, and their morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and AFM nanoindentation. Different sets of polymers were used to produce CSH/polymer nanocomposites. The effect of different factors including
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Calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH)/polymer nanocomposites were synthesized with the layer-by-layer (LBL) method, and their morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and AFM nanoindentation. Different sets of polymers were used to produce CSH/polymer nanocomposites. The effect of different factors including dipping time, calcium to silicate ratios (C/S ratios) and pH on morphology was investigated. CSH/polymer nanocomposites made with different sets of polymers showed variation in morphologies. However, the Young’s modulus did not seem to reveal significant differences between the nanocomposites studied here. In nanocomposites containing graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet, an increase in the density of CSH particles was observed on the GO nanosheet compared to areas away from the GO nanosheet, providing evidence for improved nucleation of CSH in the presence of GO nanosheets. An increase in roughness and a reduction in the packing density in nanocomposites containing GO nanosheets was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle PMMA-g-OEtOx Graft Copolymers: Influence of Grafting Degree and Side Chain Length on the Conformation in Aqueous Solution
Materials 2018, 11(4), 528; doi:10.3390/ma11040528
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
PDF Full-text (2510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Depending on the degree of grafting (DG) and the side chain degree of polymerization (DP), graft copolymers may feature properties similar to statistical copolymers or to block copolymers. This issue is approached by studying aqueous solutions of PMMA-g-OEtOx graft copolymers comprising
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Depending on the degree of grafting (DG) and the side chain degree of polymerization (DP), graft copolymers may feature properties similar to statistical copolymers or to block copolymers. This issue is approached by studying aqueous solutions of PMMA-g-OEtOx graft copolymers comprising a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) backbone and hydrophilic oligo(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (OEtOx) side chains. The graft copolymers were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and OEtOx-methacrylate macromonomers of varying DP. All aqueous solutions of PMMA-g-OEtOx (9% ≤ DG ≤ 34%; 5 ≤ side chain DP ≤ 24) revealed lower critical solution temperature behavior. The graft copolymer architecture significantly influenced the aggregation behavior, the conformation in aqueous solution and the coil to globule transition, as verified by means of turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and analytical ultracentrifugation. The aggregation behavior of graft copolymers with a side chain DP of 5 was significantly affected by small variations of the DG, occasionally forming mesoglobules above the cloud point temperature (Tcp), which was around human body temperature. On the other hand, PMMA-g-OEtOx with elongated side chains assembled into well-defined structures below the Tcp (apparent aggregation number (Nagg = 10)) that were able to solubilize Disperse Orange 3. The thermoresponsive behavior of aqueous solutions thus resembled that of micelles comprising a poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx) shell (Tcp > 60 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Temperature-Responsive Polymers)
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Open AccessCommunication Novel Anisotropic Ductility of a High Strength Annealed Ti-20Zr-6.5Al-4V Alloy
Materials 2018, 11(4), 529; doi:10.3390/ma11040529
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
In this work, we investigate the mechanical properties of an annealed high strength Ti-20Zr-6.5Al-4V alloy in uniaxial tensile tests in different directions. The results show that the alloy exhibits obvious anisotropic ductility in different directions, while the tensile strength of the alloy remains
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In this work, we investigate the mechanical properties of an annealed high strength Ti-20Zr-6.5Al-4V alloy in uniaxial tensile tests in different directions. The results show that the alloy exhibits obvious anisotropic ductility in different directions, while the tensile strength of the alloy remains almost unchanged. This phenomenon is closely related to α laths with similar orientations along the prior-β grain boundaries. These α laths significantly affect the initiation and propagation of cracks when the alloy reaches its yield limit, thereby affecting the ductility of the alloy, such that it exhibits anisotropic ductility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Ridge Minimization of Ablated Morphologies on ITO Thin Films Using Squared Quasi-Flat Top Beam
Materials 2018, 11(4), 530; doi:10.3390/ma11040530
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we explore the improvements in pattern quality that was obtained with a femtosecond laser with quasi-flat top beam profiles at the ablated edge of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films for the patterning of optoelectronic devices. To ablate the ITO
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In this study, we explore the improvements in pattern quality that was obtained with a femtosecond laser with quasi-flat top beam profiles at the ablated edge of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films for the patterning of optoelectronic devices. To ablate the ITO thin films, a femtosecond laser is used that has a wavelength and pulse duration of 1030 nm and 190 fs, respectively. The squared quasi-flat top beam is obtained from a circular Gaussian beam using slits with varying x-y axes. Then, the patterned ITO thin films are measured using both scanning electron and atomic force microscopes. In the case of the Gaussian beam, the ridge height and width are approximately 39 nm and 1.1 μm, respectively, whereas, when the quasi-flat top beam is used, the ridge height and width are approximately 7 nm and 0.25 μm, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Mechanical Properties and In Vitro Biocompatibility of PM-Fabricated Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr Alloy for Orthopedic Implant Applications
Materials 2018, 11(4), 531; doi:10.3390/ma11040531
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
A biocompatible Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy used as bone implant was fabricated through the powder metallurgy process. The effects of mechanical milling and sintering temperatures on the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated systematically, before in vitro biocompatibility of full dense Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy was evaluated
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A biocompatible Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy used as bone implant was fabricated through the powder metallurgy process. The effects of mechanical milling and sintering temperatures on the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated systematically, before in vitro biocompatibility of full dense Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy was evaluated by cytotoxicity tests. The results show that the mechanical milling and sintering temperatures have significantly effects on the density and mechanical properties of the alloys. The relative density of the alloy fabricated by the atomized powders at 1500 °C is only 83 ± 1.8%, while the relative density of the alloy fabricated by the ball-milled powders can rapidly reach at 96.4 ± 1.3% at 1500 °C. When the temperature was increased to 1550 °C, the alloy fabricated by ball-milled powders achieve full density (relative density is 98.1 ± 1.2%). The PM-fabricated Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy by ball-milled powders at 1550 °C can achieve a wide range of mechanical properties, with a compressive yield strength of 1058 ± 35.1 MPa, elastic modulus of 50.8 ± 3.9 GPa, and hardness of 65.8 ± 1.5 HRA. The in vitro cytotoxicity test suggests that the PM-fabricated Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy by ball-milled powders at 1550 °C has no adverse effects on MC3T3-E1 cells with cytotoxicity ranking of 0 grade, which is nearly close to ELI Ti-6Al-4V or CP Ti. These properties and the net-shape manufacturability makes PM-fabricated Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy a low-cost, highly-biocompatible, Ti-based biomedical alloy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ageing Study of Palm Oil and Coconut Oil in the Presence of Insulation Paper for Transformers Application
Materials 2018, 11(4), 532; doi:10.3390/ma11040532
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a sealed ageing study of palm oil (PO) and coconut oil (CO) in the presence of insulation paper. The type of PO under study is refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) olein. Three different variations of RBDPO and one
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This paper presents a sealed ageing study of palm oil (PO) and coconut oil (CO) in the presence of insulation paper. The type of PO under study is refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) olein. Three different variations of RBDPO and one sample of CO are aged at temperatures of 90 °C, 110 °C, and 130 °C. The properties of RBDPO and CO as well as paper under ageing are then analysed through dielectric and physicochemical measurements. It is found that the effect of ageing is not significant on the alternating current (AC) breakdown voltages and relative permittivities of RBDPO and CO. There is a slight increment trend of the resistivity for CO, while for all of the RBDPO, the resistivity slightly decreases as the ageing progresses. Only CO shows an apparent reduction of the dielectric dissipation factor. Throughout the ageing time, the acidities of all of the RBDPO and CO remain at low level, while the moisture in oils decreases. The tensile index (TI) of the papers for all of the RBDPO and CO retain more than 50% of the TI. A significant increment of the paper ageing rates of all of the RBDPO and CO is observed at an ageing temperature of 130 °C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigating the Mechanism behind ‘Ant Nest’ Corrosion on Copper Tube
Materials 2018, 11(4), 533; doi:10.3390/ma11040533
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
A research investigation of “ant nest” corrosion (ANC) on copper tube was conducted in terms of the variables of the corrosion potential and pH value in 103 ppm copper formate solution over 20 days. The paper presents the surface and cross-sectional observations
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A research investigation of “ant nest” corrosion (ANC) on copper tube was conducted in terms of the variables of the corrosion potential and pH value in 103 ppm copper formate solution over 20 days. The paper presents the surface and cross-sectional observations and examines Cu2O and H2O as the stable chemical species produced. A Cannizzaro reaction as a disproportionation reaction from formic acid and a comproportionation reaction from the metallic copper tube and copper formate solution critically influenced the ANC mechanism. The paper also categorizes the ANC attack as a rapid reaction system from the electrochemical point of view by using a polarization resistance curve. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 Binary Eutectic Ceramic Prepared by Bridgman Method
Materials 2018, 11(4), 534; doi:10.3390/ma11040534
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Directionally solidified Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 (EAG) eutectic ceramic was prepared via vertical Bridgman method with high-frequency induction heating. The effects of the growth rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the solidified ceramic were investigated.
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Directionally solidified Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 (EAG) eutectic ceramic was prepared via vertical Bridgman method with high-frequency induction heating. The effects of the growth rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the solidified ceramic were investigated. The experimental results showed that there were no pores or amorphous phases in the directionally solidified Al2O3/EAG eutectic ceramic. Al2O3 phase was embedded in the EAG matrix phase, and the two phases were intertwined with each other to form a typical binary eutectic “hieroglyphic” structure. With the increase of growth rate, the phase size and spacing of the solidified Al2O3/EAG ceramic both decreased, and the growth rate and phase spacing satisfied the λ2v ≈ 60 formula of Jackson-Hunt theory. The cross section microstructure of the solidified ceramic always exhibited an irregular eutectic growth, while the longitudinal section microstructure presented a directional growth. The mechanical properties of the solidified ceramic gradually increased with the increase of growth rate, and the maximum hardness and fracture toughness could reach 21.57 GPa and 2.98 MPa·m1/2 respectively. It was considered that the crack deflection and branching could enhance the toughness of the solidified ceramic effectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Design of 3D-Printed Lattice-Reinforced Thickness-Varying Shell Molds for Castings
Materials 2018, 11(4), 535; doi:10.3390/ma11040535
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
3D printing technologies have been used gradually for the fabrication of sand molds and cores for castings, even though these molds and cores are dense structures. In this paper, a generation method for lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell molds is proposed and presented. The first
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3D printing technologies have been used gradually for the fabrication of sand molds and cores for castings, even though these molds and cores are dense structures. In this paper, a generation method for lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell molds is proposed and presented. The first step is the discretization of the STL (Stereo Lithography) model of a casting into finite difference meshes. After this, a shell is formed by surrounding the casting with varying thickness, which is roughly proportional to the surface temperature distribution of the casting that is acquired by virtually cooling it in the environment. A regular lattice is subsequently constructed to support the shell. The outside surface of the shell and lattice in the cubic mesh format is then converted to STL format to serve as the external surface of the new shell mold. The internal surface of the new mold is the casting’s surface with the normals of all of the triangles in STL format reversed. Experimental verification was performed on an Al alloy wheel hub casting. Its lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold was generated by the proposed method and fabricated by the binder jetting 3D printing. The poured wheel hub casting was sound and of good surface smoothness. The cooling rate of the wheel hub casting was greatly increased due to the shell mold structure. This lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold generation method is of great significance for mold design for castings to achieve cooling control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Interstitial Ni on the Thermoelectric Properties of the Half-Heusler TiNiSn
Materials 2018, 11(4), 536; doi:10.3390/ma11040536
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
TiNiSn is an intensively studied half-Heusler alloy that shows great potential for waste heat recovery. Here, we report on the structures and thermoelectric properties of a series of metal-rich TiNi1+ySn compositions prepared via solid-state reactions and hot pressing. A general relation
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TiNiSn is an intensively studied half-Heusler alloy that shows great potential for waste heat recovery. Here, we report on the structures and thermoelectric properties of a series of metal-rich TiNi1+ySn compositions prepared via solid-state reactions and hot pressing. A general relation between the amount of interstitial Ni and lattice parameter is determined from neutron powder diffraction. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction reveals the occurrence of strain broadening upon hot pressing, which is attributed to the metastable arrangement of interstitial Ni. Hall measurements confirm that interstitial Ni causes weak n-type doping and a reduction in carrier mobility, which limits the power factor to 2.5–3 mW m−1 K−2 for these samples. The thermal conductivity was modelled within the Callaway approximation and is quantitively linked to the amount of interstitial Ni, resulting in a predicted value of 12.7 W m−1 K−1 at 323 K for stoichiometric TiNiSn. Interstitial Ni leads to a reduction of the thermal band gap and moves the peak ZT = 0.4 to lower temperatures, thus offering the possibility to engineer a broad ZT plateau. This work adds further insight into the impact of small amounts of interstitial Ni on the thermal and electrical transport of TiNiSn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Half-Heusler, Silicide and Zintl-type Thermoelectric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Inherent Surface and Internal Defects on Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V Alloy: Comparison between Selective Laser Melting and Electron Beam Melting
Materials 2018, 11(4), 537; doi:10.3390/ma11040537
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Additive manufacture (AM) appears to be the most suitable technology to produce sophisticated, high quality, lightweight parts from Ti6Al4V alloy. However, the fatigue life of AM parts is of concern. In our study, we focused on a comparison of two techniques of additive
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Additive manufacture (AM) appears to be the most suitable technology to produce sophisticated, high quality, lightweight parts from Ti6Al4V alloy. However, the fatigue life of AM parts is of concern. In our study, we focused on a comparison of two techniques of additive manufacture—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—in terms of the mechanical properties during both static and dynamic loading. All of the samples were untreated to focus on the influence of surface condition inherent to SLM and EBM. The EBM samples were studied in the as-built state, while SLM was followed by heat treatment. The resulting similarity of microstructures led to comparable mechanical properties in tension, but, due to differences in surface roughness and specific internal defects, the fatigue strength of the EBM samples reached only half the value of the SLM samples. Higher surface roughness that is inherent to EBM contributed to multiple initiations of fatigue cracks, while only one crack initiated on the SLM surface. Also, facets that were formed by an intergranular cleavage fracture were observed in the EBM samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon–Al–Cu Composite for Friction Material
Materials 2018, 11(4), 538; doi:10.3390/ma11040538
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
A carbon/carbon–Al–Cu composite reinforced with carbon fiber 2.5D-polyacrylonitrile-based preforms was fabricated using the pressureless infiltration technique. The Al–Cu alloy liquids were successfully infiltrated into the C/C composites at high temperature and under vacuum. The mechanical and metallographic properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray
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A carbon/carbon–Al–Cu composite reinforced with carbon fiber 2.5D-polyacrylonitrile-based preforms was fabricated using the pressureless infiltration technique. The Al–Cu alloy liquids were successfully infiltrated into the C/C composites at high temperature and under vacuum. The mechanical and metallographic properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of the C/C–Al–Cu composites were analyzed. The results showed that the bending property of the C/C–Al–Cu composites was 189 MPa, whereas that of the pure carbon slide material was only 85 MPa. The compressive strength of C/C–Al–Cu was 213 MPa, whereas that of the pure carbon slide material was only 102 MPa. The resistivity of C/C–Al–Cu was only 1.94 μΩm, which was lower than that of the pure carbon slide material (29.5 μΩm). This finding can be attributed to the “network conduction” structure. Excellent wettability was observed between Al and the carbon matrix at high temperature due to the existence of Al4C3. The friction coefficients of the C/C, C/C–Al–Cu, and pure carbon slide composites were 0.152, 0.175, and 0.121, respectively. The wear rate of the C/C–Al–Cu composites reached a minimum value of 2.56 × 10−7 mm3/Nm. The C/C–Al–Cu composite can be appropriately used as railway current collectors for locomotives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Diatomite Photonic Crystals for Facile On-Chip Chromatography and Sensing of Harmful Ingredients from Food
Materials 2018, 11(4), 539; doi:10.3390/ma11040539
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Diatomaceous earth—otherwise called diatomite—is essentially composed of hydrated biosilica with periodic nanopores. Diatomite is derived from fossilized remains of diatom frustules and possesses photonic-crystal features. In this paper, diatomite simultaneously functions as the matrix of the chromatography plate and the substrate for surface-enhanced
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Diatomaceous earth—otherwise called diatomite—is essentially composed of hydrated biosilica with periodic nanopores. Diatomite is derived from fossilized remains of diatom frustules and possesses photonic-crystal features. In this paper, diatomite simultaneously functions as the matrix of the chromatography plate and the substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), by which the photonic crystal-features could enhance the optical field intensity. The on-chip separation performance of the device was confirmed by separating and detecting industrial dye (Sudan I) in an artificial aqueous mixture containing 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA), where concentrated plasmonic Au colloid was casted onto the analyte spot for SERS measurement. The plasmonic-photonic hybrid mode between the Au nanoparticles (NP) and the diatomite layer could supply nearly 10 times the increment of SERS signal (MBA) intensity compared to the common silica gel chromatography plate. Furthermore, this lab-on-a-chip photonic crystal device was employed for food safety sensing in real samples and successfully monitored histamine in salmon and tuna. This on-chip food sensor can be used as a cheap, robust, and portable sensing platform for monitoring for histamine or other harmful ingredients at trace levels in food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle Design of a Broadband Tunable Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber Based on Complementary Structural Graphene
Materials 2018, 11(4), 540; doi:10.3390/ma11040540
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
We present a simple design for a broadband tunable terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorber (MMA) consisting of a complementary cross-oval-shaped graphene (CCOSG) structure and dielectric substrate placed on a continuous metal film. Both numerical simulation and theoretical calculation results indicate that the absorbance is
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We present a simple design for a broadband tunable terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorber (MMA) consisting of a complementary cross-oval-shaped graphene (CCOSG) structure and dielectric substrate placed on a continuous metal film. Both numerical simulation and theoretical calculation results indicate that the absorbance is greater than 80% from 1.2 to 1.8 THz, and the corresponding relative bandwidth is up to 40%. Simulated electric field and power loss density distributions reveal that the broadband absorption mainly originates from the excitation of continuous surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the CCOSG. In addition, the MMA is polarization-insensitive for both transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) modes due to the geometry rotational symmetry of the unit-cell structure. Furthermore, the broadband absorption properties of the designed MMA can be effectively tunable by varying the geometric parameters of the unit-cell and chemical potential of graphene. Our results may find promising applications in sensing, detecting, and optoelectronic-related devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Properties of Two-Variety Natural Luffa Sponge Columns as Potential Mattress Filling Materials
Materials 2018, 11(4), 541; doi:10.3390/ma11040541
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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